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he truly observes, "Il n'est pas bon par sa nature; il n'est ne utile au maitre, ni à l'esclave; à celui-ci, parce qu'il ne peut rien faire par vertu ; à celui-la, parce qu'il contracte avec ses esclaves toutes sortes de mauvaises habitudes, qu'il s'accoutume insensiblement à manquer à toutes les vertus morales, qu'il devient fier, prompt, dur, colère, voluptueux, cruel."
Grotius, de jure Belli ac pacis, though he is not very liberal in his opinions of liberty, also observes, "Servi naturâ quidem, id est, citra factum humanum aut primævo naturæ statu, hominum nulli sunt, ut et alibi diximus: quo sensu recte accipi potest quod a juris-consultis dictum est, contra natura esse hanc servitutem." In another place, he inveighs against making war on the ignorant for the purpose of enslaving them. Neque minus iniquum armis subigere aliquos velle, quasi dignos qui serviant, quos naturaliter servos interdum philosophi vocant. Non enim siquid alicui est utile, id statim mihi licet ei per vim imponere."
Archdeacon Paley, after allowing that Slavery may exist for a time from captivity, or for debt, remarks, that in these cases, it ought to cease as soon as the demand of the injured nation, or private creditor, is satisfied. He then observes upon the Slavery in our colonies, after the Negroes are landed and fixed there,-" This is the second stage of cruelty; from which the miserable exiles are delivered, only to be placed, and that for life, in subjection to a dominion and system of laws, the most merciless and tyrannical that ever were tolerated upon the face of the earth; and from all that can be learned by the accounts of the people upon the spot, the inordinate authority which the plantation laws confer upon the Slave-holder, is exercised, by the English Slave-holder especially, with rigour and brutality." "But, (he goes
on to say) necessity is pretended, the name under which every enormity is attempted to be justified. And after all, what is the necessity? It has never been proved that the land could not be cultivated there, as it is here, by hired servants. It is said that it could not be cultivated with quite the same conveniency and cheapness, as by the labour of Slaves; by which means a pound of sugar which the planter now sells for sixpence, could not be afforded under sixpence-half-penny ;—and this is the necessity!!"
After the Israelites had divided and become two kingdoms, they were not allowed to make captives of those of their brethren or kindred taken in war; for we read in the second book of Chronicles, that when (in the wicked reign of Ahaz, king of Judah) the people of Israel made war on his subjects, and carried away 200,000, women, children, &c.; they were not allowed to enslave them, but were rebuked for their wicked intentions by the prophet Oded, when they sent them back, with all the spoil.
NOTE 2, PAGE 3.
The greatest number of Slaves, both amongst the Greeks and the Romans, was those taken in war, and those descended from them; these were the more perfect and ill treated Slaves, but there was an imperfect kind of Slavery also among both, consisting of poor people who sold themselves, or were sold by their creditors for a certain time, or otherwise gave up the produce of their labour for debt, but who could be redeemed, or could emancipate themselves for certain sums of money.
With the Greeks, and particularly the Athenians, the Slaves had many privileges, for if any of them were
grievously oppressed they were allowed to fly for sanctuary to the temple of Theseus, whence to force them was a piece of sacrilege. They might also, at certain times, use great freedom of speech towards their masters, and indulge themselves in the enjoyment of some pleasures, as appears from the Comedies of Terence and Plautus. The latter poet says of the Athenian Slaves,
Atqui id ne vos miremini, homines, servulos
Which has been thus translated into English:
The Laws at Athens don't our Slaves restrain
And live as much at ease, as some free denizens.
They were also permitted to hold property, by paying a small annual tax, or tribute to their owners; and if they could procure as much money as would pay for their emancipation, liberty or freedom could not be denied them. This we find also from Plautus who introduces a Slave addressing his master in this manner : Quid tu me vero libertate territas? Quid si tu nolis, filiusque etiam tuus Vobis invitis, atque amborum ingratiis Una libella liber possum fieri.
Sometimes, faithful and diligent Slaves were freed by their owners as a reward for their private services; and at other times, numbers of them were emancipated for services rendered to the State, in battle against the enemy. Thus we find that some of the Athenian Slaves
were freed for their gallant behaviour in the naval action of Arignusæ, where the Athenians obtained a victory over the Spartans. Aristophanes makes a Slave lament that his cowardice had prevented his volunteering for the fleet and obtaining his freedom, in these words;
Οἴμοι κακοδαίμων. Τί γὰρ ἐγὼ οὐκ ἐναυμάχουν;
Alas! Miserable Coward that I am; why did I not volunteer to fight on board the fleet?
The Spartans also now and then armed some of their helots or Slaves, and when they fought courageously, many of them were set at liberty. Cleomenes, one of their kings armed 2000 of them against the enemy at one time. The Samians also, emancipated a great number of their Slaves at the same time, and admitted some of them into public offices. Many who had been Slaves, were also distinguished for their great abilities, and much respected by their cotemporaries.
Epictetus, the moralist, Æsop, the fabulist, and Alcman, the poet, were Slaves, and all much noticed in their day; and even the great orator Eschines, was one of the Libertini, or the son of a Freedman; so that we find among the Greeks, numerous instances of honour being conferred on Slaves, or Freedmen, and their descendants.
Most of the Roman Slaves also, were those made captive in war, and those descended from them; but there were some who were reduced to servitude for debt, as a creditor could seize a debtor, and drag him before the Prætor, when if he could not pay he was obliged to serve the other. These also had some privileges, for they could fly to some of the temples, or statues, if cruelly treated; and on complaining to their patrons in the city, or to the presidents in the provinces, of very
ill treatment, their masters were obliged either to treat them more humanely, or sell them to another. Their freedom, moreover, was obtained in a more easy and simple manner, than the Negro Slaves in our colonies can obtain theirs; for an owner had merely to go before the Prætor with his Slave, and say (putting his hand on his Slave)" Hunc hominem volo esse liberum," when the Prætor laying the vindicta, or rod, on his head, and saying, "Dico eum liberum esse more Quiritum," (with some further ceremony, from the Lictor) he was emancipated; and his name was enrolled with the Liberti or Freedmen, some of whom, when promoted, had the privilege of voting in the lowest of the tribes. They could also be emancipated by paying a fixed sum of money; and by the testament or will of their masters.
Some of the Latin writers recommended liberal treatment towards the Slaves, and felt for them as for fellowSeneca says, in one of his Epistles, Servi sunt, imo homines; servi sunt imo conterbernales: servi sunt, imo humiles amici; servi sunt, imo conservi." In another place, recommending kindness to them, he says, "Numquidnam æquum est, gravius homini et durius imperari quam imperatur animalibus mutis?" And again—“ Quid stultius quam in Jumentis quidem et canibus erubescere iram exercere, pessima autem conditione sub homine hominem esse?" Cicero (in his Offices) also observes, that they ought to be treated as hired servants" Non male præcipiunt qui ita jubent uti, ut mercenariis." Pliny the younger also recommends clemency to the Slaves, and allowed his own to make a will, and leave their effects to their fellow-slaves. He speaks of the consolation he derives from this in his sickness" Solatia duo, nequaquam paria tanto dolori,