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ty, and truth. Therefore, it doth not appear how | proved, what man decrees, or what the law
1st, Because, contrary to truth: which declareth that every man shall die for his own sin. 2 Cor. xxv. 4. Deut. xxiv. 26. And again, "whosoever hath sinned against me, Him will I blot out of my book," Exod. xxxii. 33. This was the answer of God unto Moses, when he would have atoned for the sin of the people, by suffering in their stead. Nor will he destroy the righteous with the wicked, because the judge of all the earth doth right. Gen. xviii. 25. "Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and the righteous slay thou not for I will not justify the wicked." Exod. xxiii. 7. Thus the voice of truth is, that the sinner shall die for his own sin: and that the righteous shall not suffer. "Say ye to the righteous it shall be well with him, for they shall eat the fruit of their doings. Woe unto the wicked, it shall be ill with him, for the reward of his hands shall be given him." Isai. iii. 10, 11. This is the language of truth: one jot, or tittle of which, shall not fail; though heaven, and earth, should pass away: therefore, such an union, or relation, between Christ and his Church, as gives Him the right of redemption, and brings Him under that character which is obnoxious to punishment, is absolutely necessary, that his sufferings for sin, might accord with the declarations, and demands of truth.
Again, it is contrary to mercy, as mercy may not, consistent with its own nature, trespass the limits of truth and justice. But, if Jesus suffered for sin, without such an union to the sinner, as made his sufferings and blood, to be regarded as that of the offender; though there be an appearance of mercy towards us, there is great lack of it towards Him, who suffered for sin, unjustly charged upon him. Such is not the nature of infinite goodness, to shew mercy to one, through injustice to another: But, if united to the sinner, there is a 2dly. It is contrary to justice to afflict the consistency, yea, a divine equity, in his sufferinnocent: to punish, and destroy him, is cruel-ings; and mercy appears to man, where God ty, and injustice. Without the consideration hath provided himself a lamb for the burnt-offerof union, where is the justice of charging the ing: the like appears to Christ, where God hath black rebellion, and crying guilt of man upon engaged to support him under his just sufferthe pure and spotless head of Jesus? but God ings, to hold his hand, and to keep him, when doth nothing unworthy of himself, or contrary he gave him a purifier to the people. This is to the harmony of his nature. To say that the mercy, tempered with justice, and in the faithundertaking on Christ's part was voluntary, ful view of this, every believer can sing of neither proves, nor implies, his right to suffer: mercy and judgment. because it is not his willingness, but the approbation of divine justice, which proves his right to taste the death of the cross. And, as the nature and property of justice, is always its own rule of acting; it cannot admit of the innocent's being punished, nor of the trans'gressor's being acquitted: For God the righteous judge, hath pronounced a woe unto such who justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him, Isaiah v. 23. I am aware of an objection here, from such who would establish imputation, without relation, or union, viz. that the law admits of one man's being surety, or bondsman for another; and can justly oblige him to fulfil his engagements: to this, 1 answer. It is most absurd to make human laws a standard for God's method of dealing with mankind; except, it be first proved that those laws are fully conformable to the law of God; in justice, and equity: until this be
Again, it is contrary to wisdom; yet God hath marked out all his ways in infinite wisdom: But that system which is not founded in equity, hath no exhibition of true wisdom in it; nay rather accuses God (if imputed to him) either as lacking wisdom when concerting his plan, or else, of unwillingness to give us a specimen thereof and consequently of denying his own praise, and man's happiness; which consists in admiring, and glorifying him, in the discoveries of his infinite wisdom. For, where is the wisdom of imputing sin to Christ which he had no right to bear? and whence his right, if not from union to the sinner? But grant this, then indeed the great deep breaks open, and wisdom, infinite wisdom appears: whilst each beholder, with wonder cries, O! the depth! who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his coun-sellor ?
It is also contrary to love: the scriptures are
very explicit, in declaring the Father's love to the Son; but the punishment of this Son, for crimes he stood in no relation to, implies a defect in love: yea, rather a greater love to man, the offender, than to his well-beloved Son, who was the "brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person:" and is, withal a manifest contradiction to the divine testimony, which asserts the pre-eminence of Jesus in all things. Withal, to love the impure, is inconsistent with the morality of the divine nature; therefore, where the Father giving his Son is at any time mentioned as an evidence of his love to mankind, it is a proof of his superlative love unto him, and a manifestation of his glory; the descent of his humbled life, and bloody death, being the appointed depth, from which he was to ascend above all heavens, that he might fill all things; and that he might thus inherit the boundless, infinite riches of his Father's love, it was necessary he should suffer what he did; and, that the extendings of the love of God, to man, might be subordinate unto the love he bears to the eternal Son of his bosom, his union to those for whom he suffered the death of the cross appears absolutely necessary.
"For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ." Cor. xii. 12. "Ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular." Cor. xii. 27. "He is the head of the body, the Church." Coll. i. 18. The head over all things to his Church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all." Eph. i. 22, 23. " Ye are complete in him." Coll. ii. 10. "We being many are one body in Christ, and members one of another." Rom. xii. 5. "And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross." Eph. ii. 16. “And they two shall be one flesh; this is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the Church." Eph. v. 31, 32. "For both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all of one." Heb. ii. 11. "And the glory which thou gavest me, I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one, I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me." John xvii. 22, 23." And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter, so he made it again another vessel, as seemed good unto the potter to make it." Jer. xviii. 4. She was delivered of a man child. Who hath heard such a thing? Who hath seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? Shall a
The union of Christ, and his Church, is a necessary consideration, for the right explication of the scriptures: without which, they would want a key, and a great part of them be altogether unintelligible, and without any jast propriety in phrase. To prove which, I need only note a few of the numerous pas-nation be born at once?" Isaiah Ixvi. 7, 8. sages which are pregnant with this matter. "In whom also ye are circumcised, with the And here I design not the least intimation of circumcision made without hands, in putting my quoting all the scriptures which positively off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the speak of this truth; nor will I affirm, that circumcision of Christ:" Coll. ii. 12. "Buthose mentioned, are of the whole, the most ried with him in baptism." Coll. ii. 11. “ " I pertinent to the purpose, but having their am crucified with Christ." Gall. ii. 20. light and perfection in Jesus Christ our Lord; "Wherefore should I fear in the days of evil, and being (as I conceive,) such as treat of when the iniquity of my heels shall compass His union with the Church, I oft make use of me about?" Psalms xlix. 5. "Who his own them, as a confirmation of my doctrine, when self bare our sins in his own body on the discoursing on this subject: therefore, occur- tree, that we being dead unto sin, should live ring the more readily to my memory, I men- unto righteousness, by whose stripes ye were tion them in particular, as "In thy book all healed." 1 Peter ii. 24. "Knowing this, that my members were written." Psalm. cxxxix. our old man is crucified with him." Rom. vi. 16. "We are members of his body, of his 6. "Ye are dead, and your life is hid with flesh, and of his bones." Eph. v. 30. Christ in God." Coll. iii. 3. "Dead to the "Whether one member suffer, all the mem-law by the body of Christ.” Rom. vii. 4. “If bers suffer with it, or one member be honoured, we be dead with Christ, we believe we shall all the members rejoice with it." 1 Cor. xii. 25. also live with him." Rom. vi. 8. "Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin; but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord." Rom. vi. 11. "Thy dead shall live, my dead
*God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, &c. The superlative love of God to his Son, is manifest here: where the valuable. ness of the gift so infinitely preferable to the re-body shall they arise." Isaiah. xxvi. 9 "Af ceiver, is, in order to enhance the grace intelligi- ter two days will he revive us, in the third bly hinted. God's giving his Son, and giving day will he raise us up, and we shall live in himself, is a synonymy in scripture; and confirms his sight." Hosea vi. 2. "Hath begotten us the above proposition; the lesser being always blessed of the greater. Only considering, that again unto a lively hope, by the resurrection of all things were made for him, and that he is the Jesus Christ from the dead. 1 Pet." i. 3. "Not appointed heir of all things, it will appear in bright- the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but ness, that the honour and glory of the beloved the answer of a good conscience towards Son, and of the Father in him, was first and prin- God, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ." 1 cipal in view, when he was given for the life of Pet. iii. 21. "Now hath he reconciled, in the world; consequently, God's love to the world, the body of his flesh through death." Coll. i. "God was in Christ reconciling the 21, 22. world unto himself." 2 Cor. v. 19. "And
was subordinate unto that wherewith he loved his Son; and all his grace and kindness nnto the world, subservient unto his glory.
was raised again for our justification." Rom. | shall confine myself to a few only, and those, iv. 25. "And hath raised us up together such as show the matter with more ease and and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ." Eph. ii. 6. "Even when we The apostle shows us Adam, as a figure of were dead in sins, hath quickened us together him who was to come. Rom. v. 14. I would with Christ." Eph. ii. 5. “And you being therefore consider wherein this divine grace dead in your sins, and the uncircumcision of was shadowed forth in Adam: Moses tells us your flesh, hath he quickened together with that when God created Man, male and female him, having forgiven you all trespasses.' "created he them; and blessed them, and callColl. ii. 13. "Who hath blessed us with ed their name Adam, in the day when they all spiritual blessings in Christ: according were created. Gen. v. ii. Thus were the as he hath chosen us in him before the foun- twain created in one: the Woman in her dation of the world, that we should be holy, Husband, where they had one name given and without blame before him." Eph. i. 3, 4. them: he called their name Adam: It was "We shall be like him; for we shall see him whilst they were in this condition, that the as he is." 1 John iii. 2. "Because as he is, Lord God breathed into their nostrils the so are we in this world." 1 John iv. 17. breath of life, and man became a living soul. "Who hath saved us, and called us with an It was whilst they were in this capacity, unholy calling, not according to our works, but distinguished in person, that the Lord God according to his own purpose and grace which commanded man, saying, “Of every tree of was given us in Christ Jesus, before the the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of world began." 2 Tim. i. 9. “He hath made the tree of knowledge of good and evil thou us accepted in the beloved." Eph. i. 6. “Is- shalt not eat of it, for in the day that thou eatrael shall be saved in the Lord, with an est thereof thou shalt surely die." Gen. ii. 16, everlasting salvation." Isaiah xlv. 17. "Sure- 17. It was whilst the twain thus existed in ly shall one say, in the Lord I have righteous- one, that the Lord God brought all the ness and strength: in the Lord shall all the beasts of the field, and fowls of the air unto seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory." Adam, to see what he would call them, that ver. 24, 25. "This is the name wherewith he might at once, give a specimen of his he shall be called, the Lord our Righteous- wisdom, in making their names explanatory ness." Jer. xxxiii. 16. "This is the name of their nature; and also by this act be inwherewith he shall be called the Lord our stated in that dominion over the crea Righteousness." chap. xxiii. 6. "To them tures, which the Lord God had given him. who are sanctified in Christ Jesus." 1 Cor. Yea, it was whilst the person of Adam was i. 2. But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, plural, as containing the woman, in himself, who of God, is made unto us wisdom, and that the Lord God said unto them "Be fruitrighteousness, and sanctification, and redemp- ful and multiply and replenish the earth, and tion; that according as it is written, he that subdue it," &c., and when the Lord God afglorifieth, let him glory in the Lord." ver. terwards (causing a deep sleep to fall upon 30. "They shall call his name Emanuel, Adam, and taking the rib from his side, of which being interpreted, is God with us." which he made the woman) brought her unMatt. i. 23. Time would fail me, to men- to him, Adam said, "This is now bone of tion all the scriptures which I apprehend are my bones, and flesh of my flesh, she shall be full of this matter; and are, as I conceive, in-called woman, because she was taken out of capable of any consistent explication, that man.' Gen. ii. 21. Thus, her existing in a takes not in the union subsisting between distinct personality, did not hinder her union Christ and his Church. If what I have al- to the man, for when Adam saw her, he said ready said, hath the weight, which it appears this is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my to me to have; then, without union with flesh, as truly so now, as when she only existed Christ all our hopes and expectations by him a rib in my side. The twain were created in one, are groundless, and without the least shadow of the woman in her husband: similar with this, reason: what I have said before, when proving the Church existed in Christ; "According as the inconsistency and unreasonableness of his he hath chosen us in him before the foundasuffering for sin, without union to the sinner, tion of the world." Eph. i. 4. "Having is of equal force to prove this assertion, as I this purpose and grace, given us in him, am persuaded, that all the ways of God with before the world began." 2 Tim. i. 9. The man are founded in equity. man and woman, under this consideration, had but one name: he called their name Adam. So Christ and his Church, in this union bears one name, both are called the Lord our righteousness. He, Jer. xxiii. 6. and She, chap. xxxiii. 16. We the righte ousness of God in him. 2 Cor. v. 21. The Lord God covenanting with Adam as the
Though I might offer many more reasons showing the necessity of this union, yet at present I shall forbear; judging the hints already given, sufficient to the purpose. I shall therefore hasten to consider its nature, attempting in my measure an explication thereof according to truth.
In speaking of the nature of union, as sub-head of the earthly creation, as having the sisting between Christ and his Church, I woman in himself, drew a figure of his cove might have recourse to numerous similitudes nant with Christ, as having the Church exwhich the scriptures afford; and which the isting in him; he as the head engaging for Holy Ghost makes use of to that purpose; but his members; as the husband for his wife
as the King for his subjects, as the root for the Church, nor the Church without him at his branches, &c. Which covenant was af- any time; it was equitable for her curse and terwards confirmed of God in Christ, when condemnation to fall upon him. Withal, he sware unto Abram, that in his seed all the such was his love unto his spouse, that he nations of the earth should be blessed. The voluntarily put himself in her condition, when promises made unto him, are all yea, and amen, he appeared in the likeness of sinful flesh, in him, 2 Cor. i. 20. In him declared, in him tempted in every point like her, that he might fulfilled upon all his members. Adam having compassionate her ignorance and wanderings, the Woman in himself, manifesting his wis- and be touched with a feeling of her infirmi dom in naming the creatures, and withal ties. Moreover, the scriptures affirm, that his dominion over them, was the wisdom of "by the offence of one judgment came upon his wife; and her honourable exaltation in all men unto condemnation." Rom. v. 8. point of dominion: so Jesus having the "For all have sinned and come short of the It is eviChurch in himself, in all the displays of glory of God." Rom. iii. 23. his wisdom, is the wisdom of the Church. dent hence, that in Adam's offence, all of1 Cor. i. 30. Likewise his dominion, where fended: which supposes such an union beall things are put under his feet, is the ex- tween Adam and his offspring, that his sin alted grace and glory, which was promised was their sin; and his ruin their ruin; thus the Church: Psalm viii. compared with Heb. by his offence, were they made sinners; whilst ii. 6, 7, 8, 9. Eve when taken from Adam they included in him were in passivity, and into a distinct consciousness of existence, was he the active consciousness of the whole. not less related unto him, than when she was And, that his sin hath reached the ends of only a rib in his side, as appears from Adam's the earth, hath corrupted the whole mass of testimony, she is now bone of my bones, and mankind, both the scriptures and common flesh of my flesh: In like manner, the Church experience, (from the visible effects thereof when put forth in the creation of Adam, into daily produced in every man) abundantly dea distinct personality from her head and hus- clare. If it be granted, that there was such band Christ, was not less united unto him, a union between Adam and his offspring, as than when she only existed in him; which rendered his sin theirs, why should it be she did, before the earthy man was created, thought a thing incredible, that the like or ever the worlds were made: as is manifest union, subsisting between Jesus and his seed, from the apostle, who tells us, that he speaks renders his condition theirs? especially as the of Christ and his Church, where he says that apostle hath stated the matter thus: "As by they twain shall be one flesh. Eph. v. 32. one man's disobedience, many were made sin"Members of his body, of his flesh, and of ners, so by the obedience of one, shall many his bones, (verse 30,) one spirit (Cor. vi. 7.) be made righteous." Rom. v. 19. The scripwith him their own Lord and husband: Aftures here shewing the method of sin in ter this manner, (according to my apprehen- Adam, and of grace in Christ, takes an occasion) did the beginning of the creation of God sion to illustrate the latter by the former: inpreach Jesus: and the union of Adam and his timating, that as sin came upon all Adam's spouse represent that of Christ and his Church. posterity by his single act; before they had The next thing I shall attempt an expla- any capacity of sinning, after the similitude nation of this divine union by, is the fall of of his transgression; or of personal concur. Adam, and of the world in him; for this also rence with him in his iniquity: it must have abounds with instruction, with positive and been from such a union to him, such an inintelligible figures of the Lamb and his wife. clusion of the whole in him, as rendering his The apostle tells us, that "Adam was not condition theirs in whatever state he was: deceived, but the woman being deceived was hence, his sin, its curse and fruit, was their's,
in the transgression." 1 Tim. ii. 14. "Never-before they felt it, knew it, or ever were contheless, neither is the man without the woman, scious of existence. Thus by one man's disneither the woman without the man in the obedience, many were made sinners. In like Lord." Cor. xi. 11. From hence we gather, manner, Christ's righteousness is upon all his that Adam was not deceived in his own per- seed: by his single act, before they had any son; but knowing what Eve had done, and capacity of obeying, after the similitude of seeing their ruin inevitable, he voluntarily his obedience; or of assenting to what he did, put himself into her condition, by receiving or suffered: this manifests such an union to the fruit from her hand, and eating thereof: him, such an inclusion of the whole seed in such was his love unto his wife. And as him, as renders his condition theirs, in every they were not, (though distinct in person) state which he passes through; insomuch, without each other in the Lord, her transgres- that his righteousness, with all the blessings sion extended unto him; and his union unto and fruits thereof, is theirs; before they her, made it equitable, for the curse and con- have known it, believed it, or ever were condemnation of her folly, to fall upon him; scious of existence. Thus by the obedience and that without the consideration of his con- of one are many made righteous. sent and compliance with her.
In like manner, Christ the husband was not deceived: but his wife, the Church, being deceived, was in the transgression. Yet as the union was such, that Christ was not without
"For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive." 1 Cor. xv. 22. (Besides proving the general resurrection) the apostle explains in those words, the matter whereof I am treating. As allied, and
were lost in Adam, when he was caught in toils of sin and death, it is evident they were then united in him, then united to him, so that his sin was their sin; his death, their death. As in Adam so in Christ, united in him, in all he did, and suffered; saved in him, crucified with him, risen with him, ascended and seated with him, in heavenly places, &c. Why may not our salvation in Christ from union with him, in his obedience, and death, be judged as reasonable as our condemnation in Adam, from union with him, in his sin and misery? I acknowledge the latter is more familiar, when I would do good evil is present with me: whilst the former is more remote from our senses, and only manifest, when "we look not to the things which are not seen but to the things which are seen." But, if laying sensible things aside, as that which is temporary, we attend wholly to the testimony of the scriptures; having the anointed to guide us, we shall enter into truth, and spiritual things will be manifest. I would now proceed to consider Aaron clothed with the garment of his priesthood, as a figure of Christ, and his Church united. It may not be denied that Aaron was a type of Christ; neither as I conceive, that the garment was a figure of the Church, as attending circumstances sufficiently prove. The different colours and materials, in the garment, denote the many nations, languages, kindreds, and tongues, gathered into the body of the Lamb where Jew and Gentile are reconciled, and both made one. Aaron's gar-change of sentiment, and behaviour, to the ment was so contrived, that he should bear the immediate influence of the divine spirit: and names of the people upon his shoulders, en- thus judging of spiritual things, by their own graven upon the stones of memorial: his passions, and fleshly reformations, they may bearing them on his shoulders signifies his be said to pour the oil upon the flesh of man; carrying their names, persons, and burdens, yea, upon the stranger, contrary to the divine through the whole of what he officiated in. institution. This answers well to Jesus, who says of his Church, "He bare them, and carried them all the days of old.” Isa. lxiii. 9. The names of the people were also engraven upon the breast-plate of judgment, which (Aaron bearing them on his heart) implied his tender concern, and care for their welfare. And, how carefully concerned Jesus is, for the welfare of the people, let his humbled and sorrowful life, his sharp, dolorous sufferings, his shameful and bloody death upon the accursed tree, bear witness. And, that their names were engraven on precious stones, denotes first, the value of thein, since the most valuable of gems were appointed to receive the engraving. The everlasting durableness of their names was hinted here also, where such stones were ordained to bear them, whose nature admits not of their being erased. This also leads to Jesus, who says, "Behold I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands." Isa. xlix. 6. Aaron could not be cosecrated until he had the garment on him. Neither could Jesus officiate as the High-Priest and Saviour of the people, without taking upon him the seed of Abraham. Heb. ii. 16. It being necessary that he as an high-priest, should have somewhat to offer. When Aaron judgment; because, by what was there reprehad his garment on him, he was anointed,sented, it is evident that mercy was expected
Aaron was to have his garment on when he ministered in holy things, nor was he to enter into the holy place without it, lest he died; and it was to be unto him for glory and for beauty. A true representation of Jesus, clothed with the people; when by himself he purged our sin, offering himself up unto God, through the eternal spirit; having put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And, as by union to him, they were crucified with him, so also being risen with him, he entered not into the holy place without them: but like Aaron he entered, wearing the people into the immediate presence of God: and there presenting himself, said, behold I, and the children whom God hath given me. For, when Aaron entered into the holy place, with blood in his hand, (the names of the people sparkling upon his breast-plate, before the face of God,) the blood which he then offered, was respected in justice, as the very blood of the offend ing people; whose names being engraven on the garment were there present, and sparkling, were seen in the blood, by divine justice: there rendering a reason of their expectations from the mercy seat. On this account, was the breast-plate called the breast-plate of
and not before: it was then the precious ointment was poured on his head, and running down his beard, reached the hem of his garment. Concerning which oil, the Lord saith, "upon man's flesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any other like it, after the composition of it, it is holy: and it shall be holy unto you: whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people." Exod. xxx. 32, 33. May it not be determined, that this oil, answers to the unction which is from the holy one; the anointing which guides us into all truth: that "washing of regeneration, and renewing of the holy ghost, which he shed on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour." Tit. iii, 5, 6. Jesus when anointed with the holy ghost, and with power, was clothed with the people; they being anointed in him. "Behold how pleasant a thing it is, for brethren to dwell together in unity; it is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, that went down to the skirt of his garment." Psal. cxxxii. 1, 2. The composition like unto this, forbidden by the Lord, is a compound of such virtues, amiable qualities, gracious disposi❤ tions, &c. as are thought to abound in man : and when distinct from the consideration of Union with Christ, and of being anointed in him, men profess themselves anointed with the holy ghost and with power, imputing every