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money; but when that lieutenant general arrived at Jerusalem he found the gates shut against him, and, instead of receiving the money, he was told from the top of the walls, that the city would not stand to the agreement. Pompey thereupon, not being willing that they should deceive him with impunity, ordered Aristobulus, whom he had kept with him, to be put in irons, and advanced with his whole army against Jerusalem. The city was extremely strong by its situation, and the work which had been made; and had it not been divided within doors against itself, was capable of making a long defence.

Aristobulus's party was for defending the place, especially when they saw that Pompey kept their king prisoner; but the adherents of Hyrcanus were determined to open the gates to that general; and as the latter were much the greater number, the other party retired to the mountain where the temple stood, to defend it, and caused the bridges of the ditch and valley, which surrounded it to be broke down. Pompey, to whom the city immediately opened its gates, resolved to besiege the temple. The place held out three months entire, and would have done so three months more, and perhaps obliged the Romans to abandon their enterprise, but for the superstitious rigour with which the besieged observed the sabbath. They believed, indeed, that they might defend themselves when at tacked, but not that they might prevent the works of the ene❤ my, or make any for themselves. The Romans knew how to take the advantage of this inaction upon the sabbath-days. They did not attack the Jews upon them, but filled up the fosses, made their approaches, and fixed their engines without opposition. They threw down at length a great tower, with which so great a part of the wall fell, that the breach was large enough for an assault. The place was carried sword in hand, and a terrible slaughter ensued, in which more than 12,000 persons were killed.

During the whole tumult, cries, and disorder, of this slaughter, history observes that the priests, who were at that time employed in divine service, continued it with surprising unconcern, notwithstanding the rage of their enemies, and their grief to see their friends and relations massacred before their eyes. Many of them saw their own blood mingle with that of the sacrifices they offered, and the sword of the enemy make themselves the victims of their duty: happy, and worthy of being envied, if they were as faithful to the spirit as the letter of it.

Pompey, with many of his superior officers, to enter the temple, and not only into the sanctuary, but into the Sanctum

Sanctorum, into which, by the law, only the high-priest was permitted to enter once a-year, upon the solemn day of expia. tion. This was what afflicted and enraged the Jews most a gainst the Romans.

Pompey did not touch the treasures of the temple, that consisted principally in sums which had been deposited there by private families for their better security. Those sums amount. ed to 2000 talents in specie, without reckoning the gold and sil ver vessels, which were innumerable and of infinite value. It was not, says Cicero, out of respect for the majesty of the god adored in that temple, that Pompey behaved in this manner; for, according to him, nothing was more contemptible than the Jewish religion, more unworthy the wisdom and grandeur of the Romans, nor more opposite to the institutions of their an cestors. Pompey in this noble disinterestedness had no other motive than to deprive malice and calumny of all means of attacking his reputation. Such were the thoughts of the most learned of the pagans upon the only religion of the true God. They blasphemed what they knew nothing of.

It hath been observed that till then Pompey had been successful in all things, but that after this sacrilegious curiosity his good fortune abandoned him, and that his taking the temple of Jerusalem was his last victory.



POMPEY, having put an end to the war, caused the walls of Jerusalem to be demolished, re-established Hyrcanus, and sent Aristobulus, with his two sons, Alexander and Antigonus, prisoners to Rome. He dismembered several cities from the kingdom of Judæa, which he united with the government of Syria, imposed a tribute upon Hyrcanus, and left the adminis tration of affairs to Antipater, who was at the court of Hyrcanus, and one of his principal ministers. Alexander made his escape upon the way to Rome, and returned into Judæa, where he afterwards excited new troubles.

Hyrcanus finding himself too weak to take the field against him, had recourse to the arms of the Romans, Gabinius, go. vernor of Syria, after having overthrown Alexander in a battle, went to Jerusalem, and reinstated Hyrcanus in the high

A. M. 3941. Ant. J. C. 63. †A. M. 3947. Ant. J. C. 57

priest-hood. He made great alterations in the civil govern ment; for from monarchical, as it had been, he changed it into aristocratical; but those innovations were but of short duration. Crassus upon his march against the Parthians, always intent upon gratifying his insatiable avarice, stopped at Jerusalem, where he had been told great treasures were laid up. He plun dered the temple of all the riches in it, which amounted to the sum of 10,000 talents, that is to say, about 1,500,000l. sterling. Cæsar, after his expedition into Egypt, being arrived in Syria, Antigonus, who had made his escape from Rome with his father Aristobulus, came to throw himself at his feet, begged aim to re-establish him upon the throne of his father, who was lately dead, and made great complaints against Antipater and Hyrcanus. Cæsar had too great obligations to both, to do any thing contrary to their interests; for, as we shall see in the sequel, without the aid he had received from them, his expe dition into Egypt would have miscarried. He decreed that Hyrcanus should retain the dignity of high-priest of Jerusalem, and the sovereignty of Judæa, to himself and his posterity after him for ever, and gave Antipater the office of procurator of Judæa under Hyrcanus. By this decree, the aristocracy of Ga. binius was abolished, and the government of Judæa re-established upon the ancient foot.

Antipater caused the government of Jerusalem to be given to Phasæl his eldest son, and that of Galilee to Herod his second son.

Cæsar, at Hyrcanus's request, and in consideration of the services he had rendered him in Egypt and Syria, permitted him to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, which Pompey had caused to be demolished. Antipater, without losing time, began the work, and the city was soon fortified as it had been before the demolition. Cæsar was killed this year.

During the civil wars, Judæa, as well as all the other provinces of the Roman empire, was agitated by violent troubles. Pacorus, son of Orodes king of Parthia, had entered Syria with a powerful army. From thence he sent a detachment in. to Judæa, with orders to place Antigonus, the son of Aristobu lus upon the throne, who on his side had also raised troops. Hyrcanus, and Phasel, Herod's brother, upon the proposal of an accommodation, had the imprudence to go to the enemy, who seized them, and put them in irons. Herod escaped from Jerusalem the moment before the Parthians entered to seize him also.

Having missed Herod, they plundered the city and country,


placed Antigonus upon the throne, and delivered Hyrcanus and Phasæl in chains into his hands. Phasæl, who well knew that his death was resolved, dashed out his brains against the wall, to avoid the hands of the executioner. As for Hyrcanus, his life was granted him; but to render him incapable of the priesthood, Antigonus caused his ears to be cut off: for, according to the levitical law, it was requisite that the high-priest should be perfect in all his members. After having mutilated him, he gave him back to the Parthians, that they might car. ry him into the east, from whence it would not be possible for him to embroil affairs in Judæa. He continued a prisoner at Seleucia in Babylonia, till the coming of Phraates to the crown, who caused his chains to be taken off, and gave him entire li berty to see and converse with the Jews of that country, who were very numerous. They looked upon him as their king and high-priest, and raised him a revenue sufficient to support his rank with splendour. The love of his native country made him forget all those advantages. He returned the year ing to Jerusalem, whither Herod had invited him to come, but put him to death some years afterwards.


Herod at first took refuge in Egypt, from whence he went to Rome. Antony was then in the high degree of power, which the triumvirate had given him. He took Herod under his pro tection, and even did more in his favour than he expected; for instead of what he proposed, which was at most to obtain the crown for Aristobulus*, whose sister Mariamne he had lately married, with the view of only governing under him, as Antipater had done under Hyrcanus; Antony caused the crown to be conferred upon himself, contrary to the usual maxim of the Romans in like cases; for it was not their custom to violate the rights of the royal houses which acknowledged them for, protectors, and to give crowns to strangers. Herod was declared king of Judæa by the senate, and conducted by the con suls to the capitol, where he received the investiture of the crown, with the ceremonies usual upon such occasions.

Herod passed only seven days at Rome in negociating this great affair, and returned speedily to Judæa. He employed no more time than three months in his journeys by sea and land.

Aristobulus was the son of Alexandra, Hyrcanus's daughter; and his father was Alexander, son of Aristobulus, brother of Hyrcanus; so that the right of both brothers to the crown was united in his person.




FOR the liberal patronage which you have given to the former numbers of his annual publication of this sort, the Editor offers you his grateful acknowledgments, and respectfully requests its continuation.

He indulges the hope that his sixth number will not be considered as inferior to either of its predecessors.

It has hitherto been his object to promote spiritual husbandry, rather than that which is natural-to excite attention to the times and seasons which have an aspect on the kingdom of grace, rather than those which relate to the kingdom of nature; and to stimulate his readers to the acquisition of durable riches rather than those which“ take to themselves wings and fly away." Nor has he lost sight of this object in his present number. That its design may be carried into effect, is his heart's desire and prayerɔ God.

In the present tumultuary and portentous state of things in the civil and religious world, and particularly in his own country, he cannot but feel much anxiety "from fear, and from looking after those things which are coming on the earth;" and particularly on this portion of it. Could he in any measure be instrumental of removing present evils, and of preventing those which threaten to visit us, eat would be his satisfaction.

With the view to effect this, he respectfully solicits his patrons, and all who may read this address, seriously to consider and practically regard the seasonable and very important advice of the town clerk of Ephesus to a tumultuous assembly in that celebrated city," to do nothing rashly."-Agreeably with this advice he will venture, with the hope of doing good, to suggest a few cautions.

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Beware of rash jealousies. Jealousy is cruel as the grave," and when it is rash, it is as unjust as it is cruel. "It separateth chiefest friends"destroys individual peace, the peace of families, neighborhoods, towns, and inore extensive communities. Rash jealousy is a "deadly poison." How baleful are its effects! Watch and pray, therefore, that ye be not led into temptation to this evil.

Beware of rash prejudices-as they respect men and measures, politicks and religion. Such prejudices jaundice the eye, close the ear, darken the understanding, pervert the best affectious of the heart, and excite to deeds the most unworthy and degrading. Guard then against these prejudices, as against the plague, or the attack of a subtle and deadly


Beware of rash conjectures. The spirit in man "lusteth" as well to rash conjecture, as "to envy." Such conjecture respecting persons and things, lods to significant and injurious hints, to evil and slanderous speaking, and to " wounding and deadly deeds." Incalculable are the evils which often spring from this pernicious source. A word to the wise on this subject, it is hoped will be sufficient.

Beware of rash zeal. "It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing' But zeal without knowledge-zeal which is hasty and intemperate, whether its object be politicks, religion, or any other subject, impels to deeds the most irrational, unjustifiable, extravagant and cruel. This zeal is "a great and strong wind, an earthquake and a fire." But the Lord, the spirit of the Lord is in none of these. Beware then of

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