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possible, that they would grant him that favour, and make such use of his mediation as they should think convenient. The language of the Rhodians was very different. After having set forth, in a lofty style, the services they had done the Roman people, and ascribed to themselves the greatest share in the victories they had obtained, and especially in that over Antiochus, they added, that whilst the peace subsisted between the Macedonians and Romans, they had negociated a treaty of alliance with Perseus; that they had suspended it against their will, and without any subject of complaint on the king's part, because it had pleased the Romans to engage them on their side; that for three years which this war had continued, they had suffered many inconveniences from it; that their trade by sea being interrupted, the island found itself in great straits, from the reduction of its revenues, and other advantages arising from commerce; that being no longer able to support such considerable losses, they had sent ambassadors into Macedonia to king Perseus, to inform him that the Rhodians thought it necessary that he sould make peace with the Romans, and that they were also sent to Rome to make the same declaration; that if either of the parties refused to come into so reasonable a proposal, the Rhodians should know what they had to do.
It is easy to judge in what manner so vain and presumptuous a discourse was received. Some historians tell us, all the an swer that was given to it was, to order a decree of the senate, whereby the Carians and Lycians were declared free, to be read in their presence. This was touching them to the quick, and mortifying them in the most sensible part; for they pre tended to an authority over both those people. Others say, the senate answered in few words, that the disposition of the Rhodians and their secret intrigues with Perseus, had been long known at Rome; that when the Roman people should have conquered him, of which they expected advice every day, they should know in their turn what they had to do, and should then treat their allies according to their respective merits. They made the ambassadors, however, the usual presents.
The consul Q. Marcius's letter was then read, in which he gave an account of the manner he had entered Macedonia, after having suffered incredible difficulties in passing a very narrow defile. He added, that by the wise precautions of the prætor, he had sufficient provisions for the whole winter; having received from the Epirots 20,000 measures of wheat, and 10,000 of barley, for which it was necessary to pay their ambassadors then at Rome: that it was necessary to send him clothes for the soldiers:
that he wanted 200 horses, especially from Numidia, because there were none of that kind in the country where he was. All these articles were exactly and immediately executed.
After this they gave audience to Onesimus, a Macedonian nobleman. He had always advised the king to observe the peace; and putting him in mind that his father Philip, to the last day of his life, had caused his treaty with the Romans to be constantly read to him twice every day, he had admonished him to do as much, if not with the same regularity, at least from time to time. Not being able to dissuade him from the war, he had begun, by withdrawing himself from his counsels, under different pretexts, that he might not be witness to re solutions taken in them which he could not approve. At length seeing himself become suspected, and tacitly considered as a traitor, he had taken refuge among the Romans, and had been of great service to the consul. Having made this relation to the senate, they gave him a very favourable reception, and provided magnificently for his subsistence.
EMILIUS'S CELEBRATED VICTORY NEAR THE CITY OF PYDNA. PERSEUS TAKEN PRISONER WITH ALL
THE time for the comitia*, or the assemblies, to elect consuls at Rome, approaching, all the world were anxious to know upon whom so important a choice would fall, and nothing else was talked of in all conversations. They were not satisfied with the consuls, who had been employed for three years against Perseus, and had very ill sustained the honour of the Roman name. They called to mind the famous victories formerly obtained against his father Philip, who had been obliged to sue for peace; against Antiochus, who was driven beyond mount Taurus, and forced to pay a great tribute; and what was still more considerable, against Hannibal, the greatest general that ever had appeared as their enemy, or perhaps in the world, whom they had reduced to quit Italy, after a war of more than 16 years continuance, and conquered in his own country, almost under the very walls of Carthage. The formidable preparations of Perseus, and some advantages gained by him in the former campaigns, augmented the apprehension. of the Romans. They plainly distinguished, that it was no
A. M. 3836. Ant. J. C. 168. Liv, 1. xliv, n. 17. Plut. in Paul. Em. p. 259, 260.
në of the armies by faction, or favour, I chose a general for his wisdom, award, cne capable of presiding in their hands.
Paths Emilius. There gami mesites the voices of the wing sture afecting tan such a judgment, DLR f's past services, the ar as nacin, and the state's pressing occasion TAIL Fans Ends was near 60 years met meer ng his faculties in the least, maturity of wisdom and
ser I 1 general than even valour and bu a zasu. Fears before, and had acqui SE1 CT sinistration. But the beon gratitude, having refused to
the same guy,ough he had solicited it rer. Frever years he had led a pri** A se enpicyed in the education of his I HAD • r ever succeeded better, nor was severed ir is care. All his relations, all LA BELT Estates him comply with the people's sarg i im dhe consulship: bat believing himper choice of commanding. be avoided appearing set wasf x be, added honors with as en elle is achers generally pursue them. However, N N N e perplessentie every morning in crowds Asove la Joer ; but they stracted him to the forum, and elcome! Igly gribe is ostinate refusal to serve his evancy, de give in to their remonstrances, and appear. gamog dose vy spired to that dignity, he seemed less to revne De ceranand of the army than to give the people the AGENT AM proacting and complete victory. The consup was onerred qu Limanimously, and, according o Moland Me command of the army in Macedonia decreed tedy i ambrose to his colleague, though Livy says it fell
De day he was elected general in the war against bome, attended by all the people, who honour, he found his daughter Tertia, at t, who, on seeing him, fell a crying bitterasked her the cause of her tears. Terher little arms, "you do not know then," Perseus is dead, papa." She spoke of a ought up called Perseus. "And at a very .r child,” said Paulus Æmilius, struck with
the word, "I accept this omen with joy." The ancients car. ried their superstition upon this kind of fortuitous circumstances very high.
The manner * in which Paulus Æmilius prepared for the war he was charged with, gave room to judge of the success to be expected from it. He demanded, first, that commissioners should be sent into Macedonia to inspect the army and fleet, and to make their report, after an exact inquiry, of the number of troops which were necessary to be added both by sea and land. They were also to inform themselves, as near as possible, of the number of the king's forces; where they and the Romans actually lay; if the latter were actually encamped in the forests, or had entirely passed them, and were arrived in the plain; upon which of the allies they might rely for cer tainty; which of them were dubious and wavering; and who they might regard as declared enemies; for how long time they had provisions, and from whence they might be supplied with them either by land or water; what had passed during the last Campaign, either in the army by land, or in the fleet. As an able and experienced general, he thought it necessary to be fully apprised in all these circumstances; convinced that the plan of the campaign, upon which he was about to enter, could not be formed, nor its operations concerted, without a perfect Knowledge of them. The senate approved these wise measures very much, and appointed commissioners, with the approbation of Paulus Æmilius, who set out two days after.
During their absence, audience was given the ambassadors from Ptolemy and Cleopatra, king and queen of Egypt, who brought complaints to Rome of the unjust enterprises of Antiochus, king of Syria, which have been before related.
The commissioners had made good use of their time. Upon their return they reported, that Marcius had forced the passes of Macedonia, to-get entrance into the country, but with more danger than utility; that the king was advanced into Pieria, and in actual possession of it; that the two camps were very near each other, being separated only by the river Enipæus; that the king avoided a battle, and that the Roman army was neither in a condition to oblige him to fight, nor to force his lines, that to the other inconveniences, a very severe winter had happened, from which they could not but suffer exceeding ly in a mountainous country, and be entirely prevented from
* Liv. 1. xliv. n. 18, 22. Plut. in Paul. Æmil. p. 260.
--acting; and that they had only provisions for six days; that the army of the Macedonians was supposed to amount to 30,000 men; that if Appius Claudius had been sufficiently strong in the neighbourhood of Lyclmidus in Illyria, hemight have acted with good effect against king Gentius; but that Claudius and his troops were actually in great danger, unless a considerable rein. forcement was immediately sent him, or be ordered directly to quit the post he was in. That after having visited the camp, they had repaired to the fleet; that they had been told, that part of the crews were dead of diseases; that the rest of the allies especially those of Sicily, were returned home; and that the fleet was entirely in want of seamen and soldiers; that those who remained had not received their pay, and had no clothes; that Eumenes and his fleet, after having just shown themselves, disappeared immediately without any visible cause, and that it seemed his inclinations neither could nor ought to be relied on; but, that as for his brother Attalus, his good will was not to be doubted.
Upon this report of the commissioners, after Paulus Æmilius had given his opinion, the senate decreed, that he should set forward without loss of time for Macedonia, with the prætor Cn. Octavius, who had the command of the fleet and L. Anicius, another prætor, who was to succeed Ap. Claudius in his post near Lychnidus in Illyria. The number of troops each of them was to command, was regulated in the following manner.
The troops of which the army of Paulus Æmilius consisted amounted to 25,800 men; that is of two Roman legions, each composed of 6000 foot and 300 horse; as many of the infantry of the Italian allies, and twice the number of horse. He had besides 600 horse raised in Gallia Cisalpina, and some auxilia. ry troops from the allies of Greece and Asia. The whole, in all probability, did not amount to 30,000 men. The prætor Anicius had also two legions; but they consisted of only 5000 foot and 300 horse each; which, with 10,000 of the Italian allies, and 800 horse, composed the army under him of 21,200 men. The troops that served on board the fleet were 5000 men. These three bodies together made 56,200 men.
As the war which they were preparing to make this year in Macedonia seemed of the last consequence, all precautions were taken that might conduce to the success of it. The consul and people had the choice of the tribunes who were to serve in it, and commanded each in his turn an entire legion. It was decreed, that none should be elected into this employment but such as had already sérved; and Paulus Æmilius was left at li