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Philometer his nephew, king of Egypt," he shall work deceit. "fully; for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a "small people." Antiochus, though he was already determined on the war, "he yet shall assume a specious appear"ance of friendship for the king of Egypt." He even sent Apollonius to Memphis, to be present at the banquet given on occasion of that prince's coronation, as a proof that it was agreeable to him. Nevertheless, soon after, on pretence of defending his nephew, he marched into Egypt, with a small army in comparison of those which he levied afterwards. The battle was fought near Pelusium. Antiochus was strongest, that is victorious, and afterwards returned to Tyre. Such was the end of his first expedition.

Antiochus's second Expedition into Egypt.

"HE shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of "the province," Egypt, "and he shall do that which his fa thers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scat"ter among them," his troops, "the prey, and spoil, and "riches; yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the "strong holds, even for a time."

"And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the "king of the south," of Egypt, "with a great army; and the "king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very

great and mighty army, but he shall not stand; for they "shall forecast devices against him."

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"Yea, they that feed of the portion of his," the king of Egypt's, meat, shall destroy him, and his army shall over"flow; and many shall fall down slain.”

In these three verses appear the principal characters of Antiochus's second expedition into Egypt; his mighty armies, his rapid conquests, the rich spoils he carried from thence, and the dissimulation and treachery he began to practise with regard to Ptolemy.

Antiochus, after employing the whole winter in making pre parations for a second expedition into Egypt, invaded it both by sea and land, the instant the season would permit

Wherefore he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, "with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great navy. 66 -And made war against Ptolemy king of Egypt: but "Ptolemy was afraid of him, and fled; and many were wounded

* Dan. xi. 24.
Maccab. i. 17, 18, 19.
VOL. VII,

+ Ver. 25.

+ Ver. 26.

M

"to death. Thus they got the strong cities in the land of "Egypt, and he took the spoils thereof."

Daniel, some verses after, is more minute in his prophecy of this event.

* "And at the time of the end shall the king of the south "push at him," Ptolemy is here hinted at," and the king of "the north," Anticchus, "shall come against him like a whirl"wind, with chariots and with horsemen, and with many ships, "and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and 66 pass over."

"He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many coun. "tries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his "hand, even Edom and Moab, and the chief of the children of "Ammon."

"He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries, "and the land of Egypt shall not escape."

"But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and ❝silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt," &c.

If we compare the relation given by the author of the Maccabees with Daniel's prophecy we find a perfect resemblance, except that the prophet is more clear and particular than the historian

¶ Diodorus relates, that Antiochus, after this victory, con quered all Egypt, or at least the greatest part of it: for all the cities, Alexandria excepted, opened their gates to the conqueror. He subdued Egypt with an astonishing rapidity, and did that ** “ which his forefathers had not done, nor his fa❝thers' fathers."

Ptolemy either surrendered himself, or fell into the hands of Antiochus, who at first treated him with kindness, had but one table with him, seemed to be greatly concerned for his welfare, and left him the peaceable possession of his kingdom, reserv ing to himself Pelusium, which was the key of it; for Antio chus assumed this appearance of friendship with no other view but to have the better opportunity of ruining him.-tt “They "that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him."

Antiochus did not make a long stay in Egypt at that time; the news which was brought of the general revolt of the Jews obliging him to march against them.

* Dan. xi. 40.

1 Ver. 43..

** Dan. xi. 24.

+ Ver. 41.

+ Ver. 42.

In Excerpt. Vales. p. 319. tt Ver. 26.

In the mean time, the inhabitants of Alexandria, offended at Philometer for having concluded an alliance with Antiochus, raised Evergetes his younger brother to the throne in his stead.

Antiochus, who had advice of what had passed in Alexandria, took this opportunity to return into Egypt, upon pretext of restoring the dethroned monarch, but, in reality, to make himself absolute master of the kingdom.

Antiochus's third Expedition into Egypt.

"And both these kings hearts shall be to do mischief; and "they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper; "for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."

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"Then shall he," Antiochus, "return into his land with great riches."

Antiochus's third expedition could scarce be pointed out more clearly. That prince, hearing that the Alexandrians had raised Evergetes to the throne, returned to Egypt upon the specious pretence of restoring Philometer: Per honestam speciem majoris Ptolemai reducendi in regnum. After having overcome the Alexandrians in a sea-fight at Pelusium, he laid siege to Alexandria: but finding the inhabitants made a strong opposition, he was contented with making himself master of Egypt again in the name of his nephew, in whose defence he pretended to have drawn the sword: Cui regnum quæri suis viribus simulabat. They were then at Memphis, ate at the same table, and behaved towards one another with all the outward marks of a sincere friendship. The uncle seemed to have his nephew's interest at heart, and the nephew to repose the highest confidence in his uncle; but all this was mere show and outside, both dissembling their real sentiments. The uncle endeavoured to crush his nephew: ¶ Cui regnum quæri suis viribus simulabat, ut mox victorem aggrederetur; and the nephew, who saw through his design, voluntatis ejus non ignarus, strove immediately to be reconciled to his brother. 'Thus neither succeeded in deceiving the other: nothing was yet determined, and Antiochus returned into Syria.

Antiochus's fourth Expedition into Egypt.

"** At the time appointed he shall return, and come to

* Dan. xi. 27.

Liv, 1. xliv. n. 19.

¶ Liv. ibid.

† Ver. 28.

Liv. l. xlv. n. 11. Hieron. in Dan. ** Dan. xi. 29.

"ward the south, but it shall not be as the former, or as the "latter."

"For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved and return, and have indignation "against the holy covenant."

Advice being brought Antiochus that the two brothers were reconciled, he threw off the mask, and declared publicly that he intended to conquer Egypt for himself; and, to support his pretensions," he returned towards the south,” that is, into Egypt, but was not so successful in this expedition as before.

As he was advancing forward to besiege Alexandria, Popilius, and the other Roman ambassadors, who were on board a fleet composed of Macedonian or Greek ships (for this the Hebrew word Chittim signifies), which they found at Delos, obliged him to lay down his arms, and leave Egypt. He obeyed, but "with the utmost reluctance, and made the city and temple "of Jerusalem feel the dire effects of his indignation," as will be presently seen.

Had the prophet been eye-witness to this event, would it have been possible for him to point it out in a clearer and more exact manner?

II, Cruel Persecution exercised by Antiochus against the Jews, and foretold by the Prophet Daniel.

I have mentioned and explained in another place the account which Daniel the prophet gives of Alexander the Great's reign, and those of his four successors.

"Behold, an he goat came from the west, on the face of "the whole earth, and touched not the ground."-Could it have been possible to denote more plainly the rapidity of Alexander's conquests? "The || he goat waxed very great, and "when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it "came up four notable ones towards the four winds of heaven." These are Alexander's four successors. "And out of 66 one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceed"ing great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward "the pleasant land." This is Antiochus Epiphanes, who gained several victories towards the south and the east, and who strongly opposed the army of the Lord and the Jewish people, of whom God was the strength and the protector. The prophet afterwards points out the war which Epiphanes

#Dan. xi. 30. | Ver. 8.

† Liv. 1. xlv. n. 10.
Ver. 9.

Dan. viii. 5.

proclaimed against the people of God, the priests of the Lord, his laws and his temple.

❝* And it waxed great," the horn, "even to the host of "heaven, and it cast down some of the host, and of the stars "to the ground and stamped upon them.—† Yea, he magni"fied himself even to the prince of the host," to God," and "by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of "his sanctuary was cast down. And an host was given "him against the daily sacrifice, by reason of transgression, "and it cast down the truth to the ground, and it practised and "prospered."

Daniel gives still greater extent to the same prophecy in his 11th chapter.

"His heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall "do exploits. He shall return, and have indignation against "the holy covenant."

¶ During the siege of Alexandria, a report had prevailed that Antiochus was dead, and the Jews had been accused of expressing great joy at it. He thereupon marched to their city, stormed it, and exercised all the barbarity that his fury. could suggest. About 40,000 ** men were killed, and the. same number sold as slaves, in the compass of three days. Antiochus went into the temple, polluted it, and carried off all the vessels, treasures, and rich ornaments.

tt After Popilius had forced him to leave Egypt, he turned the fury he conceived upon that occasion against the Jews. He sent Apollonius into Judæa, with orders to kill all the men capable of bearing arms, and to sell the women and children. Accordingly, Apollonius made dreadful havoc in Jerusalem, set fire to the city, beat down the walls, and carried the women and children into captivity.

66 He shall return, and have intelligence with them that. "forsake the holy covenant.And arms shall stand on his. 66 part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and "shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the "abomination that maketh desolate.And such as do wick"edly against the covenant, shall he corrupt by flatteries," &c.

* Dan. viii. 10.

Dan. viii. 12.

+ Ver. 11.
Den. xi 28. 30.

1 Maccab. i. 21-24. et. ii. 5. 21. Joseph. Lib. de Maccab. &c. *We are told in the Maccabees that it was twice this number.

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