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sions of both nations would be rendered more compact by the exchange, and it would prevent the commerce of a large extent of our country lying between the Mississippi, and Chattahocha rivers being put in jeopardy by the future regulations, or directions, of any foreign power.

Lancaster, July
22d, 1803.



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The author leaves Philadelphia-arrives at Pittsburgh-obtains boats, and proceeds down the Ohio River to its mouth some account of the river, adjoining country, and inhabitants..


EPTEMBER 16th, 1796, I took leave of my family about ten o'clock in the morning, and proceeded to Chester and dined; then rode to Wilmington and staid all night.-Thermometer was 78° in the afternoon.

17th, Left Wilmington at half past five in the morning, breakfasted at Christiana, dined at Elkton, proceeded to the Susquehannah, crossed the ferry and lodged at Havre de Grace.-Thermometer 60° in the morning, rose to 70°, fell to 62° in the evening. Autumnal squalls and showers in the afternoon The water in the Susquehannah was 73°.

18th, Left Havre de Grace at five in the morning, breakfasted at Hartford, dined at Baltimore, and lodged at my mother's on Potapsco.-Thermometer 57° in the morning, rose to 68°.



The country from the Susquehannah to Potapsco, does not appear to be in a better state of cultivation, than it was twenty-six years ago. This disagreeable circumstance, is no doubt principally owing to the system of domestic slavery, which yet continues to prevail in the southern states. Early impressions made upon the mind, and habits acquired in youth, are rarely obliterated, though condemned by daily experi


That domestic slavery is wrong in a moral point of view is evident from the ordinary principles of justice : And that it is politically wrong may be deduced from the following facts. First, that a tract of country cultivated by slaves, is neither so well improved, rich, or populous, as it would be if cultivated by the owners of the soil, and by freemen. Secondly, slaves cannot be calculated upon as adding to the strength of the community, but frequently the contrary, for reasons too obvious to detail. Notwithstanding those facts are constantly in view, they rarely produce the necessary effects upon minds early habituated to the custom of domestic/slavery

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5. 19th, Remained at my mother's. Thermometer 55° in the morning, rose to 70° in the afternoonWater in the river 57.

20th, About 11 o'clock in the forenoon took leave of my mother, brothers and sisters, and rode to Reister's town and got some refreshment, then proceeded about seven miles further and stayed all night. Thermometer 51° in the morning, rose to 71°.

21st, Set. out before sunrise, rode 10 miles and took breakfast, the morning was fine, and pleasant, went on to M'Callester's town and dined. The town is handsome, and appears to be improving, which is not the case with Reister's town. The population of


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towns, and villages, is generally very rapid till it becomes sufficient for the commerce of the surrounding country, and afterwards increases, or decreases, with the general state of the improvement of the district, unless aided by something peculiarly favourable in its situation. Left M'Callester's town at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and rode to Oxford, where I stayed all night.-Thermometer 53° in the morning, rose to .78°.


22d, Left Oxford before sunrise, rode twelve miles and took breakfast; and then proceeded to Shippensburgh. On the way crossed a spur of the Blue mountain, on which peaches were uncommonly plenty, and in great perfection. Dined at Shippensburgh, where I expected to meet our commissary Mr. Anderson, -but found that he had not arrived.Thermometer 63° in the morning, fell to 53° in the evening.

23d, Walked out about half an hour before sun.rise and perceived a fine hoar frost. The thermome-ter was 40% on the outside of my window; but when placed on the ground among the grass it fell to 35°; it was then placed on a fence-rail which was covered with frost and fell to 34°; but upon scraping together a small quantity of the frost, and applying it to the bulb, the mercury immediately fell to 32°. It has been supposed by some writers, that a hoar frost could be produced bysa less degree of cold than 32°, because such frosts frequently appear when the ther-mometer stands 6 or 7 degrees above that point. This mistake must have arisen from supposing the degree of heat where the thermometer is suspended, and where the frost appears, to be the same; which upon experiment will be found not to be the case. After breakfast, walked out to the three large springs, being the principal sources of that fine stream

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