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ARISTONYMUS, Comic Poet, and 4th Librarian at Alexandria, 195.
ARISTAGORUS, Comic Poet, 195.
ARISTARCHUS of Alexandria, the Grammarian, and Critic
upon Homer, and Preceptor to the sons of Ptolemy Philometor, 157.
Astronomy and the Mathematics flourished under
CALIPPUS of Cyzicum 330.
EUCLID 300, he established a school of Mathematics at Alexandria which was thenceforward the resort of all who studied that science.
TIMOCHARES of Alexandria, the Astronomer, 295.
DIONYSIUS of Alexandria, discovered the exact solar year,
SOSTRATUS of Cnidus, the Architect, built the Pharos of Alexandria, 284.
ARISTARCHUS of Samos, the Astronomer, the first who supposed the earth to turn on its axis, 280. CONON of Samos, the Astronomer, 247.
APOLLONIUS of Perga, 242.
ARCHIMEDES of Syracuse, the Mathematician, killed in
Of Historians, we notice
MEGASTHENES, who wrote of the Oriental nations, 300. BEROSUS, Chaldean historian, 268, (according to some, but the age in which he lived is not precisely known,) TIMEUS of Sicily, 262.
MANETHO the Egyptian, 261.
DURIS of Samos, 258.
CTESIBIUS, 254-HIERONYMUS of Rhodes, 254.
ANTIGONUS CARYSTIUS, 248.
AGATHARCIDES (or AGATHARCHIDES) and HERACLides, surnamed Lembus, 177, and
CRATES MALLOTES of Pergamus, 165.
LYSIPPUS and PRAXITELES, Statuaries, both of Sicyon,
METRODORUS, the Painter, 170, and
ERASISTRATUS, the Physician, 293, also flourished during this period.
The Romans, during this period, became very powerful; they were at first defeated by the Samnites, B. C. $21, but recovered themselves, and were ultimately victorious in the Samnite and Tarentine wars, B. C. 272; by which most of the Italian states become subject to them, and the fame of their military exploits induced the most powerful sovereigns to seek their alliance. Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, had made a league of amity with them, immediately upon the defeat of Pyrrhus, B. C. 274; and the Mamertines having seized Messina, B. C. 289, from Hiero, king of Syracuse, who had engaged the Carthaginians against them, put themselves under the protection of the Romans, which was the ostensible cause of the 1st Punic war, though its real origin must be traced to the mutual jealousies of the Romans and Carthaginians, each aspiring to superior power.-The 1st Punic war began B. C. 264, and after a struggle of 23 years, ended in favour of Rome, B. C. 241: the conquest of Sardinia and Corsica, B. C. 231; and the Illyrian wars, B. C. 229, 220, employed the Romans till the conquests of Hannibal in Spain, occasioned the 2nd Punic war, B. C. 218. Philip, III, king of Macedon, having assisted the Carthaginians, a Roman army was sent into Epirus to divert his attention; this was called the Auxiliary war, B. C. 214. The termination of the
2nd Punic war, B. C. 201, added Spain and Sicily to the Roman dominions, and a considerable maritime power to the Roman arms, which we shall now see employed against the two powerful states of Syria and Macedon. The war with Antiochus the Great, B. C. 192, ended B. C. 190, in the total defeat of that prince, and the subjection of Syria to Rome; and the Macedonian wars added that kingdom to its dominions, B. C. 168: from this event may be dated the succession of the 4th Empire of Daniel, (see Table of Prophecy, 6th and 7th Periods, R. S. T. V. Div. 4.) and we may now trace its gradual advances towards universal dominion.-Egypt was placed under its protection, B. C. 202; Syria (as we have already observed) became tributary to it, B. C. 190; Macedon was totally subdued, B. C. 168; Judea appealed by Judas Maccabeus to its protection, B. C. 161, and almost all the eastern states acknowledged its supremacy and claimed its arbitration in their affairs. The Achæan war, ending in the conquest and destruction of Corinth by the consul Mummius, reduced Greece to a Roman province, the same year that Carthage was destroyed, and that state totally subdued by Scipio Africanus II., B. C. 146.
The Carthaginian and Sicilian affairs will form a part of Roman history during this period, in which we notice, amongst the Romans, the following illustrious characters:
L. PAPYRIUS CURSOR, General and Dictator in the Samnite war, sentences his General of the Horse to death for fighting against orders, but pardons him, 324; conquers the Samnites and makes them pass under the yoke, 319.-His son of the same name was also a General in the Samnite war, and after defeating the ·enemy, 292, dedicated a temple to Quirinus, to fulfil a vow to that effect, made by his late father.
QUINTUS FABIUS defeats the Samnites, Marsi, Peligni,
and Umbri, 308; reforms the abuses that had been introduced into the state by Appius Claudius, and thence obtains the surname of Maximus.
DECIUS MUS, Jun. rushes into battle, and devotes himself
to death for his country, 296, (in imitation of his father.)
DOLABELLA, General in the Etruscan war; defeats the Senones, Boii, and Etruscans, 283.
CAIUS FABRICIUS defeats Pyrrhus in the Tarentine war, 277, and apprises him of the treachery of his physician, who had offered to poison him.
CURIUS DENTATUS, the conqueror of Pyrrhus, 274. DUILIUS, the first who obtained a naval victory over the Carthaginians, 260.
CALPURNIUS FLAMMA, General in Sicily, where, with only 300 followers, he preserves the Roman army by engaging the Carthaginians till the 300 are all cut to pieces, and himself dreadfully wounded, 258.
M. ATTILIUS REGULUS defeats the Carthaginians and refuses them peace; he is soon afterwards defeated and taken prisoner by them, 256, and put to death, 251.. CAIUS LUTATIUS CATULUS defeats Hanno the Carthagi nian General, 242, and puts an end to the 1st Punic
C. PAPIRIUS MASO, conquered Sardinia and Corsica, 231. L. EMILIUS PAPUS, General against the Gauls, whom he defeats, 224.
Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS, (surnamed Cunctator) General in the 2nd Punic war, called by the Carthaginians "the Hannibal of Rome;" takes Tarentum after the defeat of the Romans in the battle of Cannæ, 216.
M. C. MARCELLUS, General against the Gauls; kills Viridomarus their king, 221; is sent against Syracuse, and takes it after a siege of three years, 212; killed in an ambuscade, 208
P. SULPICIUS GALBA, General in Greece during the st Macedonian war, 200.
The SCIPIOS, viz.
PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO, opposed Hannibal at Ticinum, 218; killed in Spain, 211. His brother,
CNEUS SCIPIO, served with him in Spain, and was killed about the same time.
PUBLIUS SCIPIO, (son of the foregoing Publius) finishes the 2nd Punic war, and receives the surname of Africanus, 200; serves afterwards under his brother in the war against Antiochus the Great.
LUCIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO, brother of the foregoing, conducts the war against Antiochus the Great, and is surnamed Asiaticus from his victories in Asia, 190.
SCIPIO NASICA, son of Cneus Scipio, and cousin to Africanus and Asiaticus.
SCIPIO AFRICANUS II., the son of Paulus Æmilius, and adopted by the son of the 1st Africanus; finishes the 3rd Punic war by the conquest and destruction of Carthage, 146; (see also the 10th Period.)
T. QUINCTIUS FLAMINIUS, General in the 1st Macedonian war, defeats Philip in the battle of Cynocephale, 197, and makes Locris, Phocis, and Thessaly tributary to the Romans.
M. ACILIUS GLABRIO defeats Antiochus the Great at Thermopyla, 191.
T. SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS, (father of Tiberius and Caius,)
M. P. CATO, Sen. (surnamed the Censor) served in the 2nd Punic war, and in the wars in Greece; opposed the introduction of the Fine Arts at Rome, 155. PAULUS ÆMILIUS defeats Perseus in the battle of Pydna, and is thence surnamed Macedonicus, 168; his son Publius Æmilianus was adopted by the son of Scipio Africanus, (see Scipio Africanus II.)
Q. C. METELLUS conquers Andriscus and recovers Macedon, whence he is surnamed Macedonicus, 150.