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the Roman tribute; see p. 177, 313. He sent his son Demetrius to Rome, in exchange for Antiochus his brother, now a hostage there, B. C. 176, who upon his death succeeded him by the title of
ANTIOCHUS IV., surnamed EPIPHANES, B. C. 175. He was on his way home from Rome when he heard of his brother's death, and obtained the throne by bribing Eumenes, king of Pergamus, to assist him. He was a cruel persecutor of the Jews, (see p. 178-182), and merited, in all respects, the title given him by the prophet Daniel of 66 a vile person; see p. 313-316. He began a war with Egypt, B. C. 171, and gained a great victory over Ptolemy's generals; and the following year conquered all Egypt except Alexandria, B. C. 170. The interference of the Romans prevented the accomplishment of all his ambitious views upon that country, and obliged him to withdraw his forces, B. C. 168. Some revolts in the East drew him into that quarter, B. C. 166, and he died on his way back of a loathsome and horrible disease; see p. 182. He was succeeded by his son,
ANTIOCHUS V., surnamed EUPATOR, B. C. 164, under the guardianship of Lysias, to whom Epiphanes had entrusted the government while he went into the East. The war with the Jews continued; see p. 182, 183. In two years time Demetrius, son of Seleucus Philopater, made his escape from Rome, and having deposed Eupator, who was soon after put to death, seized the throne, which he ascended under the title of
DEMETRIUS I., surnamed SOTER, B. C. 162. He carried on the wars with the Jews, (see p. 184,) and his reign was characterized by cruelty and oppression. He supported Holofernes against Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, B. C. 159, and the latter appealing to the Romans caused their interference in the Syrian affairs, which proved most unfortunate for Demetrius, against whom the Romans supported the usurper Alexander Balus, who pretending to be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes claimed the crown of Syria, of which he obtained possession after having defeated and killed Demetrius, B. C. 150. In order to strengthen his interests he prevailed upon Ptolemy Philometer, king of Egypt, to give him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage. The dissolute character and conduct of Alexander encouraged Demetrius, the son of the late king, to attempt the recovery of the throne, in which he was supported by Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who being disgusted with his son-in-law, took his daughter Cleopatra from hin, and gave her to Demetrius. A battle ensued between the two competitors for the crown, in which Alexander Balus was killed, when
DEMETRIUS II., surnamed NICATOR, Son of Demetrius I., ascended the throne, B. C. 146.
Demetrius was soon deposed by Diodotus Tryphon, who placed Antiochus VI., son of Alexander Balus, upon the throne, B. C. 144, (Tab. X.), but put him to death the next year, and usurped it himself, B. C. 143. About this time Demetrius II. was invited by the Eastern provinces to rid them of the tyranny of the Parthians, promising him, by a general revolt, to raise him a sufficient force for
the purpose. Demetrius accordingly undertook an expedition against Parthia, which failing, he was himself made prisoner by Mithridates their king, B. C. 141, who, however, after a time treated him with great kindness, and gave him his daughter Rhodaguna in marriage. In the mean time Cleopatra, the queen of Demetrius, indignant at his marriage with Rhodaguna, sent to his brother Antiochus Sidetes, offering him the crown, and herself in marriage, which he accepting, raised an army of mercenaries from Greece, Asia Minor, and the adjacent islands, and joining these to the forces of Cleopatra whom he had married, defeated Tryphon, (who was soon after put to death) and ascended the throne by the title of
ANTIOCHUS VII., surnamed SIDETES, B. C. 139. He attempted the subjection of Judea, and took Jerusalem, but afterwards made peace with John Hyrcanus, prince of the Jews; see p. 187, 188. Upon pretence of liberating his brother from captivity, Sidetes made an expedition against the Parthians which, at first, proved successful, but terminated in his defeat and death, B. C. 130, and Demetrius escaping into Syria recovered the throne, and with it his wife Cleopatra. About this time Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, took refuge in Syria. She had been divorced by Ptolemy Physcon, and upon his expulsion by his subjects had attempted to seize the throne, in which she had been assisted by Demetrius; and now, upon the restoration of Physcon, being driven out of Egypt, took refuge with her daughter Cleopatra, queen of Syria. To revenge himself upon Demetrius, Physcon set up the impostor Alexander Zebina, who pretending to be the son of Alexander Balus, laid claim to the crown, and defeated Demetrius in the battle of Damascus, B. C. 127. Demetrius was soon after put to death; Zebina obtained part of Syria, and Cleopatra kept possession of the rest, and put to death her son Seleucus, who attempted to reign in right of his father. Soon after, Ptolemy Physcon being offended with Alexander Zebina, married his daughter Tryphaena to the son of Cleopatra and Demetrius II., and set him up as king of Syria by the title of
ANTIOCHUS VIII., surnamed GRYPUS, B. C. 123. Alexander Zebina fled to Antioch and was soon afterwards slain, B. C. 121. Cleopatra finding that her son chose to have the authority, as well as the title of king, prepared a cup of poison for him, which he, aware of her design, forced her to drink herself, and so died this wicked woman, B. C. 120. Besides Grypus, Cleopatra left a son whom she had had by Antiochus Sidetes. This son, named Antiochus Cyzicenus, having excited the jealousy of his brother Grypus, the latter would have put him to death; upon which the former married Cleopatra, the divorced wife of Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of Egypt, who brought him as her dowry an army which she had collected in Cyprus, and with this, Cyzicenus began a war with Grypus, which, at first, proved unsuccessful, but at length enabled him to seize the throne by the
ANTIOCHUS IX., surnamed CYzICENUS, B. C. 112. The following year, Grypus having assembled another army recovered Syria,
and it was agreed that the empire should be divided between the brothers, Cyzicenus having Calo-Syria and Phoenicia with Damascus for his capital, and Grypus reigning at Antioch over all the rest, B. C. 111. After this arrangement, matters went on very quietly for ten years when Cyzicenus having assisted Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of Egypt, against his mother Cleopatra, she gave her daughter Selene (who was married to Lathyrus) in marriage to Grypus, with supplies of men and money, to enable him to carry on a war with his brother, B. C. 101. Cyzicenus was murdered by Heracleon one of his own dependants, B. C. 97. He left five sons, all of whom attempted at different times to reign, which creates much confusion in this part of the Syrian History. They were named, 1, Seleucus, 2, Antiochus, and 3, Philip, two twins; 4, Demetrius Euchæres, and 5, Antiochus Dionysius.
SELEUCUS V. succeeded his father Grypus, B. C. 97, but Cyzicenus disputing the throne with him, was the following year defeated and killed, B. C. 96.
ANTIOCHUS X., surnamed Pius, and EUSEBES, the son of Cyzicenus, now claimed the throne, and defeated Seleucus, who fled to Mopsuestia in Cilicia, where having exercised great tyranny, he was put to death by the people. Antiochus and Philip, the twin brothers of Seleucus, attempted to revenge their brother upon Eusebes, but were defeated by him, and Antiochus was drowned as he was attempting to escape; Eusebes now, to strengthen his interest, married Selene, who had first been the wife of Ptolemy Lathyrus and afterwards of Grypus, as relict of whom, she still possessed some power and influence in Syria; upon this Ptolemy set up Demetrius Euchæres, the fourth son of Grypus, in opposition to Eusebes, B. C. 92; and the next year Philip and Demetrius uniting their forces against him totally defeated him, upon which he retired to Parthia, and Philip and Demetrius divided the Syrian Empire between them, B. C. 91, About this time the Jews being engaged in a civil war with their king, Alexander Janneus, called in the assistance of Demetrius Euchæres, B. C. 89. The following year he marched against his brother Philip, by whom he was totally defeated and sent prisoner as a present to the king of Parthia, B. C. 88. Demetrius died the next year, leaving Philip in possession of all Syria. The year following, however, another competitor started up in Antiochus XI., surnamed Dionysius, Philip's youngest brother, who seized on Damascus, and proclaimed himself king of Cœlo-Syria, B. C. 87. He engaged in a war with Aretas, king of Arabia Petræa, by whom he was defeated and killed, B. C. 85, upon which Aretas was made king of Damascus, by the election of the people; who afterwards bestowed the crown upon Tigranes, king of Armenia, B. C. 83. The alliance of Tigranes with Mithridates, king of Pontus, involved the former in the war with the Romans, B. C. 70, and the defeat he sustained by Lucullus, B. C. 69, afforded an opportunity to Antiochus XII., surnamed Asiaticus, to seize a part of Syria. He was the son of Selene by Antiochus Eusebes, and was the last of the Seleucida. Tigranes
was totally defeated by Pompey, B. C. 66, who the following year reduced Syria to a Roman province, B. C. 65, and Antiochus (the last of the Seleucida) was obliged to live in retirement as a private 'person.
TARENTUM, a town of Calabria, in Italy, built by a Spartan colony, B. C. 707, Tab. VII.
TARENTINE WAR, carried on by the Romans against the people of Tarentum, beginning B. C. 281, Tab. IX., p. 401.
TEUTONES, a people of Germany who joined the Cimbri in a war with Rome, B. C. 109, Tab. X.; see CIMBRI.
THEBES, a celebrated city of Greece, the capital of Boeotia. It was founded by Cadmus, a Phoenician, of Egyptian extraction, whence the name of Thebes given to his city; the castle was called Cadmea, after himself, B. C. 1493, (Tab. III.) Some authors dating the foundation of Thebes later, viz. B. C. 1449, suppose Cadmus to have been of the family of Cadmonites, (the same as the Hivites) mentioned by Moses.
The early history of the Theban state is much disguised by fable. Cadmus left the kingdom to his son Polydorus, who was succeeded by his son Labdacus, the father of Laius. The latter married Jocasta, by whom he had a son named Edipus, who the Oracle declared would murder his father, to prevent which, Laius exposed the child in the woods. Edipus was preserved by some shepherds and brought up at Corinth, whence he went to consult the Oracle concerning his birth, and on the way met with Laius his father, whom upon some trifling dispute he killed, without knowing who he was. Soon after, upon explaining the ænigma of the Sphinx, he ascended the throne of Thebes by marrying Jocasta, according to the conditions proposed to any who should destroy the monster. Upon discovering that he had married his mother, he tore out his eyes, and Jocasta destroyed herself. Their sons Eteocles and Polynices agreed to reign alternately a year at a time; but when the first year of the reign of Eteocles had expired he refused to resign the throne to Polynices; who thereupon being assisted by Adrastus, king of Argos, (whose daughter he had married) with a strong army headed by seven famous generals, made war upon his brother, who choosing seven chiefs equal in prowess to those of the Argive heroes, stationed them at the seven gates of the city, and thus began the celebrated Theban war of the seven heroes, B. C. 1225, Tab. IV. After much bloodshed on both sides, it was agreed to decide the quarrel by single combat between the brothers, who killed each other, when the general engagement was renewed and the victory remained with the Thebans. After ten years, the war was renewed by the sons of the seven Heroes, called the Epigoni. These wars are celebrated by the poets. The last king of Thebes was Zanthus; after whose death, B. C. 1190, Thebes was formed into a Commonwealth, in the form of a democracy, at the head of which was a Prætor, annually elected, under whom was a council of seven, nine, or eleven members, called Boeotarchs, to conduct military affairs, while the administration of
justice was committed to others, called Polemarchs. Thebes rose to no eminence till the time of Epaminondas, who successfully struggled against the tyranny of Sparta, B. C. 379, (Tab. VIII.), and after the battle of Leuctra, B. C. 371, remained for seven years the leading state in Greece; though it lost its station after the battle of Mantinea, B. C. 363, and was conquered by Philip of Macedon in the battle of Chæronea, B. C. 338, The city was destroyed by Alexander the Great, B. C. 335.
THERMOPYLE, the battle of, fought at the pass of that name leading from Thessaly into Phocis, in which Leonidas king of Sparta, and his 300 followers were killed, after having defended the pass for three days against the immense army of Xerxes, king of Persia, and killed 20,000 of the enemy, B. C. 480, Tah. VIII. A battle was fought at the same place between the Romans and Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, who was vanquished there by the consul Acilius, B. C. 191, Tab. IX.
THRACE, a country of Europe, bounded by Mount Hæmus on the north, the Ægean sea on the south, Macedonia and the river Strymon, on the west, and the Euxine sea, the Hellespont, and the Propontis on the east. It consisted of a number of petty states and can only be reckoned as a kingdom during the reign of Lysimachus, to whom it was assigned after the battle of Ipsus, B. C. 301, Tab. IX.
THRASYMENUS, the battle of, fought near the lake of that name in Italy, and gained by Hannibal over the Roman army under Flaminius during the second Punic war, B. C. 217, Tab. IX.
TICINUM, the battle of, fought near the river and town of that name in Italy, and gained by Hannibal over the Roman army, B. C. 218, Tab. IX.
TREBIA, the battle of, fought near the river of that name in Italy, and gained by Hannibal over the Roman army under the consul Sempronius, B. C. 218, Tab. IX.
TRIBUNES, magistrates at Rome, introduced by Menenius Agrippa, B. C. 493, Tab. VIII., p. 398. They were at first, only two in number, but some years after were increased to five, and ultimately to ten. They were always elected by the plebeians out of their own body, and at first, their sole functions were to interpose in grievances or impositions offered them by their superiors. This they performed by pronouncing the word VETO, (1 forbid it); their power was confined within the walls of Rome, or a mile round it. They were habited like private men, and attended by only one servant, called viator. They were not allowed to be absent from Rome a whole day, and kept their doors open day and night, to shew they were always ready to listen to the complaints of the people. By degrees the Tribunes acquired a formidable degree of power and influence. They could summon assemblies, propose laws, stop the consultations, and even abolish the decrees of the senate, but their resolutions were of no effect if the whole number were not unanimous. Their office was not abolished during the reign of the dictator, though it was