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Gelo, who distinguished himself against the Carthaginians then acting as the mercenaries of Persia; (see p. 364) Gelo was succeeded by his brother Hiero, B. C. 478, and he, by another brother named Thrasybulus, B. C. 467, who was expelled for his tyranny, B. C. 466, and the Syracusans maintained their independance for sixty-one years. During this interval they attempted to subdue the neighbouring cities, which caused the Leontines to implore assistance from Athens, B. C. 427, and, ultimately, the scene of the Peloponnesian war was removed to Sicily, B. C. 415. The Carthaginians made an attempt upon Sicily, B. Č. 409, but were repulsed by Hermocrates, the father-in-law of Dionysius; the latter availed himself of the confusion that prevailed in consequence of some successes of the Carthaginians to usurp the government, B. C. 405. His son Dionysius II. succeeded, B. C. 368 and was expelled for his tyranny by Dion, B. C. 357. Dion was put to death, B. C. 354, and after a succession of tyrants for seven years, Dionysius II. recovered the tyranny, B. C. 347, and kept it till the Syracusans having besought the assistance of Corinth, he was finally expelled by Timoleon, B. C. 343, who also defeated the Carthaginians, B. C. 340, and Syracuse remained in tranquillity till the usurpation of Agathocles, B. C. 317, Tab. IX. He was at first unsuccessful in a war with the Carthaginians, B. C. 310, but afterwards, carried the war into Africa, and defeated them four years successively. He also passed into Italy and took Crotona, B. C. 299. After the death of Agathocles, the Carthaginians again infested Sicily, which finally fell under the dominion of the Romans by the result of the Punic wars; Syracuse was taken by Marcellus after a siege of three years, B. C. 212.
SICYON, a town of Peloponnesus, and the capital of the most ancient of the Grecian states. It was founded, B. C. 2088, (Tab. II.) by Ægialeus, of whom, or his successors, nothing but the names is known for the space of 1000 years, when it ceased to be a regal state, B. C. 1088, Tab. V. Sicyon became of some consequence as a member of the Achæan League, to which it was joined by Aratus, B. C. 251, Tab. IX.
SOCIAL WARS, that in Greece was between the Etolians and Achæans, B. C. 220, (Tab. IX.); the same name was given to the Marsic war in Italy, B. C. 91, Tab. X., p. 411.
SPARTA; see LACEDEMON.
SYRACUSE, the metropolis of Sicily, which see.
SYRIA.-Ancient geographers are not agreed upon the exact extent of this country, which in the very early ages of time was variously divided. Syria proper lay between the Mediterranean on the west, and the river Euphrates on the east; and between Mount Taurus on the north, and Arabia Deserta, Palestine, and Phoenicia, on the south. Of its early history very little is known: and in Scripture it is frequently confounded with Assyria. It was very early divided into four states, or kingdoms, viz. Zobah, Damascus, Hamath, and Geshur. Of the two latter, little or nothing is known;
and of the two former, only in connection with Sacred History. They were both subdued by king David in a war began B. C. 1037, Tab. V. The Syrians, however, recovered themselves in the time of Solomon, and we find them employed to chastise both the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. Rezin, king of Damascus, is said to have been " stirred up" by God against the former kingdom, 1 Kings xi. 23-25. Benhadad, one of his successors, was hired by Asa, king of Judah, to invade Israel, B. C. 941, (Tab. VI.), and Benhadad II. received some signal defeats from Ahab, king of Israel, B. C. 901. He was murdered by Hazael, who succeeded him, and whose son, Benhadad III. carried on the war with Israel, but was totally defeated by Joash. Rezon, the successor of BenhadadIII., joined Pekah, king of Israel, in his expedition against Ahaz, king of Judah, B. C. 740, (Table VII.) when he was defeated by Tiglath Pileser, king of Assyria. Syria and Phoenicia were subdued by Shalmanezer, B. C. 721. From this time we shall find Syria an appendage of one of the four great empires, by each of which it was successively subdued, and will make no figure in history till after the death of-Alexander the Great, when it became an independant kingdom under Seleucus.
The kingdom founded by Seleucus, was the most considerable of the four great states into which the empire of Alexander the Great was divided after his death. At first, the province of Babylonia only was allotted to Seleucus, B. C. 323, (Tab. IX.); this was soon afterwards seized by Antigonus, but recovered by Seleucus, B. C. 312, from which year is dated the era of the Seleucidæ, and the reign of the Syrian kings, beginning March 13; although it was not till after the battle of Ipsus, B. C. 301, that the final partition of the provinces took place. By that partition Syria, Babylonia, and the eastern provinces, were assigned to Seleucus, who built Antioch, and made it the capital of his empire. He afterwards built Seleucia, Apamia and Laodicea, and made them respectively the capitals of the Upper Syria, Colo-Syria, and Phoenicia; he also built Seleucia on the western side of the Tigris, and made it the capital of the Eastern provinces. He was the greatest king after Alexander, and as such Daniel represents him; see p. 309, Section Third. With an eye to the future conquest of Macedon, he married the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus, B. C. 299, though he afterwards joined Pyrrhus against him, B. C. 287. Four years after this, Philetarus governor of Pergamus, revolted and made himself king of that city, B. C. 283. Seleucus conquered Lysimachus, who had added Macedon to his empire, and thus three of the kingdoms, into which Alexander's dominions had been divided, were consolidated under the authority of the king of Syria, B. C. 281. He was murdered the next year by Ptolemy Ceraunus, and was succeeded by his son,
ANTIOCHUS I., surnamed SOTER, B. C. 280. He claimed the throne of Macedon, but afterwards ceded it to Antigonus, B. C. 276. He supported Ptolemy Magus, governornor of Cyrene, against his
brother Ptolemy Philadelphus, which led to a war with Egypt, B. C. 264. Upon the death of Philet ærus, king of Pergamus, Antiochus attempted to seize that kingdom, but was repulsed and defeated by Eumenes in the battle of Sardis, B. C. 262. He died the next year, and was succeeded by his son,
ANTIOCHUS II., surnamed THEOS, B. C. 261. In his reign, the Parthians under Arsaces, and the Bactrians under Theodotus, revolted B. C. 251, and elected those states into independant kingdoms, which example was followed by the people of Bithynia the next year. Antiochus made peace with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, whose daughter Berenice he married, promising to settle the kingdom upon her children, B. C 249; but no sooner was Ptolemy dead than Antiochus recalled Laodice, whom he had divorced in order to marry Berenice, and Laodice fearing a second change in the mind of Antiochus, murdered both him and Berenice, and placed her son,
SELEUCUS II, surnamed CALLINICUS upon the throne, B. C. 246. In order to avenge these atrocities, and particularly the murder of his sister, Ptolemy Evergetes invaded Syria, killed Laodice, ravaged the country, and returned home laden with spoils. These events had been predicted by the prophet Daniel; see p. 310. In order to strengthen himself against Ptolemy, Seleucus formed a league with his brother Antiochus Hierax, then at the head of an army in Lesser Asia, promising him the provinces in that quarter for his assistance. These preparations for carrying on the war alarmed Ptolemy, and induced him to conclude a peace with Callinicus, B. C. 243. This rendering the assistance of Hierax unnecessary, and disappointing his ambitious views, caused a civil war between the brothers, which terminated in the death of Hierax; after which Callinicus attempting to recover the revolted provinces in the East, was defeated and taken prisoner by Arsaces, king of Parthia. He died in captivity, and was succeeded by his son,
SELEUCUS III., surnamed CERAUNUS, B. C. 226, who, after an unimportant reign of three years was poisoned by Nicanor and Apaturious, two of the chief commanders of his army, and succeeded by his brother,
ANTIOCHUS III., surnamed THE GREAT, B. C. 223. The empire had sustained great losses during the preceding reigns; for, besides the conquests made by Arsaces, king of the Parthians, and Attalus, king of Pergamus, Seleucus Callinicus had given Phrygia as a dowry with his daughter to Mithridates, king of Pontus. Antiochus, though, only fifteen years old at his accession, meditated not only the recovery of those territories, but also the conquest of all the members of the empire of Alexander. He sent Molon and Alexander, two brothers, into the East, making the former, governor of Media, and the latter, of Persia. The provinces of Lesser Asia he committed to the charge of Achæus, his cousin, a most trust-worthy and experienced person, who soon recovered all that Attalus, king of Pergamus, had wrested from the Syrian dominion. Molon and Alexander, how
ever, rebelled and declared themselves sovereigns of the provinces respectively committed to their trust. About this time died Ptolemy Evergetes, king of Egypt, and Antiochus took advantage of the weak and dissolute character of his successor, Ptolemy Philopater, to attempt the recovery of those Syrian territories that had been annexed to Egypt. Instead, therefore, of turning his whole force against Molon and Alexander, he sent two of his generals into the East, and himself marched into Cœlo-Syria. A series of ill success in the East obliged Antiochus to go in person against Molon and Alexander, whom he totally subdued, and not only recovered the revolted provinces, but also subjected the Atropatians, a nation to the west of Media. Antiochus now again turned his thoughts towards Egypt; but in the mean time a new cause of embarrassment arose in the rebellion of Achæus, who having been misrepresented to Antiochus, that monarch had determined to destroy him, and so, in selfdefence, Achæus became what he had been falsely accused of being, viz. a rebel to his sovereign. Antiochus having finally determined upon recovering the provinces of Colo-Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, from Ptolemy Philopater, marched against him, but was defeated in the battle of Raphia, B. C. 217, and obliged to abandon his design. The disturbed state of his empire at this time, with Achæus in arms, and the kings of Parthia and Pergamus on the watch for farther conquests, induced Antiochus to conclude a peace with Ptolemy, by which he renounced his claim to the disputed provinces. Antiochus now formed a league with Attalus, king of Pergamus, by whose assistance Achæus was suppressed, and the Asian provinces restored to tranquillity. He next turned his arms against Arsaces II., king of Parthia, who had recently seized Media, B. C. 212. This war lasted four years, when a peace was concluded upon condition of Arsaces becoming a confederate of Antiochus, and assisting him in the recovery of the other provinces, B. C. 208. The Bactrians were the next object of attack; but Euthydemus their king maintained his independance, and Antiochus was forced to acknowledge him sovereign of the dominions he held. Resuming his original views upon Egypt, Antiochus now made a league with Philip, king of Macedon, against that country, B. C. 203. By this league it was agreed that Antiochus and Philip should divide the whole of the Egyptian dominions between them, the latter having Caria, Libya, Cyrene, and Egypt, and Antiochus all the rest. These plans were, however, thwarted by the Romans, who, having accepted the guar. dianship of the infant king of Egypt, sent ambassadors to inform Antiochus and Philip, that they held themselves bound to protect his dominions; and therefore commanded the confederate kings to desist from hostilities against Egypt, upon pain of their taking up the quarrel. About this time Antiochus began a war with Attalus, king of Pergamus, B. C. 199, during which Aristomenes, regent of Egypt, sent an army under Scopas to recover Colo-Syria and Palestine; but Scopas, after some successes, was defeated by Antiochus in the battle of Paneas, B. C. 198, who recovered Colo-Syria and
Palestine, and inflated with these successes, projected the subjection of Asia Minor. To leave him at liberty for this undertaking, he concluded an amicable peace with Egypt, giving his daughter Cleopatra in marriage to Ptolemy Epiphanes, and promising the restoration of the disputed provinces as her dowry when the nuptials should be celebrated; which were now deferred on account of the youth of Ptolemy, B. C. 197. Antiochus now began his expedition into Asia Minor, where he took several Greek cities and islands; upon which others applied for protection to the Romans, who readily granted it them against so powerful an ally of Philip, king of Macedon, who this very year had been reduced by them to sue for peace. They therefore sent ambassadors to Antiochus, to Ephesus, where he was then wintering, requiring him to leave the Greek cities in Asia Minor in the enjoyment of their liberties, to give up those that had belonged to king Philip, to restore to king Ptolemy all that he had taken from him, and, finally, not to pass into Europe upon pain of their making war upon him. In the mean time, however, Antiochus had passed into Europe, seized all the Thracian Chersonesus, and began to rebuild Lysimachia, when the ambassadors having followed him from Ephesus, communicated to him the Roman mandate; to the articles of which Antiochus replied, "that full satisfaction would be afforded to Ptolemy upon his marrying his daughter, which was then agreed on; that as to the Greek cities, he intended them their freedom, but that they should owe it to him, and not to the Romans; that, as to Lysimachia, he built it to be a residence for his son Seleucus; that Thrace, and the Chersonesus as a part of it, belonged to him by the right of conquest of his ancestor, Seleucus Nicator, and he therefore passed over into it as his just inheritance. As to Asia, and the cities in it, he told them that they had no more to do there than he had in Italy; and that since he meddled not with any affairs of the latter, he wondered that they concerned themselves with what was done in the former."*. He ended by disclaiming all deference to the Romans in these matters. In this state of affairs Hannibal took refuge with Antiochus, B. C., 195, who, at his instigation, resolved upon war with the Romans, B. C. 192. The defeat of Antiochus at Thermopyla by Acilius the Roman consul, B. C. 191, obliged him to fly out of Greece; and that at Magnesia the next year, by the two Scipios, driving him out of Asia Minor, he was forced to sue for peace, which was granted him, B. C. 190; see the Articles, p. 407, 408. In order to raise money for the tribute exacted of him, Antiochus went into the East, where having plundered the temple of Jupiter Belus, he was killed by the inhabitants of Elymais; see the prophetic history of this reign, p. 311-313. He was succeeded by his
SELEUCUS IV., surnamed PHILOPATER, B. C. 187, called by the prophet Daniel, a raiser of taxes," and his whole reign of twelve years was spent in draining the resources of his provinces to supply
* Prideaux's Connection, vol. iii. p. 153.