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At this time also flourished,

TIMOLEON, the Corinthian, who put his brother to death, for aspiring to absolute power; he delivered the Syracusans from the tyranny of Dionysius, 343, and repulsed the Carthaginians, 340.

During this period, learning, and the arts, flourished in Greece. Of Philosophers, we notice

XENOPHANES, of Colophon, 535.

HERACLITUS, of Ephesus, 506.

PARMENIDES, of Elis, 505.

ANAXAGORUS, of Clazomene, (preceptor to Socrates and Euripides) 470.

EMPEDOCLES, of Agrigentum, 444.

SOCRATES, 429; (from whose principles afterwards arose the Platonic, Peripatetic, Academic, Cyrenaic, Stoic, and other sects); he was put to death by the Athenians, 400.

DEMOCRITUS, of Abdera, 428.

PROTAGORAS, of Abdera, 419.

CEBES, of Thebes, 405.

EUCLID, of Megara, 404.

XENOPHON, the Athenian Philosopher, Historian, and General, conducted the retreat of the 10,000 Greeks after the battle of Cunaxa, 401.

ANTISTHENES, the 1st of the Cynics, 396; and his disciple, DIOGENES, 372.

The Pythagoreans,

ARCHYTAS, of Tarentum, (the Mathematician; he invented the screw and pulley,) 394.

DAMON and PYTHIAS, celebrated for their strict friendship, 387, and PHILOLAUS, 374.

Of Academics,

PLATO, the founder of the sect, 389; his nephew, SPEUSIPPUS, 348; and XENOCRATES, 339.

STILPO of Megara, the Stoic, 336.

ARISTOTLE, called by Plato "the Philosopher of truth," (Preceptor to Alexander the Great,) 345; and his disciple


ARISTIPPUS Sen. of Cyrene, 392, and his grandson of the same name, Jun. 363.

Poetry flourished under

SIMONIDES of Cea, 537

THESPIS, the inventor of Tragedy, 536.

ANACREON, 532, and PINDAR of Thebes, 480, the Lyric Poets-ESCHYLUS, 486--SOPHOCLES, 463-AristarCHUS, 454-EURIPIDES, 442, and AGATHON, 406, Tragic Poets.

PLATO, (called the Prince of the Middle Comedy) 455. CRATINUS, 437-EUPOLIS, 435-Aristophanes, 434, and AGATHON, 406, Comic Poets.

TELESTES, 402, and PHILOXENUS, 388, (critic of the verses of Dionysius of Syracuse) Dithyrambic Poets.

Of Historians, we see

CHARON, of Lampsachus, (who wrote two books on Persia)


HERODOTUS, (surnamed the Father of History) crowned at Athens, 445.

THUCYDIDES, 425; and PHILISTUS, of Syracuse, 383.

Of Orators,

GORGIAS of Leontium, sent by the Leontines Ambassdor to Athens, to solicit assistance against the Syracusans, 427. LYSIAS, 412-ISEUS of Chalcis, 380—ISOCRATES, the Rhetorician, 378-LYCURGUS of Athens, 356-THEOPOMPUS of Chios, 354-EPHORUS of Cuma, 352-ÆSCHINES, 342-DEMOSTHENES and DEMADES, 338.

Of Astronomers,

METON, 432-EUDEMON, 431-and EUDOXUS of Cnidus,


Of Mathematicians,

ARTEMONES of Cla:omene, invented the Battering Ram* and other military engines, to assist Pericles in the seige of Samos-DINOCRATES, 332.

Besides these we notice

HERODICUS, (surnamed the Gymnastic) 443.
ACRON, 439, and HIPPOCRATES, 425, Physicians.
PHIDIAS, the Statuary, 440-PARRHASIUS of Ephesus, 415
ZEUXIS of Heraclea, 597-PROTOGENES of Rhodes,
343, and APELLES of Cos, 334, Painters.

In Rome, during this period, the regal gives place to the consular power, B. C. 509; which is successively curtailed by the introduction of the Dictator, B. C. 498; of Tribunes. B.C. 493; Ediles, B. C. 492; Decemvirs, B. C. 451, (abolished three years afterwards through the misconduct of Appius Claudius, B.C. 448); Military Tribunes, B. C. 444, and Censors, B. C. 443. The military exploits of the Romans, during this interval, are principally confined to their wars with the neighbouring states:-the Sabines, Volsci, Æqui, Veientes, Herusci, Fidenates, Falisci, Etruscans, Latins, &c. The Gauls attacked the Roman territory under Brennus, who besieged and took Rome, B. C. 390; but were aftrewards repulsed and driven out of the country by Camillus. The war with the Samnites began, B. C. 343, and lasted 71 years. In Politics, we notice the attempt of Spurius Cassius to introduce an Agrarian law, B. C. 485– made the subject of endless contentions and jealousies between the Patricians who opposed, and the Plebeians who favoured it. Of Roman military characters, we observe during this period

*The invention of this instrument is ascribed to different times and persons, by different authors, as during the Trojan war, (Stanyan Hist. Greece), as being used by the Romans as early as the year, B. C. 301, or as invented by the Carthaginians.-Hooke, Rom. Hist.

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L. J. BRUTUS and VALERIUS POPLICOLA, the defenders of
Roman liberty against the Tarquins, 509.

opposers of Porsenna, king of Etruria, 508.

TITUS LARTIUS, 1st Dictator, 498.

MENENIUS AGRIPPA, who introduced the Tribuneship, 493. C. M. CORIOLANUS, (the conqueror of Corioli) banished, 491; brings a Volscian army against Rome, but withdraws it at the entreaty of his mother, 488, and is soon afterwards murdered.

SPURIUS CASSIUS attempts to introduce an Agrarian law, 485. L. J. CINCINNATUS, made Dictator during a war with the Equi and Volsci, 458.

APPIUS CLAUDIUS, the Decemvir, 451, whose injustice respecting Virginia excited a tumult which caused the abolition of the Decemvirate, 448.

L. SICINNIUS (or SICCIUS) DENTATUS, the Plebeian, supports the Agrarian law, 454; defeats the Equi; is murdered by order of the Senate, 405.

L. F. CAMILLUS, the Dictator, (called for his services to his country, a second Romulus) conquers the Veii, 594; defeats the Falisci, &c. and sends back to Falerii the schoolmaster, who had offered to give up to him the children of the principal men of the city; is banished; recalled, and conquers the Gauls, 390.

M. MANLIUS, the defender of the capitol against the Gauls, whence he is surnamed Capitolinus, 389.

TITUS MANLIUS TORQUATUS, General against the Gauls, 361; orders the death of his son for a breach of military discipline, $39.

M. CURTIUS, supposed to have devoted himself for his country, by throwing himself into the chasm which had opened in the Forum, 361.

C. M. RUTILIUs, the first Plebeian Dictator, 356.

DECIUS MUS, devotes himself to death in the battle with the Latins, 338.

In Sicily, we see the usurpation of Syracuse by Gelo, B. C. 491; its emancipation and independance for 61 years, B. C. 466. The intestine commotions of the island by the struggles of the Syracusans and Leontines, who, by applying for assistance to the Grecian states, by which they were respectively patronized, became involved in the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 427. The Carthaginians also begin to infest Sicily, B. C. 409. The Tyranny of the Dionysii begins, B. C. 405, and lasts till their expulsion by Timoleon, B. C. 343.


Ninth Period of Ancient History, from the CONQUEST OF PERSIA, by ALEXANDER THE GREAT, to the entire SUBJECTION OF GREECE, by the ROMANS, containing 185 years. The Jews will be seen alternately subject to the Egyptian and Syrian states; the administration of their civil and ecclesiastical affairs was vested in the High Priest; the principal events to be remarked, are, the persecution by Ptolemy Philopatér, B. C. 216; the sale of the High Priesthood by Antiochus Epiphanes to the apostate brothers of Onias III., Jason, B. C. 175, and Menelaus, B. C. 172; and the consequent introduction of the Grecian idolatry into Judea. The profanation of the Temple by Antiochus, B. C. 170; the hòrrible persecution of the Jews that followed this event; the opposition of Mattathias and his sons, the Maccabean brothers, B. C. 168; the appeal of Judas Maccabeus to the Roman Senate, B. C. 161; his death, and the succession of his brother Jonathan. The chief clue to this portion of Sacred History will be found in the prophecy of Daniel, concerning "the Things noted in the Scripture of Truth," (see Prophecy, 6th and 7th Periods, V.) and the two books of the Maccabees. Antigonus of Socho, founder of the sect of the Sadducees, flourished during this period, and died B. C. 263: during this period also, the Hebrew

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