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divided. B. C. 685; the re-establishment of a sole monarchy under Psammetichus, B. C. 670; under whom, and his successor Necus, B. C. 616,, the arts and sciences were encouraged in Egypt, the subjugation of Judea by the latter, B. C. 608, and the conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 571.
In Greece, during this period, we principally remark the struggles of the Lacedemonians with the Messenians, in the two first Messenian wars, B. C. 743 and 685; the successful result to the Lacedemonians, B. C. 724 and 671. In Athens we observe the Archonship restricted to an annual magistracy, B. C. 684. Draco institutes his sanguinary laws, B. C. 623, which twenty-nine years afterwards are repealed, and a milder form of legislation introduced by Solon, B. C. 594; after whom the government is usurped by Pisistratus, B. C. 560. In Corinth we see the usurpations of Cypselus, B. C. 659, and of his son Periander, B. C. 629. Literature, which had hitherto been principally confined to the sacred penmen, is, during the latter part of this period, cultivated by the Greeks. As Poets, we observe
EUMELUS of Corinth, B. C. 750.
ARCHILOCHUS, the inventor of the lambic verse, 685, and TYRTEUS, the Elegiac Poet, 685.
TERPANDER, the Lyric Poet, who added a fourth string to the lyre, 675.
ALCMAN, the Lyric Poet, 670.
ARION, the Musician and Lyric Poet, 620.
ALCEUS, the inventor of the Alcaic verse, and
SAPPHO, the Lyric Poetess, 600.
Asor, the Mythologist, died 561.
STESICHORUS, the Lyric Poet, 576.
SUSARION and DOLON, the inventors of Comedy, 562.
* Under these kings, according to some, the celebrated labyrinth was constructed; though others attribute this work to the Shepherd kings, (see Tables II and IV.)
THEOGNIS of Megara, 549.-Philosophy flourished somewhat later, under
PITTACUS of Mytelene, one of the Seven Sages, 612, died 570.
CHILO of Lacedemon, also one of the Seven Sages, and author of the celebrated aphorism "know thyself," died
EPEMENIDES of Crete, reckoned one of the Seven Sages by those who exclude Periander, the first builder of temples in Greece, 595.
SOLON, the Athenian lawgiver and one of the Seven Sages, and
THALES of Miletus, (also one of the Seven Sages) founder of the Ionic Sect, and the first who calculated a solar eclipse with accuracy, discovered the solstices and equinoxes, and divided the heavens into five zones, and the year into 365 days; 594.
ANACHARSIS the Scythian, one of the Seven Sages, 592. ANAXIMANDER of Miletus, the first who discovered the cylindrical form of the earth, and constructed spheres, maps, and sun-dials, 568, died 547.
BIAS of Priene, (one of the Seven Sages,) 566.
ANAXIMENES, of Miletus, 556, died 504, (pupil of Anaxi mander.)
PHERECYDES, (the first who delivered his thoughts in prose) Master of Pythagoras, asserted the immortality of the soul, 547, died 515; and
PYTHAGORAS himself, who flourished about 539.
By the travels of the Grecian philosophers into Egypt, Phoenicia, and Babylonia, they acquired a knowledge of the principles of astronomy and the mathematics, which were so early cultivated in those countries; and probably obtained from the sacred records, or from the prophets of those times, their earliest notions respecting the immortality of the soul.
Rome flourishes under her six first kings, whose biography
by Plutarch and other writers, will best illustrate the Roman history of this period.
As Miscellaneous matter, we remark the accession of Gyges to the throne of Lydia, after the murder of his master Candaules, B. C. 718, and the extinction of that kingdom in the conquest of Croesus, its last king, by Cyrus, B. C. 548.-The founding of the kingdom of Cyrene, by Battus, B. C. 630, and the incipient celebrity of the Syracusans, B. C. 552.
Eighth Period of Ancient History, from the ACCESSION OF CYRUS TO THE THRONE OF PERSIA to the Destruction of that Empire by ALEXANDER THE GREAT, containing 206 years. It contains, in Sacred History, an account of the Jews, on their return from captivity under Zorobabel, B. C. 535; the re-building, B. C. 534, and dedication of their second Temple, B. C. 515; the re-establishment of their civil and ecclesiastical laws, by Ezra, B. C. 458, and Nehemiah, B. C. 445 and 424.-At Babylon, the deliverance of the Jews through the intervention of Mordecai and Esther, from the machinations of Haman.—The ministries of Haggai and Zechariah, B. C. 520, and Malachi, B. C. 436, fall under this period; towards the end of which, the Scriptures of the Old Testament close, and the spirit of prophecy ceases. (see Prophecy, 8th Period, W.) The Jews are transferred from the Persian to the Grecian jurisdiction by the conquests of Alexander the Great, B. C. 331. The Sacred History of this period will be found in the last ch. of 2nd. Chron. from ver. 22, the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther.
To the first, or Babylonian, succeeds the second, or Persian Empire, dated from the accession of Cyrus, B. C. 537. The outlines of its history are marked with extraordinary precision in the prophecies of Daniel (see Prophecy 6th and 7th Period, R, S, T, V, 2nd Div.) We principally
remark the entire subjugation of Egypt by Cambyses, B. C. 525; the accession of Darius Hystaspes to the throne, B. C. 521; the revolt and recovery of the province of Babylon, B. C. 517; the Wars of Darius with the Scythians, beginning B. C. 514, and with the Greeks, which blends the Persian with the Grecian history, during the whole of this period. Egypt (now a province of the Persian Empire) exhibits a constant succession of revolts, the principal of which are, that under Inarus, supported by the Athenians, 463; that under Amyrtæus, who becomes king, B. C. 414; and is succeeded by eight others, the last of whom (Nectanebus) is conquered and expelled by Artaxerxes Ochus, B. C. 350. The whole Persian Empire was conquered and extinguished by Alexander the Great, B. C. 331.-In illustration of Persian history we may notice the following military characters:
ORETES, Persian Governor of Sardis; he put to death Polycrates, Tyrant of Samos, 522.
OTANES, Governor of the sea coast of Asia Minor for Darius Hystaspes, 521.
ARTAPHERNES, Governor of Lydia, insists upon the reinstatement of Hippias, by the Athenians, which they refuse, and this leads to the burning of Sardis, 504.—He puts to death Hestaus, Governor of Miletus, and fomentor of the Ionian revolt, 496.
ARISTAGORUS, Persian Governor of Miletus, revolts and burns Sardis, 504; is defeated and killed, and his army cut to pieces by the Thracians, 499.
MARDONIUS, sent by Darius Hystaspes on an expedition against the Greeks, which fails, and he is defeated with great loss, 494; is defeated and killed by Pausanias in the battle of Plataa, 479.
DATIS, defeated and killed in the battle of Marathon, 490. ARIAMENES, Admiral of the Fleet, defeated and killed in the battle of Salamis, 480.
MEGABYZUS, subdues Egypt, 456.
OSIRIS, defeated by Cimon the Athenian General, 450. PHARNABAZUS, assists the Lacedemonians against the Athenians, in the Peloponnesian war, 409.
TISSAPHERNES, seizes Alcibiades, 412; served in the battle of Cunaxa, 401; defeated by Agesilaus, king of Sparta, and put to death by Artaxerxes Mnemon, 395.
TITHRAUSTES, Succeeds Tissaphernes, 395; bribes Agesilaus to withdraw his army.
STRUTHAS, employed against the Lacedemonians in Lower Asia, 393.
DATAMES, Governor of Caria, 362.
ZOROASTER, the Persian Prophet, is said by Prideaux* to have flourished in the reign of Darius Hystaspes. CTESIAS, the Historian, also lived during this period; he was taken prisoner by Artaxerxes Mnemon in the battle · of Cunaxa, 401; and lived 17 years at the Persian Court, where he wrote his History of the Assyrians and Persians.
The history of Greece becomes very interesting during this period. In the early stages of it, we remark the expulsion of the Pisistratidæ, B. C. 510; leading however to the war with Persia,† which was terminated so gloriously for the Athenians by the victories of Cimon, who forced the Persians to a disgraceful peace, B. C. 470.—This war had formed a point of common interest, and proved a school of military discipline to all the states of Greece; whose history however may, from this time, be divided into two great branches; that of the Athenians (who now bore the ascendancy in power and consequence) and that of the Lacedemonians; and their mutual jealousies and struggles for supremacy, will furnish the key to Grecian history for
*See p. 51, of his Life, prefixed to the 1st vol. of his Connection, and p. 268 of the same vol.
+ Hippias being banished, fled to Darius Hystaspes, King of Persia, who insisted upon his restoration; which being refused by the Athenians, was the proximate cause of the commencement of hostilities.