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tinual remorse, to occupy the people, and to secure himself from the effects of conspiracies, Herod built several fortresses. He also rebuilt Samaria (which had been destroyed by John Hyrcanus, B. C. 109), and gave it the name of Sebaste,* in honour of Augustus; and from the same motive, that of Cæsarea to a city and sea port he had built on the sea coast between Dora and Joppa. He next erected a palace for himself, and in the same spirit of adulation gave the name of Cæsareum and Agrippeum, in honour of Cæsar and his favourite Agrippa, to two of the principal apartments in it. He also instituted public games in honour of Augustus, and placed an eagle (the Roman ensign) over the temple; which advances towards idolatry excited some discontents in his subjects, and led to a conspiracy against his life, which being discovered, all those concerned in it were put to death.

In the 20th year of his reign, he began to rebuild the temple, which he had taken down in consequence of B. C. the state of dilapidation into which it had fallen. (2) (2) The same year he went to Rome to fetch home 17 Alexander and Aristobulus (his sons by Mariamne) whom he had sent there some years before for their education; and upon his return, he married the eldest to Glaphyra, daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, and the second to Berenice, the daughter of Salome; who fearing their revenging upon her the part she had taken in the death of their mother Mariamne, formed a project for their destruction. She soon succeeded in exciting Herod's jealousy of his sons, and three years after their return, hè sent for Antipater (his eldest son by a former marriage) to court, who, from interested motives, joined in the plot of Salome against the sons of Mariamne; (3) and (3) notwithstanding the good offices of Archelaus, king 13

Sebastos, in Greek, is the same with Augustus in Latin, and therefore, Sabaste is as much as to say, the city of Augustus

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B. C. of Cappadocia, whose interference caused a recon(4) ciliation between them and Herod, he at length had 6 them strangled. ( )

Antipater finding the way to the succession clear before him, formed a plot with Pheroras (the brother of Herod) and others, to get rid of his father. The same year Zacherias had the vision in the temple, foretelling the birth of John Baptist; (Luke i. 5-25) six months afterwards, the annunciation was made by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, (Luke i. 26-38) and the following year, in accomplishment of a chain of prophecy which had been the hope and comfort of the faithful for four thousand years, was born JESUS CHRIST THE SAVIOUR OF THE WORLD, "For, as in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive."



We have now traced man from his creation, to the æra of his redemption. We have seen him formed innocent and happy, yet forfeiting through self-will and disobedience both his innocence and his happiness, and rendered justly obnoxious to the penalty attached to the violation of the first covenant. We have seen the truth and justice of God punishing the sin, whilst his wisdom and mercy pro(1) vided a redemption from, and a remedy for it. (1) 4004 We have seen the fallen race of Adam neglecting the warning furnished by the punishment of the first sin, and pursuing the path of disobedience which infallibly leads to the commission of every other. We have marked for more than fifteen hundred years the long suffering of God, forbearing, till the corruption of all flesh extorted from him the sentence of general destruction, yet still warning mankind by his faithful servant Noah, and

waiting to be gracious a hundred and twenty years ·(3) "while the ark was a building, (Gen. vi. 3; 1 Pet. 2348 iii. 20.) (2)in which one family only was preserved.


We have seen the few souls preserved in the ark, taught by experience the evil wrought by sin; warned by threatenings of its future tendency; encouraged by promises, directed by commands, restrained by prohibitions; beginning as it were, the world anew, yet anew rejecting God's guidance, and following the blind impulse of their own evil nature. Revolting against the Providence that had so marvellously preserved their fathers, impiously distrusting the promises that secured them from a second Deluge, and attempting to make themselves a name, and to place themselves above the reach of Divine justice, by building a city and a tower whose top might reach to heaven." But though "a man's heart deviseth his way, the LORD directeth his steps" Scattered abroad from the scene of their fancied se- B. C. curity, (3) the families of the builders of Babel* laid (3) the foundation of all the nations of the earth; for 2247 whom the God of all mercy was from the beginning

preparing a SAVIOUR. The promise made to Adam respecting" the seed of the woman" was enlarged to Noah, for not only was the promised seed to " bruise the serpent's head” but also to be a blessing from " the God of Shem." Gen. ix. 26.


We have seen Abram separated as the head of a peculiar people from the degenerate race which had withdrawn themselves from God. (4) His obedience (4) rewarded by the favour, protection, and confidence 1921 of his Maker, who revealed to him the fate of his posterity, as well as that of their enemies and oppressors.

It is disputed whether any but the families of Ham were concerned in the building of Babel; but however this may be, these Babel builders certainly laid the foundation of the earliest kingdoms and states, to which the families of Japheth and Shem afterwards succeeded.


Gen. xv. We have seen the readiness with which God listens to the "fervent prayer of the righteous man," (Gen. B. C. xviii.) and his unalterable consistency in not clearing (5) the guilty. Gen. xix. 24-26 (5) His faith purified 1897 by trial, we see Abraham made in himself and his

son, a type of that great sacrifice which was to con(6) summate the proofs of the mercy and love of God 1871 towards his creatures. Gen. xxii. (6) We have

traced the hand of Providence in the chastisements inflicted upon God's chosen servants; the duplicity of Jacob conducting him to temporal adversity, and thus working its own temporal expiation by many severe trials; (Isai. xl. 2.) as in his banishment from his country; his hard service to Laban; the ill conduct of many of his children; the dread of his brother's vengeance; the death of his favourite wife; the loss of his best beloved son; all contributing to the" evil of his days." In all times, and in all places, the watchful providence of God is manifested.

Joseph is sent into Egypt to prepare for the ap(7) pointed period of servitude. (Gen. xlv. 5-8. Ps. cv. 1728 17.) (7) Jacob is enlightened at his death, to enlarge the former revelations of the Divine purposes, (*) and to stimulate the faith of his posterity. Gen. xlix. 1491 8-10. Moses is raised to conduct them from bondage (8) with signs, and wonders, and warnings, surpassing those of the destruction of the Antediluvians by water, and of the city of the plain, by fire. Exod iii-xiii.


The rays of Divine light which had hitherto reached mankind obliquely, and from far, now begin to shed a steady lustre over the Jewish nation. The law (that "schoolmaster to bring us unto CHRIST;" by the manifestation and conviction of sin), is appointed to restrain the first approaches of sin; whilst the Gospel is pre-figured in the Levitical ordinances. (See Prophecy, 4th Period, I.) God

himself holds the sceptre of Judah.* (Deut. xxxiii. 2-5.) which should not depart till Shiloh came, to whom all power should be committed. Deut. xviii. 15-19.; 1 Macc. xiv. 41. The ALMIGHTY, who since the apostasy of the descendants of Noah, had been made known to the heathen, principally in the judgments of his wrath, is at this time revealed to them for purposes of mercy to such as would accept it. The safety of Israel, under the protection of his blessing, is made known to all surrounding nations. The prophet Balaam, hired to curse, is made an instrument of blessing to God's people, and of instruction to their enemies; leaving the latter without excuse for their perseverance in error. Numb. xxiii. 7-24; xxiv. His predictions, confirming the revelations made to Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, extend still farther into futurity, shewing distinctly what Israel should do to her enemies in the latter days: whilst those of Moses, relating more exclusively to the Jews, warn them by threatenings, and comfort them by promises. Deut. xxviii. The usurpers of the promised land are dispossessed; the hardened and impenitent are cut off; the humble and submissive spared; (according to the command of God, Deut. xx. 10-20); even the crafty Gibeonites are held sacred through the covenant which they had fraudulently obtained, Josh. ix. 19. For many centuries the accomplishment of God's promises, in restoring to Israel "the lot of their inheritance;" (Deut. xxxii. 7-9.) his chastisements inflicted by the instrumentality of the nations

* The Jewish state was at this time, in every sense of the term, a Theocracy. Not only were the laws given by God himself, but he was also applied to as the Judge and Director in every temporal contingence. The people enquired of God by Moses, (Exod. xviii. 15.) and were commanded to do so, Deut. xvii. 9-12. Many instances of this occurred under the period we are now treating of, as in the case of the blasphemer, (Lev. xxiv. 10-16.) and sabbath breaker, (Numb. xv. 32-36.) See also, Achan's crime. Josh. vii. 10-26. God directed Joshua, in all his proceedings, as also the Judges who succeeded him.

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