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this sacrament, but they who have covenanted with God in baptism; as he says, "Gather my saints together unto me: those that HAVE COVENANTED with me," shewing which is first, -the commemoration, or the covenant. For which reason, and also because of these mysteries being really too sacred a theme for heathen and unenlightened hearers, I should not be sorry, if custom allowed a more select audience for the subject: but, as it is, I may well be content with any; and shall only avoid entering deeper into the subject than may be necessary for a superficial view of the same. It may be as much as is really necessary perhaps for that purpose, if I can give 1, a general idea of the sacrament of the Eucharist; 2, a few hints for the Use or Application of this sacrament. And

§ 1. In attempting such a general idea of the sacrament of the Eucharist I cannot pursue a more convenient order, perhaps, than is marked out for me in the several matters belonging to it: which being commemorative, and that likewise in the form of a sacrifice, will have accordingly 1, its Altar; 2, Offering, or service; 3, Sacrificers; beside the priest and his assistants. These were all actually included in the ancient sacrifices, whether Jewish or heathen; and more sometimes according to the occasion: the occasions of a sacrifice being various; as to implore or supplicate, to appease or deprecate, to thank or celebrate-its divine Object: and on the latter occasion, the sacrifice would sometimes afford a splendid entertainment with music and dancing, martial games, and other festivities. The Christian sacrifice is essentially of this sort; namely a festive sacrifice, or sacrifice ending with a feast. For in the same manner as the first day of every week is consecrated by our Lord's resurrection, its principal solemnity, the holy communion, is by the last of his religious exercises, eating the Passover with his disciples; -being also a feast upon a sacrifice: when that which typified himself, the paschal lamb was typified by bread

and wine. For with these types or elements, the Lord commemorated his own death and resurrection as a pattern to posterity, saying, "This do in remembrance of me." (Luke xxii. 19.)

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Hence, therefore, or by reason of the Lord's ordinance; being, as I said, a feast upon a sacrifice,—for each of the matters before mentioned, and in each of them we shall have a counterpart to the same, as well as in the whole; being, one for the sacrifice, the other for the feast: as in the altar, a table; in the offering, a provision of food; in the sacrificers or worshippers, so many guests: in the priest, a governor of the feast." You may observe, my dear brethren, how parallel this sacrament of salvation runs to the sacrament of election, by which it is preceded, and to which it refers, as signified in the divine mandate before cited; how, in the passover we have a commemoration of the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt by the way of the Red Sea especially; the occurrence itself also typifying equally with its commemora tion, or rather more circumstantially, our election from the world, and vastly more important deliverance from sin and death by the way of baptism in the blood of Christ, or by the baptism that he was baptized with so applied and subsequently assimilated in obedience unto death. The involution of types and typical occurrences in this wonderful work of Providence is worth comprehending; as the Psalmist observes, "His work is worthy to be praised, and had in honour; and his righteousness endureth for ever. The merciful and gracious Lord hath so done his marvellous works, that they ought to be had in remembrance. HE HATH GIVEN MEAT UNTO THEM THAT FEAR HIM: HE SHALL EVER BE MINDFUL OF HIS COVENANT." (Ps. cxi. 3-5.) And it seemed worth while to remark this double application of the same objects relating to such works, as I have done, on account of their alternate use; as we say indifferently the altar of the Lord, or the Lord's table; call it his supper, as well as his of

fering; and talk of guests at the Lord's table, as well as of worshippers at his altar. And having premised thus much in general for the sake of distinction, and in order to prevent confusion, I shall proceed to notice more particularly some of the matters before enumerated in succession as first,

1. The first-mentioned humble, or humblest of the whole, matter of the Altar or Table: being only designed as a focus or rallying point for the sacrificers and their devotions, of whatever quality or workmanship it may be, and of whatever form or designation,-whether as a column or a tump, a table or an altar, a cavern or a tomb, and with other conveniences, or without. For hence, as from a common hearth, the fervent spirit of devotion might ascend toward Heaven "as the incense," to be returned the same way, and to the same point, in a grateful remembrance by the natural association of ideas, if it please God; as from a bower, fountain, grove, or other well known site might be imbibed the sweet memory of a departed friend. And when the altar is seen not empty, but crowned with a precious victim,--the table not unprovided, but provided with an heavenly banquet, and the feast not unfurnished, but furnished with guests-with guests well clad too, namely, in the choicest characteristics, and knit together in a Christian spirit, the only true principle of friendship — such altar or table may be said to have greatly the advantage of that other rallying point, the bower, fountain, or grove, which is now only embalmed by recollection, without the presence of a kindred object. So indeed might only our morning ablution, if it please God, with a bason and a towel; such as our Saviour took when he rose from supper, and began to wash the disciples' feet; (John xiii. 4, 5;) and if it only please him to bless us with his presence. For if the altar be good for any thing, it must be worth more than gold; though the idolatrous Jerusalemites had a belief or tradition of the gold being more sacred than the altar: much

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more than either altar or gold must the gift be worth, by which both are sanctified in this instance, as well as every other gift or sacrifice to God, "in all times, and in all places." For

2. There is to every thing a place as well as a season: and the proper place for any thing is to be judged in some measure by its quality; as for example, of the Offering or Provision, whether of 1, the real Subject, which is typified in this holy sacrament; or 2, its Type. And speaking of these two--the offering and its type, distinctly, as far as may be required.

1, The real Subject, which is the Offering or Provision here typified, will be the same either way; namely, considered either as our offering, or as our spiritual Provision; as "a sweet smelling savour" to God, (Eph. v. 2,) or as immortalizing food for mankind: and that is "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world," the Lamb of God's own providing, according to the remarkable prediction of the patriarch Abraham. Though it may seem strange, that he should talk of God's providing himself a lamb for a burnt-offering, (Gen. xxii. 8,) when he provides all-every thing that we have, either to offer or to enjoy ; but more extraordinary, that this same subject of a lamb, should be constantly held up for the offering in prophecy, from its first prediction by Abraham, to its consummation in Christ: as by Moses, in the institution of the Passover; (Exod. xii. 6;) by Isaiah, in foretelling the reign of Messiah; (Isai. xi.;) by John, the Baptist, in announcing his arrival; (John i. 29, &c.;) by John, the Evangelist, in anticipating his second advent, and speaking of him as "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world:" (Rev. xiii. 8:) also by the apostles and others, when mentioning him in their expositions, and on other ordinary occasions: as Philip the deacon to Candace's treasurer on that text of Isaiah, "He is led as a sheep to the slaughter: and like a lamb dumb before his shearer so openeth he not his mouth:" (Acts viii. 32:) when "Philip began at the same scrip

ture, and preached unto him Jesus;

(Ib. 35.;) and

St. Peter, where he speaks of the redemption of mankind, not with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation, received by tradition from your fathers, (from evil habits and spurious notions which they taught by their false and wicked example)--but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot; who verily was fore-ordained before the foundation of the world." (Pet. I. i. 18, &c.) But what makes this constant allusion to the emblem of meekness and innocence by all who prophesied of him most particularly as well soon after his immolation as long before more strange and remarkable, is the regular working of his spirit toward that character, wherever it may be allowed: by which means the state of society is so far changed; the wolf being not only come to dwell with the lamb, (Isai. xi. 6,) according to another prophecy of Isaiah; but also, to assume his habits in many instances. Therefore,

2, As the real offering was itself for purity and price, so should every Type of the same, or offering on that offering be. By the Levitical law it was not allowable to "bring the hire of a whore, or the price of a dog into the house of the Lord thy God for any vow." (Deut. xxiii. 18.) And in the heathen rites, too, milk-white sacrifices, or victims for sacrifice, were diligently enquired for, cost what they might, and accompanied sometimes with many more, to be eaten at the sacrifice.

The primitive type of a lamb for the offering before alluded to, was the nearest to its object that divine Wisdom could suggest for the time; and would have continued to this day, no doubt, if the same divine Wisdom had not observed sufficient reason in its eternal view of the dispensation for substituting another subject equally precious, and likewise significant, according to circumstances, in the secondary type-that is secondary in some measure, of bread and wine. For as we come after the

VOL. II.

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