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For Man, who begets out of his own Substance, if he were to create, could not do it without Matter. But if they reject that Hypothefis, without regarding the ftri&t ufe of Words which are imploy'd to exprefs our meaning, because they must take care to afcribe none but worthy Notions to God; and fo allow that he creates by his Power alone: how can it be neceffary to think of the Affection of a Change of Subftance in God, on account that he is ftil'd a Father? For what Man of good Senfe is there, but acknowledges that the names of fome things do only agree in pronunciation and expreffion, but not at all in fignification? as when an Eye is fpoken of Man, and when it is apply'd to God: Of Man it denotes one diftinet Member; but of God it denotes, fometimes his Help and Prefervation afforded to the Righteous; and fometimes the Knowledg of the Actions of Men. As on the other hand, many words, which are different in pronunciation, have ftill the fame fignification; as He that Is; and the Only True God.

Wherefore when God is ftil'd a Father, we ought not to fuppofe the fame Operation or Efficacy which that word implies among Men; as if in both Cafes it equally included fome Emanation, or the like Affection; fince the one is without all fuch Affections, and the other with them. Nor when he is faid to be a Spirit, is he to be fuppos'd to have the fame nature with other Spirits. Accordingly should we in all things obferve the like Equity and Proportion, and not as foon as we hear the name of Son apply'd to Chrift, to be difpleas'd at the name of a Made Being; as if the Subftance were immediately to be fuppos'd com





mon, because of this Community of the name Conftit. For he is a Being, begotten and made by a BeL. VIII. ing, which was it felf unbegotten and unmade; c. 12. P. while Men and Angels, and whatsoever Creature there is befide, are Beings made by that Being which was it felf made, and produc'd by him at the Command of the Father. For by this means we shall preferve the facred Truth VIII, 22. of the Scriptures, which affirm, that the Son A&.II.36. Col. I.15. is a Being made, and produc'd by God; and we Apoc.III. fhall not go aftray from fober Reasoning, as neither being forc'd to afcribe Parts to God, nor lay his own Subftance as a Subftratum for Generation, nor Matter for Creation, from which different Notions the difference of these Names has arifen. Now if God, when he begets, does not communicate his own Subftance to the Being that is begotten, according as happens among Men, for he is Unbegotten; and when he creates, he does not stand in need of any Matter, fince he stands in need of nothing, and is powerful; the rejection of the word Creation is on all accounts unreafonable.


L. VIII. c. 5. p.


Now fince from these and the like Arguments we have fhewn, that we must neither attempt univerfally to think that the fignification of Words is exactly agreeable to the Words themselves, nor to change that Agreement at random, but must attend to the Subjects we are upon; we muft fute Words and their Signification together, with regard to that Agreement refpectively: for the nature of things is not a Confequent of Words, but the Force of Words is, according to their refpective kinds, to be futed to the nature of things. One may therefore very justly complain


plain of thofe, who believing that the Son is a Being Begotten, and a Being Made, and are alfo perfuaded that God is a Being Unbegotten, and a Being Unmade, do yet, by the addition of other words, and by faying that they are alike in Substance, contradict what they confefs'd before; while they ought, if they had had the least regard to Truth, from that difference of Characters, to have own'd the difference of their Subftances; because they could only by this means preferve the juft Order of Things: that is, by accommodating to each feverally a futable Acknowledgment. But if they have no confideration of this Agreeablenefs in the nature of things, yet ought they at least to take care, that their own Words agree with their own Notions, and not allow themselves to afcribe intirely different Characters to the fame Nature; for we have demonstrated, by all our foregoing Discourse, that thofe Characters are fignificative of the Substances themselves.

But now perhaps fomebody that is heated in this matter may argue thus, in way of contradiction to our Reafoning: that if we must thus strictly adhere to the words made ufe of, and thence be led into the meaning of the things; as we pretend that Unbegotten and Begotten are fo intirely different from one another; yet is it plain, that the names Light and Light, Life and Life, Power and Power, which are afcrib'd to both, are alike. To fuch an one's Question, we fhall reply, not with the Argument of the Staff, inftead of an Answer, according to the Saying of Diogenes: For the Philofophy of a Cynick is vaftly remote from Christianity; but in imitation of the bleffed




Apoftle Paul, who fays, that we ought to in2 Tim. II. ftruct thofe that oppofe themselves with great LongSuffering. We anfwer then, that Light is either Unbegotten or Begotten; and we ask whether when Light is fpoken of an Unbegotten Being, and of a Being Begotten, it fignifies differently,or has the very fame fignification? If the very fame, 'tis plain, that that must be a compounded thing which confifts of different things Now what is compounded, is not Unbegotten: But if it has a different fignification,then as much difference as there is between an Unbegotten and a Begotten Being, fo much difference ought there to be fuppos'd between Light and Light, Life and Life, Power and Power. For there is but one Rule and Method for the Refolution of all fuch Difficulties.

If therefore every Character of the Father, which concerns his Subftance, be equivalent to that of Unbegotten, as to its proper fignification, on account of his being free from Parts, and not compounded; and if the Cafe be the fame as to the Only-begotten, that every Character must be equivalent to that of a Be-. gotten Being, and yet they will still say these Characters may be convertible; who can further endure that they fhould afe the word Likeness of Subftance? or that they Bould determine one to have a Supereminence above the other as to Greatness, even tho all Confideration of Quantity, and of Time, and the like Circumstances are fet afide? and tho the Subftance be, and is own'd to be fimple and Conftit. one? And in the firft place, they who preL. VIII. fume to compare that Subftance, which has no Superior, and is above all Caufe, and free libi paf- from all Laws, to that which is Begotten, and

c. 5. P. 391. & a



is fubfervient to the Laws of its Father, feem either not at all to confider the nature of Things, or not to form their Judgments about them with an uncorrupt Mind. For there are plainly two ways cut out for the Discovery of the Truth in fuch Questions; the one of which is a priori, whereby we confider the Substances of things themfelves, and by fair and clear Reafoning we determine about every one of them; the other of which is a pofteriori, whereby we make the Enquiry from the Effects to the Cause, and fo diftinguish Substances by the Creatures they make, and by their Operations. Nor is it poffible to perceive that either of these ways can discover this Likeness of Substance.

For in cafe any one takes the Rife of his Enquiries from the Substances themselves, and finds that One is fuperior to all Dominion, and Ubi priabove all Generation,and all Indigency; This will us teach a Mind that comes with a fincere Defire after Truth, and oblige it to reject with the greatest Indignation, from the very Law and Rule of Nature, all Comparison between them; and will give us to understand, that the Operation must be futable and agreeable to the Dignity of the Subftance. But in cafe he first regards the Creatures made, and thence goes back to the Substances, when he finds the Son to be the Being made by the Ubi priUnbegotten Being, and the Comforter the Be- us. ing made by the Only Begotten, and is fatif- Conftit. fy'd of the difference of the Operations by the Supereminence of the Only Begotten; he will thence perceive an indifputable Demonftration of the Difference of their Subftances. Not here to add a third Difference, B 2

L.VI. c.



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