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We have already, in a note, alluded to an apparent discrepancy in two definitions occurring within the limits of one page, the 34th: in which Mr. Erskine first speaks of faith as a persuasion that a certain object producing impression is a real object; and afterwards pronounces faith, with regard to that real object, to be an impression made on our minds by it. Afterwards, it is true, he defines "impression" not to mean "affection," but simply "conception" of the nature of the object. But, still, conception of the nature of any real object presented to us is by no means the same thing with a persuasion of its reality and truth according to that conception. In ordinary things, we can easily separate a conception of their nature from a belief of their truth: as, for instance, we have a full conception of the nature of a tragical event performed on a stage, with no belief whatsoever of the reality of the thing so represented; whilst, on the other hand, we have a full belief in such an event of history as the assassination of Cæsar in the Roman Capitol, with a very inadequate conception of the real circumstances and intrinsic horrors of such a catastrophe at the moment of perpetration.

We are rather inclined to imagine, that Mr. Erskine's view, if thoroughly sifted even by himself, would be simply this, that faith is a belief in the truth of the Gospel history, after we have come to understand its real nature and practical effects; this faith being evidenced by affections and by actions suitable to the facts and the doctrines so believed. In this definition, faith would retain its old, and we imagine its only legitimate, place in the theory of the human mind, namely, a recognition, a persuasion of truth,

binds the case to his theory, by observing, that a different thing is believed, namely, its non-application to the merchant himself; but this strikes us rather as a petitio principii.

as truth. The impression, spoken of by Mr. Erskine, would in this case rather be referred to the understanding faculty of the mind, exercised prior to belief; as the affections and the will would belong to that department of the soul which is called into action in consequence of believing. In reading the writings of the Reformers, we find sentiments like the following: " Even the philosophers tell us, that true and honourable love arises from the apprehension or knowledge of virtue: whence St. Augustin rightly says, that we can love those we have not seen, but never those whom we have not known *." Here is Mr. Erskine's "impression," or knowledge of the nature and property of the thing beloved. And Divine writ would afford us ground for establishing the same connexion between knowledge and affection: "He that loveth not, knoweth not God, for God is love." Still, however, we here seem to require another link in the chain: and that link is supplied by the Apostle to the Hebrews, when he places these three together-namely, "coming to God" or loving God; "believing in him; and " knowing" his nature or qualities:-" He that cometh to God, must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him." "I know,". says also St. Paul to Timothy, "in whom I have believed."

After all, we must conclude, as we began, by confessing the subject of faith to be in theory a very difficult one, however in practice we may all understand it, by feeling it: and may all feel it, by earnest prayer to Him whose it is to give to us, as well "to believe," as "to suffer for his sake." It is this point which we should desire to stand forward clear and explicit in the page

* "Quinetiam philosophi dicunt, verum honestumque amorem nasci ex opinione vel cognitione virtutis. Unde D. Augustinus rectè dicit, nos amare posse quos non vidimus, non autem quos non cognovimus,"―Bucer de Justificatione. 4to. 1562,

of Mr. Erskine, as he doubtless intended it should-namely, that whether it be an apprehension of the Gospel, a belief of it, or a love and practice of it, we are still equally indebted, for the possession of its blessings, to Him from whom "proceed all holy desires, all good thoughts, and all just works. He is truly "the Author," and He must be the Finisher of our faith." He must "begin the good work" in us, and "perform it until the day of Jesus Christ." He must draw our attention to view the Gospel, fix our convictions to believe it, win our affections to love it, and strengthen our purposes to obey it. There are many entrances, as Mr. Erskine strongly remarks,

"through which the Spirit introduces his powerful weapon, some of them to human reason more likely than others; but where He works, there is success; and without His influence, the most probable means fail. We only know so much concerning the nature of that influence, as may humble us, and keep us in a continual state of dependence on Divine aid. We see thus far, however, concerning the mode in which it is applied, that God works upon our minds by the operation of the truth on those natural faculties which he has bestowed on us." pp. 65, 66.

Fully subscribing to the latter truth, we cannot but heartily assent to what follows.

"The man who is continually exercising his faith in those truths which he knows, is daily becoming fitter to receive other truths: whilst the man whose affections are directed to wrong objects, is daily becoming less susceptible of impressions from right objects, and is thus becoming more and more hardened in unbelief." p. 66.

What, indeed, do we here assent to, but to the Apostolic doctrine itself: "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God which worketh in you, both to will and to do, of his good pleasure?"

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in immediate connexion with the last paragraph quoted from Mr. Erskine, is so


exquisite a delineation of different modes in the reception of the Gospel, that we cannot better conclude our remarks than by refreshing with it the eyes and hearts of our readers, after what we fear may have proved rather a heavy discussion.

"Let us suppose that an angel had been kept ignorant of the work of atonement until now, and that the Gospel were for the first time declared to him and to a hardened sinner together. Oh, what a difference would there be in their reception of it, and feelings from it! With what humble and grateful rapture would that holy being welcome and embrace this new and glorious manifestation of his Father's character! As he dwelt and fed upon it, he would sensibly grow in love, and holiness, and happiness. He would feel no difficulty, no doubt, on the subject;

he would delight in God with exceeding joy. And why would he be thus ready to receive it as soon as he heard it? Because his affections had already been exercised by, and formed upon, other manifestations of the Divine character; and though this last work excelled them in glory, yet it only carried into brighter display principles which had already been adored and loved by the heavenly hosts. The same affections with which, from his creation, he had regarded God, and which had been strengthened by continual exercise, are addressed by the Gospel; they are only called into more intense action; they are already tuned to this new song, only their pitch is lower. But what reception does the sinner give it? Let each of our hearts answer, how often, how obstinately, we have rejected it. The angel was happy before; this new discovery only makes an addition to a happiness which was already great: but we, whose lawful inheritance was eternal misery, and whose only hope of having the darkness of hell exchanged for the light of heaven, lay in this Gospel,-we hear it with carelessness and indifference, perhaps with scorn and indignation ;—and even if it has pleased God, of his abundant compassion, to force upon us some sense of its excellency, oh how indolent have we been in the enjoyment of it! how cold and forgetful in the expressions of our gratitude for it! And why does this

happen? What is the explanation of this miserable and pitiable folly? Our affections have been so habitually directed to objects different from and opposed to the character and will of God, that they

scarcely feel the attraction of their proper objects when presented to them. There is, however, no other mode of recovery for a mind in that state, than the contemplation of these proper objects. If it

feel its disease, it is prepared to receive the good tidings with joy, and to cry earnestly and importunely to Him, who can save, and will save, all who come to Him." pp. 66-68.


GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication :-Sermons and Plans of Sermons, by the late Rev. J. Benson ;-Sketches of the Philosophy of Apparitions, by Dr. Hibbert ;-Anacharsis in Scotland;-Keith's Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops, continued to the present time, by Dr. Russel;-a fourth series of Sermons in (pseudo) manuscript characters for the use of the younger Clergy, by the Rev. R. Warner, Rector of Great Chalfield, Wilts, and Author of "Illustrations historical, biographical, and miscellaneous of the Waverley Novels."

In the press:-A (third) volume of Sermons, selected from the unpublished manuscripts of the late Rev. Joseph Milner of Hull, Author of the Church History; edited by the Rev. John Fawcett of Carlisle;-Memoir of Capt. Neale, by the Rev. G. Barclay;-Meteorological Essays, by J. F. Daniell;-A reprint of the "Lime-Street Lectures."

An Act passed on the 11th July to amend certain duties of customs of Great Britain, the provisions of which will greatly meliorate many vexatious forms, and release a variety of trifling articles of import from prohibitory duties, and, among others, foreign drawings, engravings, and specimens of natural history. The schedules of duties have hitherto been drawn out only with reference to commerce, and many curious specimens and valuable discoveries have, in consequence, been lost to the scientific world from the enormous duties.


From the report of a late commission, presented to the Cortes of Spain, it appears, that, exclusive of an annual revenue paid to the Pope of 686,000 reals, every year 344,000 reals were paid for the church of St. Peter at Rome (Peter's pence), 13,020 reals for that of St. John de Late ran, and 100,000 to the Nuncio; and that annually five or six millions were sent out

of the country to obtain bulls, dispensations, indulgences, and apostolic graces. DENMARK.

The establishment of schools of mutual instruction is proceeding in Denmark with rapidity. On the 21st of August, 1822, the king first authorized the introduction of the new method, by way of trial, in eighteen schools. It it now in use in 147 schools.


There were, in 1822, on the waters of the United States, 35 steam vessels; two of them, the Washington and Ohio, exceeding 400 tons each. There were thirty others building, the tonnage of which was to amount to 5995 tons: one of them was to be of 700 tons burthen. This rapid extension of the facilities of communication has proved a great public benefit, and not least so to the benevolent missionaries in remote districts, who had occasionally been exposed to much inconvenience. INDIA, &c.

The following intelligence is given in a Calcutta journal:

"This year being the seventh year, an immense collection of natives, chiefly of that description named Nagas, assembled at Allahabad for the purpose of the septennial bathing. It was apprehended that some disturbance would have taken place; but nothing of the kind has occurred; and the fair has gone off much more quietly than is in general the case. Not a single instance of suicidal sacrifice has taken place; and it is delightful to know that the natives this year voluntarily asked for religious tracts, which they seemed very anxious to peruse. It is evident that idolatry is giving way, and falling greatly into disrepute amongst the natives themselves."

A literary, philosophical, and agricultural society was some time since formed at Ceylon. Among its first papers is a memoir, by Colonel Wright, upon the action of the quicksilver in a barometer

within the tropics, and particularly the curious fact of its periodical rising and falling twice within twenty-four hours, so regularly as almost to afford an opportunity of measuring the lapse of time by this in



The following recent memoranda respecting Otaheite will be interesting to our readers, particularly as confirming the accounts given by the missionaries.

"The Good Hope' anchored on the 25th July 1822, in the harbour of Papeite, one of the numerous and secure havens formed by the coral reefs, which almost encircle the island of Otaheite. On anchoring, although it rained heavily, we were surrounded by canoes full of the natives, who soon crowded our decks. We were struck with admiration at beholding their manly, and indeed gigantic figures, far exceeding the European standard. The chiefs, too, were particularly distinguished by their superior stature. They welcomed us with every gesture by which they could signify their kindness; in imitation of us, they now shake the hand, but joining noses was their former mode of salutation. Notwithstanding the now frequent visits that are made them, their curiosity was very great; in an instant every part of the ship was minutely inspected: even the rigging was filled with them. We were at first alarmed, as even our cabins were not held sacred; however, we soon found that we had nothing to fear, as, although every thing underwent close scrutiny, and there was every facility for pilfering with impunity, nothing was missed. On the following day we were visited by the queen regent, the present king, son of the late Pomare, famous in missionary annals, being a minor. She was attended by only four of her principal chiefs, and brought us a present of a pig, and a double-canoe laden with yams, plantains, cocoa-nuts, &c. She welcomed us to her dominions, promised us her protection, and the assistance of her subjects; and when informed of the necessity we were under of remaining some time, appointed us as a residence one of her own palaces, upwards of two hundred feet in length.

"This celebrated island has been too minutely described by the memorable Cook to require any addition; but it may be interesting to remark the great change of manners that has taken place since his time. The Missionary Society may boast of at least one point, where their benevolence has been rewarded by the conversion

of a whole people from a religion of the most barbarous and dreadful description, polluted by frequent human sacrifices, to an adoption of the mild precepts of Christianity.

"The consequent change in their moral character is most extraordinary. Cook describes them as being the most accomplished race of thieves he had ever met with; when, at present, as I have already observed, every thing belonging to us was exposed, and at the mercy of their cupidity, not the veriest trifle was taken away.

"They have now a regular code of laws, and form of trial, which is by judges (not to be fewer in number than six) chosen from their chiefs. The proceedings are very simple, and would not, I am afraid, suit any other than this primitive people. The culprit is condemned on his own confession only; but if it is ascertained that he has falsified, the odium he incurs is so great, that there has hardly been an instance in which it has been necessary to examine witnesses.

"The punishment for theft and incon tinency is, to oblige the offender to make or mend a certain proportion of the public roads. Tattooing, which is now considered an offence (and indeed is the most frequent one) is also thus punished. Trea son and murder are the only capital crimes, and are punished with death by hanging; there have been hitherto but two offenders of this description, for treason.

"The observance of the Sabbath is also enforced by law, and so strictly, that a canoe must not be launched, nor their food cooked on this day. They are constant in their attandance on Divine service twice a-day, on Sundays and Wednesdays, exclusively of prayer-meetings,&c. Besides the missionaries, they have their own ministers, who preach long extem. poraneous sermons, apparently with great effect. Their singing is very good; and wherever the residing missionary understands music, their proficiency is extraordinary, singing by notes, in a style far superior to our own general congregations.

"Their chapels are well built; the pulpits and seats are ornamented with carved work. In Eimeo, an island in sight of Otaheite, they are now finishing a chapel built of hewn coral rock, which has a beautiful appearance.

"Property may be almost styled in common, as they never refuse a request; and even the most valuable presents we could make the chiefs were frequently not

a moment in their possession, unless they had made a previous promise to preserve them for our sakes: consequently they have not such a word in the language as gratitude, nor can they express thank you.' We were at first mortified to see them receive the most esteemed gifts with perfect indifference.

"Charity is no virtue with them. I understand that the good people in England proposed establishing here an orphan soeiety, not being aware that there is not an orphan, at least a destitute orphan, on the island. On the birth of a child, three or four fathers and mothers are appointed for it (besides the natural parents), who bind themselves to support and protect it, and who are indeed ambitious to do so, as an additional number is considered an increase of consequence to the society or family into which the child is introduced. "While we were on the island, they adopted a flag (a red fly, with a star in the quarter), and by a whaler which touched at the island on her way home, intimated it to the British Government, and claimed its protection. The letter to this effect was written by the queen herself.

"The population, although greatly diminished since Cook's time, is now on the increase, in consequence of the new system, by which females are more respected, and by which marriages are encouraged, and the abolition of that horrible Erroe society described by Cook.

"The greatest failing of the islanders (one indeed common to all savage and half-civilized people) is an excessive fondness for ardent spirits; but, notwithstanding this fondness, they have had virtue enough to destroy all the stills on the island, and to prohibit the manufacture of

ava under the penalty of banishment for life. The art of distillation had been taught them by some of our countrymen, when a hollowed stone served them for a boiler, a bamboo for a worm, and a canoe for a cooler.

"Captain Cook has been an invaluable friend and benefactor to the island; and so grateful were the natives, that only on the introduction of Christianity have they ceased to adore him. Thus perhaps many a poor victim has been sacrificed to him, whose nature was so opposed to cruelty.

"The cane is now cultivated, and sugar is made by one of the missionaries. The Otaheitan cane, your readers will be aware, has been introduced into all our WestIndia islands, the Brazils, &c. and has been universally cultivated in preference to the indigenous or Creole cane, from its larger size and superior hardihood.

"Cotton and tobacco grow wild; the former is of very superior quality. A weaver has been sent out, to teach the natives the art of making cloth. Oranges, pines, papau, apples, guavas, limes, shaddocks, the pumkin, sweet potatoe, and Brazil yam, are among the numerous vegetables introduced by Bligh and Cook. Pigs and fowls are plentiful; and goats (a late introduction) have actually overrun the island.

"An interesting circumstance is, that valuable subscriptions have been made in all the Society Islands for the benefit of the [London] Missionary Society. The Westmoreland, a ship of 400 tons, was chartered by them, and nearly laden with their contributions, consisting of cocoa-nut oil, arrow-root, cotton, &c."



Discourses on the Rule of Life, with reference to Things present and Things future; by Joseph Holden Pott, A. M., &c. 8vo. 7s. 6d. boards.

Select Chapters from the Old Testament, for the Use of the Church of England Sunday Schools: with a short In troduction; by T. Bowdler, F.R.S. and S.A. 2s.

Dissertations on the Apocalypse; by A. Tilloch, LL.D. &c. 8vo. 12s. boards. Lectures on the Harmony of the Scriptures; by J. H. Cox. 1 vol. 8vo. 7s. 6d. boards.

A Sermon on the Death of Viscount Dudley and Ward; by the Rev. L. Booker, LL.D. 8vo. 1s. sewed.


The Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. Thomas Harmer, Author of Observations on various Passages of Scripture, &c.: containing his Letters and Sermons, &c. &c.; by W. Youngman. Royal 18mo. 4s. 6d. boards.

A Sermon, on the Anniversary, 1823, of the Dover and Sandwich District of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge; by the Rev. J. Maule, A. M. Is. 6d.

Meditations on the Scriptures: chiefly addressed to Young Persons; by the Rev. R. Waloud, M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. Il. 1s. boards.

The History of Moses. 3s.

Sermons for Children; by the Rev. S. Nott. 1s. 6d.

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