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fit. How many, like Satan, take delight in wicked speculations which they may have no opportunity to put in practice! Satan cannot be a glutton or a drunkard, yet he doubtless delights to behold these and all other evil works; he listens, we may imagine, with pleasure to profane oaths and exclamations; and is present at all the consultations of the wicked. Do not then those resemble him who adopt a similar line of


4. Akin to the last mentioned particular is that of endeavouring to efface religious impressions in others. This is a peculiar province of the devil; for in the explanation of the Parable of the Sower, in the Gospels, we are told," Then cometh Satan, the wicked one, and taketh away the seed which was sown in the heart, lest they should believe and be saved." So also, when Elymas the sorcerer "sought to turn away the deputy from the faith," St. Paul said to him, "Thou child of the devil." This feature of likeness continues still too common. No sooner does a person appear anxious respecting his salvation, no sooner does he begin seriously to read the word of God, and to pray for the pardon of his sins, and to take up his cross and to follow his Saviour, than one or another is found endeavouring to do away these sacred impressions: to tell the inquirer he is too young to think of religion; or that he has been too moral to need it; or that it will make him gloomy and miserable, for that its doctrines and commands are unnecessarily strict, and that he may be content to live like other men, and leave such matters for the hour of sickness, old age, or death. Thus in various ways do the servants of Satan shew their likeness to their master, by their hatred to God and godliness.

Secondly, The malignant passions constitute another striking feature of resemblance to Satan. He is a lover of strife, and the author of contention. The first action recorded of this evil spirit was one either of extreme CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 255.

envy or malice, in plotting and accomplishing the fall of the human race. Within a short time after, we find him causing jealousies and hatred in the first family of mankind, and leading on the eldest son of Adam to the crime of murder. That Satan was the instigator of this deed of darkness is plain from Scripture; for it is said, that "Cain was of that wicked one, and slew his brother Abel." The reason why he slew him, was "because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous." Thus we see how closely the malignant passions are united; how soon, for example, envy or resentment, if unrestrained by the checks of conscience and the fear of God, or at least by the dread of temporal punishment, might lead to the most dreadful acts of revenge. Truly, our Lord knew what was in man, when he coupled unprovoked anger with murder, and an unchaste look with adultery. Following the Old-Testament history, we find Satan still retaining the same character of a tempter and accuser, and "walking about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he might devour." Nor did his power or his evil disposition cease when the Lord of life and glory himself entered into the world. The envy and malice displayed by the Jews towards the Messiah sprang from, or were fomented by, his secret suggestions. Thus Christ himself says, "Ye are of your father, the devil, and the lusts of your ther ye will do: he was a murderer from the beginning," as we have seen just exemplified in the first recorded act of violence and blood.Again; that most awful deed of ingratitude, rebellion, and perfidy, the betraying of our Divine Lord, was the work of this same evil spirit; for it is said, that "Satan entered into Judas," when he "went immediately out," and began to put in execution his dreadful design. In the closing book of the New Testament, we find a similar character given to him. He was "the accuser of the brethren;" who "came X


down in great wrath, because he knew that he had but a short time;" and to his dominion and influence are attributed, in the second chapter of that book, the persecution and martyrdom of the saints of Christ. If, therefore, we allow any malignant passion to reign in our hearts; if we wilfully cherish envy, hatred, malice, or uncharitableness, however slight their degree, or plausible the excuses we may make for their indulgence; too truly must we apply to ourselves the words of our Lord, that we are the children of Satan, whose likeness is in nothing more visible than in sins of this black and debasing character.

Thirdly, There is however another class of sins, which, though less discreditable in the general estimation of the world than those just mentioned, are yet deeply heinous in the sight of God, are fraught with injury to mankind, and are fatally injurious to the welfare of the immortal soul. This class consists of those sins which spring from pride. Pride was the condemnation of the devil; and in all ages of the world, that great enemy of our souls has succeeded in drawing men into this dangerous and seductive snare. In families, in neighbourhoods, in cities, in empires, and even in the professed church of Christ, what innumerable evils spring from this bitter root! Pride may pass in current estimation for a generous virtue, a noble spirit, a dignified ambition; but in Scripture language it is one of the works of the flesh and the devil: it led the ambitious builders of Babel to attempt erecting a tower up to heaven, "that they might make themselves a name :" it caused Pharoah to harden his heart against God: it prevented Naaman's receiving his cure through the simple means appointed by Jehovah: it lifted up Uzziah to his destruction: it brought Hezekiah to a bed of pain and sickness, and Haman to an untimely end: it led David to number his people, and thus to bring upon them a devouring pestilence: it expelled Nebuchadnezzar from great Babylon, which he had built,

to eat grass like the ox: by means of it "cometh contention:" it "bringeth a man low;" for "the high ones of stature shall be hewn down, and the haughty shall be humbled." No feature of the image of Satan is more opposed to that of God than this; for God, though infinitely wise, powerful, and exalted, is not proud. "Thus saith the High and Lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy; I dwell in the high and holy place, but with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit." And accordingly our Lord pronounces a blessing upon those who resemble their Father in heaven, in this important respect; "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."

Fourthly, Another striking feature of resemblance to the image of Satan, consists in every species of deceit. For he is "the father of lies;" and our Lord says of him, that "he abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him." He uttered a falsehood, even in paradise, to Eve; he was "a lying spirit in the mouth of Ahab's prophets;" and he put it into the hearts of Ananias and Sapphira to assert a deliberate falsity to the Holy Ghost. Religious hypocrisy in particular is one species of deceit which characterises his likeness; for he well knows how to transform himself into an angel of light. He that "feareth the Lord and serveth him” must do it, as Joshua urged upon the people of Israel, "in sincerity and truth;" for "the Lord looketh not upon the outward appearance, but upon the heart:" he has pronounced,

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Cursed be the deceiver;" and has numbered the "liar" among those "who shall have their part in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone."

Fifthly, Various spiritual sins, such as presumption (to which Satan tempted Christ himself), the denial of the truth of God's holy word, and idolatry, are striking features of the image of the devil. The last, indeed, is peculiarly so; for idolatry, in all its forms, is the worship of the

1823.] Letters written during a Journey through North America.

spirit of darkness, instead of the living and true God. The heathen live most plainly within the limits of this his visible kingdom; but even too many who call themselves Christians are not far removed from it, and every ungodly man is a member of it in heart by his idolatrous preference of the world and sin to the service of the Most High.

But, not to dwell longer upon the enumeration of those features which constitute the peculiar image of Satan in the corrupt heart of man, let us apply the subject to our own cases. Whose are we, and whom do we serve? Whose image and superscription does our character bear? Are we the children of God, or the slaves of Satan? Let us judge of our true condition by the foregoing test. Are we earnestly endeavouring to mortify the above mentioned, and all other evil affections opposed to the will of God, and at variance with that moral and spiritual image of our Creator in which our forefather was formed, but which has been debased by the introduction of sin? We must not think to lay the blame of our unholy tempers or con



duct to our spiritual adversary; for
though he may suggest what is evil,
yet ours is the guilt if we fall into
He has no encouragement to
assault us, but what we give him by
our own readines to yield to his
suggestions. He is not all-wise or
all-powerful, like Him who is on
our side, and who, if we look for his
divine assistance, as we are privi-
leged to do, will lift up a standard
If we
against this our enemy.
resist the devil, he will flee from us.
It is only when we parley with his
temptations, when our own corrupt
hearts unite in league with his sug-
gestions, when we bare our bosom
as it were, to his fiery darts, that he
is suffered to obtain the victory over
Let us then oppose power
of Satan by the power of Christ: in
the hour of peril, let us look to the
Strong for strength: and let us "put
on the whole armour of God, that
we may be able to stand against the
wiles of the devil; for we wrestle
not only against flesh and blood,
but against principalities, against
powers, against the rulers of the
darkness of this world, against spi-
ritual wickedness in high places."



(Continued from p. 91.)

Richmond, Virginia, June 20, 1820. I CONCLUDED my letter this morning, because I did not wish to inflict more than two sheets upon you at once; but it did not bring me so far on my route as I intended. I however pass over a few days of my narrative, as they afforded no very peculiar occurrences. In speaking of East Tennessee, a delightful country, of which I have the most agreeable impressions, I forgot to say that the inhabitants are anticipating considerable advantage from improvements in the land commu

nication between the Tennessee and
the Black Warrior. They have also
some prospect of the completion of
two canals, which have long been
in the
projected, and
the United States, and which would
connect the waters of the Tennessee
with those of the Tombigbee and
the Alabama, and afford a passage
for the produce of East Tennessee
to Mobile and the Gulph of Mex-
ico. This would supply a great
stimulus to industry; as Mobile at
present obtains a large proportion
of her flour from New Orleans, by
way of Lake Borgne and Port Char-

-a channel of communication rendered so expensive by a heavy tonnage duty, that flour was selling X 2

at Mobile when I was there extravagantly higher than at New Orleans.

We had for some days been almost insensibly ascending the Alleghany mountains; but to the 12th we saw nothing which indicated any extraordinary elevation. On that afternoon, however, we had a very extensive, though not a particularly interesting, view; and the air was so cool, that I was glad to ride in my great coat. Our mountainride gave us an appetite before the end of our days' journey; and we stopped to take coffee at a small house on the ridge, where we were detained till it was nearly dark,— the universal custom of making and baking fresh bread for you being a sad detention to travellers, who ought never to order breakfast or tea unless they can afford to stay two hours. About nine o'clock we arrived at the bottom of one of the little valleys very common among the Alleghany mountains, and took up our abode for the night at the ferry-house on the Kanawa, a large river, which falls into the Ohio. We crossed it in a ferry-boat at half-past four o'clock the next morning (the 13th), and breakfasted at Major -'s, a fine friendly old gentleman, whom I found sitting in his neat white porch, and whose respectable appearance rendered me almost ashamed to ask if he entertained travellers; although I am now pretty well accustomed to consider neither the imposing aspect of a house, nor the sounding title of its inhabitants, whether Dr. Colonel - Judge

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Parson as any indication that they do not "keep private entertainment." The old gentleman was much interested in hearing about England, the native land of his grandfather. His wife, who made breakfast for me, was a sensible well-read gentlewoman, who might fairly pass in any society, incredible as this may seem in the wilds of America within twelve miles from the summit of the Alleghany. One

of the daughters, a nice modest girl, sat by Dr. Kingsbury, my missionary friend, who had called here on his way to Brainerd, and left the "Life of Harriet Newell," which had greatly interested all the family. Soon after breakfast we reached the top of the Alleghany, where to our surprize we found a turnpike-gate, the first we had seen for many months. The view was extensive, though disappointing as a whole: the loss of one magnificent pro-, spect, however, was far more than compensated by the succession of beautiful and interesting valleys, through which we continued to pass for several days, surrounded by ranges of lofty mountains at differ. ent distances. Soon after we began to descend, we stopped for some cold water at an attractive inn, where we found the people assiduously and cordially civil, like our honest and best kind of inn-keepers at home. They offered to fetch us some seed-water if we would wait a few minutes. The long steep descent from the top of the Alleghany rendered us very sensible of the truth of an observation I had frequently heard here, that the land on the eastern side of the range is lower than that on the western. In the course of the day, we several times crossed the winding Roanoke, which we viewed with a sort of affection, as a distant link connecting us in some degree with our native home, it being the first river discharging its waters into the Atlantic which we had seen since we left the Oakmulgee on our Alabama route in March. In the evening we passed through Salem to the house of a well-meaning awkward German, (the German houses are always recognized by their flower-gardens), intending to sleep there; but my intentions were frustrated by little assailants, who had no mercy on a tired traveller, but drove me at midnight into the porch, where I dozed a little before daybreak. I was glad to feel myself on horseback again before sun-rise (14th), though more

tired than on my arrival the preceding night. At Lock's, where we staid and breakfasted, ten miles distant, I went to bed for an hour, as the country was far too beautiful to be wasted on a sleepy traveller. We were now fairly in the valley between the North mountain and the Blue ridge; the whole of which is often indiscriminately called the Valley of the Shenandoah, although the inhabitants confine the name to that part of it which is watered by the river, and which commences a little above Staunton. With the richness of this luxuriant valley I know you are already acquainted; and of the sublimity of its mountain scenery, it would be in vain to attempt a description. Our host and his habitation were truly English; and it required no great stretch of imagination to fancy myself near Windermere.-We left Fincastle a little to our right, and proceeded to Judge- 's, to whom I had a letter of introduction from the Governor of the State of Mississippi. I found him without his coat in the middle of his corn-fields, gladdening his heart and relaxing his brows by contemplating the beneficence of nature, whose favours, or rather those of her Almighty Creator, appeared to be liberally scattered over his farm. As soon as I delivered my letter, he led me up to a large substantial brick-house, where he insisted on ordering dinner; for the family had dined. I found him a well-read reflecting old gentleman. He was engaged in studying the history of England at the period of the Revolution, and seemed to think we were now approaching an era at least as eventful. Thus you see the operations of our Radicals have penetrated even the tranquil valley of the Shenandoah, and awakened its more intelligent inhabitants to philosophical reflections on the destinies of our native land. The Judge was a little displeased that I would not stay all night; which I wished much to do, but found, on looking forward, that,

in connexion with calling at Mr. Jefferson's at a proper hour, it would cost me an entire day.

I left his house about five o'clock, and rode for some distance, surrounded by the most magnificent scenery I had seen in America; the Blue ridge with the peaks of Otter being very near. Towards night I crossed James's river, and soon after reached Captain -'s, an innkeeper still of the English school. He has 1500 acres of land in this rich valley, (300 of which are this year under wheat, rye, and Indian corn), with 200 sheep and 50 head of cattle.

Yet he took off our saddle bags, his Black servant standing by, and carried them up stairs, and shewed all the civility you would wish to receive from a common landlord of an inn. We set off early in the morning (15th), to see the celebrated natural bridge, which was only two miles out of our way, and which Mr. Jefferson considers the greatest natural curiosity in America. It is certainly a wonderful scene, and one which it is impossible fully to embrace without seeing it several times. Having surveyed it in its different aspects, I left it with reluctance; and we proceeded sixteen miles to breakfast, having previously fortified ourselves with a single cup of coffee, which we begged from a Negro at a little cottage where his party were breakfasting near the bridge. In this part of the country the houses are generally of brick, substantial and convenient; but not in good taste, or in harmony with the rural beauty of the surrounding scenery. Occasionally we heard a clock, which at first startled me, as I had not seen one since we left Georgia, and scarcely one since we set out from Washington; every thing being regulated by the sun. If you ask what time it is, it either wants so many hours of noon, or it is so much before, or so much after sun-down. Meals are regulated by the sun even in families where there is a watch, or a time-piece as it is called; and I have very often heard

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