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end, to make that candle of the Lord shine the brighter, and to open the mouth of that vicegerent of God in the soul. It is for his interest, whatever he does, to lull conscience asleep, and keep it quiet. To have that, with its eyes and mouth open in the soul, will tend to clog and hinder all his designs of darkness, and evermore to disturb his affairs, to cross his interest, and disquiet him, so that he can manage nothing to his mind without molestation. Would the devil, when he is about to establish men in sin, take such a course, in the first place, to enlighten and awaken the conscience to see the dreadfulness of sin, and make them exceedingly afraid of it, and sensible of their misery by reason of their past sins; and their great need of deliverance from their guilt ? Would he make them more careful, inquisitive, and watchful to discern what is sinful ; and to avoid future sins; and so more afraid of the devil's temptations, and more careful to guard against them ? What do those men do with their reason, that

suppose

that the spirit that operates thus, is the spirit of the devil ?

Possibly some may say, that the devil may even awaken men's consciences to deceive them, and make them think they have been the subjects of a saving work of the Spirit of God, while they are indeed still in the gall of bitterness.

But to this it may be replied, that the man who has an awakened conscience, is the least likely to be deceived of any man in the world; it is the drowsy, insensible, stupid conscience, that is most easily blinded. The more sensible conscience is in diseased soul, the less easily is it quieted without a real healing. The more sensible conscience is made of the dreadfulness of sin, and of the greatness of a man's own guilt, the less likely is he to rest in his own righteousness, or to be pacified with nothing but shadows. A man that has been thoroughly terrified with a sense of his own danger and misery, is not easily flattered and made to believe himself safe, without any good grounds.- To awaken conscience, and convince it of the evil of sin, cannot tend to establish it, but certainly tends to make way for sin and Satan's being cut out. Therefore, this is a good argument that the spirit that operates thus, cannot be the spirit of the devil ; except we suppose that Christ knew not how to argue, who told the Pharisees--who supposed that the spirit by which he wrought, was the spirit of the devilthat Satan would not cast out Satan, Matt. xii, 25, 26.- And therefore, if we see persons made sensible of the dreadful nature of sin, and of the displeasure of God against it; of their own miserable condition as they are in themselves, by reason of sin, and earnestly concerned for their eternal salvation--and sensible of their need of God's pity and help, and engaged to seek it in the use of the means that God has appointed-we may certainly conclude that it is from the Spirit of God, whatever effects

this concern has on their bodies ; though it cause them to cry out aloud, or to shriek, or to faint ; or, though it throw them into convulsions, or whatever other way the blood and spirits are moved,

The influence of the Spirit of God is yet more abundantly manifest, if persons have their hearts drawn off from the world, and weaned from the objects of their wordly lusts, and taken off from worldly pursuits, by the sense they have of the excellency of divine things, and the affection they have to those spiritual enjoyments of another world, that are promised in the gospel.

III. The spirit that operates in such a manner, as to cause in men a greater regard to the holy Scriptures, and establishes them more in their truth and divinity, is certainly the Spirit of God. This rule the apostle gives us in the 6th verse: “We are of God: he that knoweth God heareth us ; he that is not of God heareth not us : hereby know we the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.” We are of God; that is, “We the apostles, are sent forth of God, and appointed by him to teach the world, and to deliver those doctrines and instructions, which are to be their rule; he that knoweth God, heareth us,” &c.—The apostle's argument here equally reaches all that in the same sense are of God; that is, all those that God has appointed and inspired to deliver to his church its rule of faith and practice; all the prophets and apostles, whose doctrine God has made the foundation on which he has built his church, as in Eph. i. 20; in a word, all the penmen of the holy Scriptures. The devil never would attempt to beget in persons a regard to that divine word which God has given to be the great and standing rule for the direction of his church in all religious matters, and all concerns of their souls,

A spirit of delusion will not incline persons to seek direction at the mouth of God. To the law and to the testimony, is never the cry of those evil spirits that have no light in them; for it is God's own direction to discover their delusions. Isa. viii. 19, 20. “And when they shall you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter : should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead?

To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.” The devil does not say the same as Abraham did, They have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them :" nor the same that the voice from heaven did concerning Christ, “ Hear ye him." Would the spirit of error, in order to deceive men, beget in them a high opinion of the infallible rule, and incline them to think much of it, and be very conversant with it? Would the prince of darkness, in order to promote his kingdom of

in all ages.

darkness, lead men to the sun ? The devil has ever shewn a mortal spite and hatred towards that holy book the Bible: he has done all in his power to extinguish that light; and to draw men off from it: he knows it to be that light by which his kingdom of darkness is to be overthrown. He has had for many ages experience of its power to defeat his purposes, and baffle his designs : it is his constant plague. It is the main weapon which Michael uses in his war with him : it is the sword of the Spirit that pierces him and conquers him.

It is that great and strong sword, with which God punishes Leviathan,

that crooked serpent. It is that sharp sword that we read of, Rev. xix. 15. that proceeds out of the mouth of him that sat on the horse, with which he smites his enemies. Every text is a dart to torment the old serpent. He has felt the stinging smart thousands of time: therefore he is engaged against the Bible, and hates every word in it, and we may be sure that he never will attempt to raise persons' esteem of it, or affection to it. And accordingly we see it common in enthusiasts, that, they depreciate this written rule, and set up the light within or some other rule above it.

IV. Another rule to judge of spirits may be drawn from those compellations given to the opposite spirits, in the last words of the 6th verse, “The spirit of truth and the spirit of error." These words exhibit the two opposite characters of the Spirit of God, and other spirits that counterfeit his operations. And therefore, if by observing the manner of the operation of a spirit that is at work among a people, we see that it operates as a spirit of truth, leading persons to truth, convincing them of those things that are true, we may safely determine that it is a right and true spirit. For instance, if we observe that the spirit at work makes men more sensible than they used to be, that there is a God, and that he is a great and a sin-hating God; that life is short, and very uncertain ; and that there is another world ; that they have immortal souls, and must give account of themselves to God; that they are exceeding sinful by nature and practice that they are helpless in themselves : and confirms them in other things that are agreeable to some sound doctrine: the spirit that works thus, operates as a spirit of truth; he represents things as they truly are. He brings men to the light for whatever makes truth manifest is light; as the apostle Paul observes, Eph, v. 13. “But all things that are reproved, (or discovered, as it is in the margin,) are made manifest by the light; for whatsoever doth make manifest is light." And therefore we may conclude, that it is not the spirit of darkness that doth thus discover, and make manifest the truth. Christ tells us that Satan is a liar, and the father of lies; and his kingdom, is a kingdom of darkness. It is upheld and promoted only by darkness and error. Satan has all his power and dominion by darkness. Hence we read of the power of darkness, Luke xxii. 53. and Col. i. 13. And devils are called “the rulers of the darkness of this world.” Whatever spirit removes our darkness, and brings us to the light, undeceives us, and by convincing us of the truth, doth us a kindness. If I am brought to a sight of truth, and am made sensible of things as they really are, my duty is immediately to thank God for it, without standing first to inquire by what means I have such a benefit.

V. If the spirit that is at work among a people operates as a spirit of love to God and man, it is a sure sign that it is the Spirit of God. This sign the apostle insists upon from the 6th verse to the end of the chapter. “ Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God: He that loveth not, knoweth not God; for God is love," &c. Here it is evident, that the apostle is still comparing those two sorts of persons that are influenced by the opposite kinds of spirits ; and mentions love as a mark by which we may know who has the true spirit: but this is especially evident by the 12th and 13th verses. “If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfected in us: hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit. In these verses love is spoken of as if it were that wherein the very nature of the Holy Spirit consisted; or, as if divine love dwelling in us, and the Spirit of God dwelling in us, were the same thing; as it is also in the last two verses of the foregoing chapter, and in the 16th verse of this chapter. Therefore this last mark which the apostle gives of the true spirit, he seems to speak of as the most eminent; and so insists much more largely upon it, than upon all the rest ; and speaks expressly of both love to God and men ; of love to men in the 7th, Ilth, and 12th verses ; and of love to God, in the 17th, 18th, and 19th verses ; and of both together, in the last two verses ; and of love to men, as arising from love to God, in these last two verses.

Therefore, when the spirit that is at work amongst the people, tends this way, and brings many of them to high and exalting thoughts of the divine Being, and his glorious perfections: and works in them an admiring, delightful sense of the excellency of Jesus Christ; representing him as the chief among ten thousand, and altogether lovely, and makes him precious to the soul : winning and drawing the heart with those motives and incitements of love, of which the apostle speaks in that passage of scripture we are upon, viz. the wonderful,

6 And we

ver. 19.

free love of God in giving his only begotten Son to die for us,
and the wonderful dying love of Christ to us, who had no love
to him, but were his enemies ; must needs be the Spirit of God,
as ver. 9, 10. “ In this was manifested the love of God
towards us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into
the world, that we might live through him. Herein is love;
not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son
to be the propitiation for our sins." And ver. 16.
have known, and believed the love that God hath to us;" and

“ We love him because he first loved us." The spirit that excites to love on these motives, and makes the attributes of God, as revealed in the gospel, and manifested in Christ, delightful objects of contemplation; and makes the soul to long after God and Christ-after their presence and communion, acquaintance with them, and conformity to them and to live so as to please and honour them: the spirit that quells contentions among men, and gives a spirit of peace and good will, excites to acts of outward kindness, and earnest desires of the salvation of souls—and causes a delight in those that appear as the children of God, and followers of Christ; I say, when a spirit operates after this manner among a people, there is the highest kind of evidence of the influence of a true and divine spirit.

Indeed there is a counterfeit love, that often appears among those who are led by a spirit of delusion. There is commonly in the wildest enthusiasts, a kind of union and affection, arising from self-love, occasioned by their agreeing in those things wherein they greatly differ from all others, and from which they are objects of the ridicule of all the rest of mankind. This naturally will cause them so much the more to prize those peculiarities that make them the objects of others' contempt. Thus the ancient Gnostics, and the wild fanatics that appeared at the beginning of the reformation, boasted of their great love one to another, one sect of them in particular, calling themselves the family of love. But this is quite another thing than that Christian love I have just described : it is only the working of a natural self-love, and no true benevolence, any more than the union and friendship which may be among a company of pirates, that are at war with all the rest of the world. There is enough said in this passage of the nature of a truly Christian love, thoroughly to distinguish it from all such counterfeits. It is love that arises from apprehension of the wonderful riches of the free grace and sovereignty of God's love to us, in Christ Jesus ; being attended with a sense of our own utter unworthiness, as in ourselves the enemies and haters of God and Christ, and with a renunciation of all our own excellency and righteousness. See ver. 9, 10, 11, and 19. The surest character of true divine supernatural love

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VOL. III.

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