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even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped 11 upon them. Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince

of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken 12 away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And

down to the earth some of the stars, and then trampled contumeliously upon them.

even to] as far as, so as even to reach. Cf. Is. xiv. 13--14; Job xx. 6; and 2 Macc. ix. 10, 'the man (Ant. Ep.) that a little afore supposed himself to touch the stars of heaven.' The 'host of heaven' are the stars (as Deut. iv. 19, Jer. viii. 2, xxxiii. 22, and elsewhere1). Antiochus did not merely (cf. the passages quoted) touch heaven in his pride: he is represented further, with allusion to his insolent assaults upon the religion of the Jews, and to the martyrs who fell in consequence (v. 24; cf. 1 Macc. i. 24, 30, 57, 63, &c.), as audaciously attacking it, and hurling down some of the stars to the earth.

and it cast, &c.] better, R. V. and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled (v. 7) upon them. The stars are intended to symbolize the faithful Israelites: cf. Enoch xlvi. 7.

11. And even unto the prince of the host it magnified itself] it not only mounted to the stars, but in impious defiance it shewed greatness (vv. 4, 25), i.e. continued its acts of pride and presumption, even to the throne of the prince of the host, i.e. of God himself.

and it took away from him (i.e. from the prince of the host) the continual (burnt-offering)] So the Heb. text (K'tib): the Heb. marg. (Qrê) has, and by it the continual (burnt-offering) was taken away. The allusion is to Antiochus' suspension of the temple-services for three years (1 Macc. i. 45, 59, iv. 52 f.); see further on xi. 31.

The daily burnt-offering is called in Ex. xxix. 42 and elsewhere the 'continual (i.e. daily recurring) burnt-offering,' lit. 'the burnt-offering of continuance (Heb. tāmīd)': from this expression, the daily burntoffering came in later Heb. to be spoken of simply as 'the tāmīd'; and this usage is found here, and in vv. 12, 13, xi. 31, xii. II. It does not occur elsewhere in the O.T., but it is common in the Mishna, &c., where the word is even used in the plural, 'the tāmids' (¡'T’DN).

and the place of his sanctuary was cast down] or, by a change of points, which has the effect of improving the sentence, and cast down the place, &c. The Temple does not seem to have been literally 'cast down' by Antiochus: but it suffered severely at his hands: its sacred vessels were carried away (1 Macc. i. 21-23); the sanctuary is described as being laid waste like a wilderness' (v. 39), and 'trampled down (κатаπатоúμevov)' (iii. 45); and in 1 Macc. iv. 38 we read that when Judas and his brethren went up to mount Zion for the purpose of re-dedicating it, they saw the sanctuary laid desolate, and the altar profaned, and the gates burned up, and shrubs growing

1 See HOST OF HEAVEN in Hastings' Dict. of the Bible. It denotes them as a disciplined army, obedient to the commands of its leader (Is. xl. 26).

a host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised and prospered. Then I heard one saint

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in the court as in a forest or in one of the mountains, and the priests' chambers pulled down' (cf. v. 48, and they built the holy place (Tà aya), and the inner parts of the house ').

place] not the usual word, but a rarer word, chiefly poetical, and meaning properly fixed or established place, used mostly of God's abode, whether on earth, Ex. xv. 17, 1 Ki. viii. 13, or in heaven, Is. xviii. 4, I Ki. viii. 39, 43, 49, Ps. xxxiii. 14, al.

12. And a host, &c.] The first part of this verse is difficult and uncertain; but the most natural rendering is, 'And a host was appointed [or, a warfare (Is. xl. 2) was undertaken] against the continual (burnt-offering), with transgression (i.e. wickedly).' The allusion, with this rendering, will be to the violent measures adopted by Antiochus for the purpose of suppressing the sacred rites of the Jews-in particular, perhaps, to the armed garrison established by him in the city of David' with the object of overawing the worshippers, which remained there for many years (1 Macc. i. 33-38; cf. v. 51, ii. 15, 31f., iv. 41). R.V. has ‘And the host [better, with Meinhold, Keil, &c. an host]-i.e. an army of Israelites, the figure of vv. 10, 11 being kept up-was given over to it (i.e. into the power of the horn) together with the continual (burnt-offering) through transgression (i.e. on account of the apostasy of the Hellenizing Jews): this has the advantage of taking 'host,' 'give' (i.e. give up, abandon2), and 'transgression,' in the same senses as in v. 13; but the rendering together with is not here very natural.

and it cast down truth to the ground] i.e. overthrew the true religion. 'Truth' is comm nmonly used in Heb. subjectively of a moral quality; but here it denotes that which is true objectively, a body of true principles, i.e. true religion. So ix. 13, Ps. xxv. 5.

As pointed, the verb 'and it cast down' ought strictly to be construed as a future; but the rest of the description is in the past time; and probably the punctuation should be altered accordingly. The other two verbs in the verse may denote either future or past time; they must be rendered, therefore, so as to agree with the tense of 'cast down.'

and it did, and prospered] cf. v. 24. 'Did' is used in a pregnant sense, acted (viz. with effect), carried through his purpose; hence R.V. 'did (its pleasure)'. Cf. 2 Chr. xxxi. 21 ‘And in every work that he

1 A.V. and the first marg. of R. V. do not differ in general sense; but 'was appointed' (absolutely) is better than 'was given (to it). The 2nd marg, of R.V. renders (nearly as Ewald) 'was set over the continual (burnt-offering) '-viz. to lay compulsion upon it, or to suppress it-also with no difference in the general sense. For the rendering appoint (or set) see 2 Ch. xx. 22, Neh. ix. 17; and with over, 2 Ch. xxxii. 6, Neh. ix. 37.

2 In Heb. to give may mean, according to the context, either to set, place (as Gen. i. 17, and frequently), or to give over, deliver (Deut. i. 27, &c.), and abs. (though this usage is rare) to give up, abandon, Numb. xxi. 3; 1 Ki. xiv. 16; Mic. v. 3; Dan. xi. 6.

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speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the

began..., he did (i.e. acted) with all his heart, and prospered;' also the absolute use of 'do' of God, Ps. xxii. 31 and lii. 9 (there is no 'it' in the Heb.), xxxvii. 5 (lit. ‘and he will do'). Comp. ch. xi. 28, 30, 32.

13, 14. A dialogue between two angels, which is overheard by Daniel, and the object of which is evidently to inform Daniel how long the suspension of the daily sacrifices and the desecration of the Temple are to continue.

13. one saint] a holy one, i.e. an angel, as iv. 13 (where see the note). So in the next line, and another holy one. In A. V. 'saint' is used, in an application which is now obsolete, of the angels: see Deut. xxxiii. 2, Job v. 1, xv. 15, Ps. lxxxix. 5, 7, Zech. xiv. 5, Jude 14, and probably I Thess. iii. 13. But the term, as limited by modern usage, yields an incorrect sense; and hence, in all the passages quoted, except the last, 'holy one(s)' has been substituted in R.V.

speaking] What was said is not stated: but the question which follows shews that it had some reference to the vision which Daniel had just seen.

unto that certain one which spake] The indef. expression is used (cf. 1 Sam. xxi. 3; Ruth iv. 1), as the speaker could not be specified more closely.

How long (shall be) the vision? the continual (burnt-offering), and the transgression causing appalment, the giving both the sanctuary and the host (to be) trampled under foot?] The sentence (if the text is correct) is harshly constructed; but the words following 'vision' must be understood to be in apposition with that word, and to indicate the contents of the vision. The rendering of LXX. might suggest that 'taken away' had dropped out after 'continual (burnt-offering)'; at any rate, whether actually read by the translators or not, this is a correct interpretation of the sense. 'The transgression causing appalment' is the heathen worship established by Antiochus in the Temple, with special reference, perhaps (cf. xi. 31, xii. 11), to the heathen altar erected by him on the altar of burnt-offering in the Temple court, which was naturally an object of extreme abhorrence to the pious Jews (see 1 Macc. i. 47, 51, 54, 59).

causing appalment] Except in Daniel, the word used means either laid waste, desolated1 (Is. xlix. 8; Lam. i. 4, 13, 16, iii. 11), or appalled1 (2 Sam. xiii. 20): but the passive sense is unsuitable both here, and in ix. 27 (last word), xii. 11; and the active, whether causing appalment, or causing desolation, being defensible (see Ges.-Kautzsch, S$ 55, f; 52s; König, Lehrgebäude, ii. p. 106), must be adopted. Comp. ix. 27, xi. 31 (where a probable explanation of the expression is mentioned in the note), xii. 11: and the note on p. 151.

1 On the connexion between these two senses, see the note on iv. 19. In the corresponding verb, the sense to be appalled, horror-struck, is common, as Jer. ii. 12, xviii. 16, Ez. xxvi. 16, xxvii. 35 (A.V., R.V., be astonished).

daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

the giving both] The meaning both is uncommon, though instances

,(תת וקדש for תתו קדש) occur: perhaps, with a redivision of the words

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we should read his giving the sanctuary,' &c., or (Bevan, Marti) In 'since he hath given,' &c.

the host] i.e. the army, fig. of the Israelites, as in v. 10.

(to be) trampled under foot] lit. (to be) a trampling (or treading down), exactly as Is. x. 6 (cf. R.V. marg.). See vv. 10 end (where the figure is the same), II end.

14. unto me] Sept. Theod. Pesh. unto him, which is adopted by most moderns, and is probably right.

unto two thousand and three hundred evenings, mornings] i.e. successive evenings and mornings: cf. v. 26 'the vision of the evenings and the mornings.' The expression is peculiar; but it seems to have been suggested by the fact that the burnt-offering (vv. 11, 13) was offered morning and evening daily (Ex. xxix. 38-42); the meaning consequently is that this offering would cease for 2300 times, i.e. during 1150 days (so most commentators). In vii. 25 (where see the note), xii. 7, the period of persecution is to last 3 years, i.e. (if the year be reckoned at 360 days) 1260 days, or, if account be taken of the varying possibilities of the Calendar in use in the 2nd century B.C.1, 1274 or 1309 days; and, according to 1 Macc. i. 54, iv. 52, 53, the interval which actually elapsed between the erection of the heathen altar upon the altar of burnt-offering, on the 15th of Chisleu, B.C. 168, and the dedication of the new altar on the 25th of Chisleu, B.C. 165, was 3 years and 10 days (i.e. 1090, 1102-3, or 1132-3 days). The period assigned here is some months less than 3 years; it is not however identified with the entire period of the persecution, but only with that part of it during which the daily sacrifice was interrupted and the Temple desecrated. It seems therefore (cf. xii. 11) that 15 Chisleu B.C. 168 must be the terminus a quo, the end of the period assigned not agreeing precisely with the event. Cornill's supposition (pp. 22-26) that the edict of Antiochus (1 Macc. i. 44-6) is the terminus a quo, in spite of the very ingenious argument by which he seeks to shew that this edict might have been issued just 1150 days before 25 Chisleu, B.C. 165, hardly does justice to the terms of v. 13 (which lay stress on the cessation of the daily sacrifice as the beginning of the period referred to); cf. Bevan, p. 128 f.

By some commentators the expression 'evening, morning' has been understood as equivalent to day (cf. Gen. i. 5 b, 8b, &c.); and the 2300 days have been reckoned either from the time when Menelaus, in 171, purchased for himself the high-priesthood from Antiochus (see on ix. 26) to the dedication of the Temple in Dec. 165, or from the profanation

1 Cornill, Die Siebzig Jahrwochen Daniels (1889), p. 22.

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And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then behold, there 16 stood before me as the appearance of a man. And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.

of the Temple in Dec. 168 to the great victory of Judas over Nicanor at Adasa, near Beth-horon (1 Macc. vii. 43-50) on Adar 13, B.C. 162 (cf. Hävernick, Pusey, p. 219). But either of these periods seems to embrace much which is not legitimately included in the terms of the question in v. 13. And as against the second period suggested, the reference to an event some two years after the death of Antiochus is not probable.

then shall the sanctuary be justified] i.e. have justice done to it, be shewn not to have deserved desecration. "The justification of the sanctuary is the vindication of its cause, for as long as it is polluted it lies under condemnation" (Bevan).

15-27. Daniel seeks to know the meaning of the vision, which is imparted to him, as in vii. 16 ff., by an angel.

15. that I sought to understand (it), and, behold, &c.] cf. vii. 19. there was standing in front of me] appearing suddenly, some little way off (see v. 17, 'came near').

as the appearance of a man] The expression 'as the appearance of' is borrowed from Ez. (i. 13, 14, 26, 27, 28, viii. 2, x. 1, xl. 3, xlii. 11), and recurs below, x. 6, 18. The word for man (geber)—different from that in x. 18-is evidently chosen with allusion to the name 'Gabriel,' man of God' [not the word used in the common phrase, ‘man of God,' for a prophet].

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16. between Ulai] This singular expression can, it seems, mean only 'between (the banks of) Ulai (v. 2): the voice seemed to come to Daniel from above the waters of the river (cf. xii. 6, 7).

Gabriel] mentioned also in ix. 21 as explaining to Daniel Jeremiah's prophecy of the 70 years, and in Luke i. 19, 26, as foretelling the birth of John the Baptist to Zacharias, and acting as the angel of the Annunciation to Mary. Gabriel is also often mentioned in noncanonical Jewish writings. In Enoch ix. I and xx. 7, he is one of the four (or seven) principal angels or 'archangels' (see their names on x. 13); in xl. 3-7, 9, he is one of the four 'presences' (Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel; so liv. 6, lxxi. 8, 9, 13), who bless, or make intercession, or ward off the accusing 'Satans,' before God (comp. Luke i. 19, am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God"); in x. 9 he is commissioned to destroy the wicked giants. Gabriel is also mentioned not unfrequently in the later (post-Christian) Jewish literature (Weber, System der altsynag. Theologie, pp. 162, 163-4, 167-8, 366): so, for instance, in the Targ. of Pseudo-Jon. on Gen. xxxvii. 15, he is the 'man' who shews Joseph the way to his brethren, and in the Targ. on Job xxv. 2 he is said to stand on God's left hand, while Michael is at His right. See, further, on x. 13.

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