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eight miles, and sunk after the proportion of five foot and a half every mile, by the advantage only of a high source, and the low situation of Rome. Palæstrina stands very high, like most other towns in Italy, for the advantage of the cool breezes, for which reason Virgil calls it Altum, and Horace, Frigidum Præneste. Statius calls it Præneste Sacrum, because of the famous temple of Fortune that stood in it. There are still great pillars of granite, and other fragments of this ancient temple. But the most considerable remnant of it is, a very beautiful mosaic pavement, the finest I have ever seen in marble. The parts are so well joined together, that the whole piece looks like a continued picture. There are in it the figures of a rhinoceros, of elephants, and of several other animals, with little landscapes, which look very lively and well painted, though they are made out of the natural colours and shadows of the marble. I do not remember ever to have met with an old Roman mosaic, composed of little pieces of clay half vitrified, and prepared at the glass-houses, which the Italians call smalt. These are much in use at present, and may

be made of what colour and figure the workman pleases, which is a modern improvement of the art, and enables those who are employed in it to make much finer pieces of mosaic than they did formerly.

In our excursion to Albano we went as far as Nemi, that takes its name from the Nemus Dianæ. The whole country thereabouts is still overrun with woods and thickets. The lake of Nemi lies in a very deep bottom, so surrounded on all sides with mountains and groves, that the surface of it is never ruffled with the least breath of wind, which, perhaps, together with the clearness of its waters, gave it formerly the name of Diana's looking-glass.

-Speculumque Diana. Prince Cæsarini has a palace at Jensano, very near Nemi, in a pleasant situation, and set off with ciany


beautiful walks. In our return from Jensano to Albano we passed through La Ricca, the Aricia of the ancients, Horace's first stage from Rome to Brundisi. There is nothing at Albano so remarkable as the prospect from the Capuchin's garden, which for the extent and variety of pleasing incidents is, I think, the most delightful one that I ever saw. It takes in the whole Campania, and terminates in a full view of the Mediterranean. You have a sight at the same time, of the Alban lake, which lies just by in an oval figure of about seven miles round, and, by reason of the continued circuit of high mountains that encompass it, looks like the area of some vast amphitheatre. This, together with the several green hills and naked rocks within the neighbourhood makes the most agreeable confusion imaginable. Albano keeps up its credit still for wine, which perhaps would be as good as it was anciently, did they preserve it to as great an age; but as for olives there are now very few here, though they are in great plenty at Tivoli.

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Cras bibet Albanis aliquid de montibus aut de
Setinis, cujus patriam titulumque senectus
Delevit multâ veteris fuligine testæ.

Idem. Sat. 5.
Perhaps to-morrow he may change his wine,
And drink old sparkling Alban, or Setine,
Whose title, and whose age, with mould o'ergrown,
The good old cask for ever keeps unknown. BOWLES.

-Palladiæ seu collibus uteris Albæ. Mar. lib. 5. ep. 1.

-Olivæ. Idem, lib. I. ep. 16.

The places mentioned in this chapter were all of them formerly the cool retirements of the Romans, where they used to hide themselves among the woods and mountains, during the excessive heats of their summer; as Baja was the general winter rendezvous.

Jam terras volucremque polum fuga veris aquosi
Laxat, et Icariis cælum latratibus urit.

Ardua jam densæ rarescunt mænia Romæ :
Hos Præneste sacrum, nemus hos glaciale Dianæ,
Algidus aut horrens aut Tusculu protegit umbra,
Tiburis hi lucos, Anienaque frigora captant.

SIL. 4. 1.
Albanos quoque Tusculosque colles
Et quodcunque jacet sub urbe frigus.
Fidenas veteres, brevesque Rubras,
Et quod Virgineo cruore gaudet
Annæ pomiferum nemus Perennæ.

Mar. lib. e. 23.

All shun the raging dog-star's sultry heat,
And from the half-unpeopled town retreat;
Some hid in Nemi's gloomy forests lie,
To Palestrina some for shelter fly,
Others to catch the breeze of breathing air,
To Tusculum or Algido repair;
Or in moist Tivoli's retirements-find

A cooling shade and a refreshing wind. On the contrary, at present, Rome is never fuller of nobility than in summer time; for the country towns are so infested with unwholesome vapors, that they dare not trust themselves in them while the heats last. There is no question but the air of the Campania would be now as healthful as it was formerly, were there as many fires burning in it, and as many inhabitants to manure the soil. Leaving Rome about the latter end of October, in my way to Sienna, I lay the first night at a little village in the territories of the ancient Veii.

Hæc tum nomina erant; nunc sunt sine nomine Campi. The ruins of their capital city are at present so far lost, that the geographers are not able to determine exactly the place where they once stood: so, literally, is that noble prophecy of Lucan fulfilled, of this and other places of Latium.

-Gentes Mars iste futuras
Obruet, et populos ævi venientis in orbem
Erepto natale, feret, tunc omne Latinum
Fabula nomen erit: Gabios, Veiosque, Coramique,
Puivere vix tectæ poterunt monstrare ruinæ,
Alhanosque lares, Laurentinosque penates
Rus vacuum, quod non habitet nisi nocte coacta

Lib. 7.

Succeeding nations by the sword shall die,
And swallow'd up in dark oblivion lie:
Almighty Latium, with her cities crown'd,
Shall like an antiquated fable sound;
The Veïan and the Gabian tow'rs shall fall,
And one promiscuous ruin cover all,
Nor, after length of years, a stone betray
The place where once the very ruins lay:
High Alba's walls, and the Lavinian strand,
(A lonely desert, and an empty land)
Shall scarce afford, for needful hours of rest,

A single house to their benighted guest.
We here saw the lake Bacca, that gives rise to the
Cremera, on whose banks the Fabii were slain.

Tercentum numerabat avos, quos turbine Martis,
Abstulit 'una dies, cùm fors non æqua lubori
Patricio Creneræ maculavit sanguine ripas. Sil. It. lib. 1.
Fabius a num'rous ancestry could tell,
Three hundred heroes that in battle fell,
Near the fam'd Cremera's disast'rous flood,

That ran polluted with Patrician blood. We saw afterwards, in the progress of our voyage, the lakes of Vico and Bolsena. The last is reckoned one and twenty miles in the circuit

, and is plentifully stocked with fish and fowl. There are in it a couple of islands, that are perhaps the two floating isles mentioned by Pliny, with that improbable circumstance of their appearing sometimes like a circle, sometimes like a triangle, but never like a quadrangle. It is easy enough to conceive how they might become fixed, though they once floated; and it is not very credible, that the naturalist could be deceived in his account of a place that lay, as it were, in the neighbourhood of Rome. At one end of this lake stands Montefiascone, the habitation of Virgil's Æqui Falisci, Æn. 7. and on the side of it the town of the Volsinians, now called Bolsena.

Aut positis nemorosa inter juga l'oisiniis. Juv. Sat. 3.

Volsinium stood
Cover'd with mountains, and inclosed with wood.

I saw in the church-yard of Bolsena an antique funeral monument (of that kind which they called a sarcophagus) very entire, and what is particular, engraven on all sides with a curious representation of a bacchanal. Had the inhabitants observed a couple of lewd figures at one end of it, they would not have thought it a proper ornament for the place where it now stands. After having travelled hence to Aquapendente, that stands in a wonderful pleasant situation, we came to the little brook which separates the pope's dominions from the great duke's.

The frontier castle of Radicofani is seated on the highest mountain in the country, and is as well fortified as the situation of the place will permit. We here found the natural face of the country quite changed from what we had been entertained with in the pope's dominions; for, instead of the many beautiful scenes of green mountains and fruitful valleys, that we had been presented with for some days before, we saw nothing but a wild, naked prospect of rocks and hills, worn on all sides with gutters and channels, and not a tree or shrub to be met with in a vast circuit of several miles. This savage prospect put me in mind of the Italian proverb, that “The pope has the flesh, and the great duke the bones of Italy.' Among a large extent of these barren mountains I saw but a single spot that was cultivated, on which there stood a convent.


Sienna stands high, and is adorned with a great many towers of brick, which, in the time of the commonwealth, were erected to such of the members as had done any considerable service to their country. These towers gave us a sight of the town a great while before we entered it. There is nothing in this city so extraordinary as the cathedral, which a man may.view

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