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19. And next to them, simple stances, not to change the

20. The most doubtful, are 20. The cause of this abuse,
the names of very com-

a supposition of nature's
pounded mixed modes and

working always regularly.

21. This abuse contains two
21. Why this imperfection false suppositions.
charged upon words.

22. Sixthly, a supposition that
22, 23. This should teach us mo-

words have a certain and
deration in imposing our

evident signification.
own sense of old authors.

23. The ends of language:

first, to convey our ideas.

24. Secondly, to do it with

Of the abuse of words.

25. Thirdly, therewith to

convey the knowledge of



1. Abuse of words.

26–31. How men's words fail in

2, 3. First, words without any,

all these.

or without clear ideas.

32. How in substances.

4. Occasioned by learning 33. How in modes and rela-

names, before the ideas


they belong to.

34. Seventhly, figurative

5. Secondly, are steady appli- speech also an abuse of

cation of them.


6. Thirdly, affected obscu-

rity, by wrong applica-



7. Logic and dispute have of the remedies of the foregoing
much contributed to this.

imperfections and abuses.

8. Calling it subtilty.

9. This learning very little SECT.

benefits society.

1. They are worth seeking.

10. But destroys the instru-

2. Are not easy.

ments of knowledge and 3. But yet necessary to phi-



11. As useful as to confound 4. Misuse of words, the cause

the sound of the letters.

of great errours.

12. This art has perplexed re- 5. Obstinacy.

ligion and justice.

6. And wrangling

13. And ought not to pass for 7. Instance, bat and bird.


8. First remedy, to use no

14. Fourthly, taking them for

word without an idea.


9. Secondly, to have distinct

15. Instance in matter.

ideas annexed to them in

16. This makes errours lasting.


17. Fifthly, setting them for 10. And distinct and

what they cannot signify.

formable in substances.

18. V. g. putting them for the 11. Thirdly, propriety.

real essences

of substances. 12. Fourthly, to make known

19. Hence we

their meaning

change of our ideas in sub- 13. And that three


think every


ideas agree with things.

17. Of spirits yet narrower. 4. As, first, all simple ideas

18. Thirdly, of other rela-


tions, it is not easy to say

5. Secondly, all complex
how far. Morality capa- ideas, except of substances.
ble of demonstration.

6. Hence the reality of ma-

19. Two things have made thematical knowledge.

moral ideas thought in- 7. And of moral.

capable of demonstration. 8. Existence not required to

Their complexedness and

make it real.

want of sensible represen-

9. Nor will it be less true,

or certain, because moral

20. Remedies of those difficul-

ideas are of our own mak-


ing and naming

21. Fourthly, of real exist- 10. Mis-naming disturbs not
ence; we have an intui,

the certainty of the know-

tive knowledge of our ledge.

own, demonstrative of 11. Ideas of substances have

God's, sensitive of some their archetypes without

few other things.

22. Our ignorance great.

12. So far as they agree with

23. First, one cause of it, want

these, so far, our know-

of ideas, either such as we ledge concerning them is

have no conception of, or



13. In our inquiries about sub- 2. General truths hardly to
stances, we must consider

be understood, but in ver-

ideas, and not confine our bal propositions.

thoughts to names,

3. Certainty two-fold, of

species supposed set out truth, and of knowledge.

by names.

4. No proposition can be

14, 15. Objection againstachange- known to be true, where

ling being something be- the essence of each species
tween man and beast an-

mentioned, is not known.


5. This more particularly

16. Monsters.

concerns substances.

17. Words and species.

6. The truth of few universal

18. Recapitulation.

propositions concerning

substances, is to be known.


7. Because, co-existence of

ideas in few cases is to be

Of truth in general.



8, 9. Instance in gold.

1. What truth is.

10. As far as any such co-ex-

2. A right joining, or sepa- istence can be known, so
rating of signs, i. e. ideas

far universal propositions

of words.

may be certain. But this

3. Which make mental, or



but a little way,

verbal propositions.


4. Mental propositions are 11, 12. The qualities, which make


hard to be treated of.

our complex ideas of sub-

5. Being nothing but joining, stances, depend mostly on

or separating ideas, with- external, remote, and un-
out words.

perceived causes.
6. When mental propositions 13. Judgment may reach far-
contain real truth, and

ther, but that is not know-

when verbal.


7. Objection against verbal 14. What is requisite for our

truth, that thus it



knowledge of substances.

all chimerical.

15. Whilst our ideas of sub-

8. Answered, real truth is

stances contain not their

about ideas agreeing to real constitutions, we can


make but few general,

9. Falsehood is the joining of certain propositions con-

names, otherwise


cerning them.

their ideas agree.

16. Wherein lies the general

10. General propositions to be certainty of propositions.

treated of more at large.

11. Moral and metaphysical



truth and certainty.


1. Treating of words, neces-

sary to knowledge.

1. They are self-evident.

2. Wherein that self-evidence


3. Self-evidence not peculiar

to received axioms.

any term.



1. We are capable of know-

ing certainly that there is

a God.


Of trifling propositions.


1. Some propositions bring

no increase to our know-


2, 3. As, first, identical propo-


4. Secondly, when a part of

any complex idea is pre-

dicated of the whole.

5. As part of the definition

of the term defined.

6. Instance, man and palfry.

2. Man knows that he hit-

self is.

3. He knows also, that no-

thing cannot produce a

being, therefore something


4. That eternal being must

be most powerful.

5. And most knowing.

6. And therefore God.

7. Our idea of a most perfect

being, not the sole proof

of a God.

8. Something from eternity.

9. Two sorts of beings, co-

gitative and incogitative.

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