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stating the several causes of that heretical kind of pilgrimage in the Holy Land, which he describes(x) as "prophane, vicious and detestable," certainly enumerates many of the motives which induced the author to visit that country, and therefore classes him among the "Nonnullos Nebulones occidentales Hæreticos," whose remarks he had heard with so much indignation. (y) But in doing this he places him in company which he is proud 10 keep-among men who do not believe themselves one jot nearer to salvation by their approximation to Mount Calvary, nor by all the indulgences, beads, rosaries, and crucifixes, manufactured and sold by the jobbers of Jerusalem-among men, who, in an age when feelings and opinions upon such subjects were manifestly different from those now maintained, with great humbleness of spirit and matchless simplicity of language, “expected remission of sin, no other ways, but only in the name, and for the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ;" who undertook their pilgrimage,“ not to get any thing by it as by a good work; nor to visit stone and wood to obtain indulgence; nor with opinion to come nearer to Christ," by visiting Jerusalem, because all these things are directly contrary to Scripture ;" but to increase the general stock of usefal knowledge," to " afford the reader both profit and pleasure ; that those who have no opportunity to visit foreign countries, may have them before their eyes, as in a map, to eontemplate; that others may be excited further to inquire into these things, and induced to travel themselves into those parts ;" that they may be " instructed in the costoms, laws, and orders of men," that the presept state, condition, situation and manners of the world, may concerning the Holy Land, have not perhaps remarked the extent of the confusion prevailing in the topographical descriptions of Jerusalem: probably, because they baye mt compared those writioga with any general plan of the city. To give a single exam. ple, almost every traveller, from the time of Brocardus to that of Mons, De Chateaubri. nd, meptions the Mountain of fence," where Solomon sacrificed to strange gods. A0. cording to Brocardus and to Adrichomius, this mountain is the northern point of the Mnant af Ollvea, ( vid. Brocard. {tin. 6. Adricom, Theat, Terr. Sanot. p. 171, Color, 1998.) and therefora to the east or portheast of Jerusalera, Maundrell, (p. 102. Jowke. from Bleg. to verus. Oxf 1721,) and also Pococke, (Descrip. of the East, pian facing 2 pol, ji. 1745.) make it the southern point, Sandys (Trav, p. IBG. Lord, 1637 places this mountain to the south west of the city,

(7) Quaresmius, De erterna profana, red detestabili ne vitiosa Peregrinatione," Vid Elucidatio Terrus Sanctaa, lib, 1i. c. 84, Anto: 1639, ly hid bih osa, 19.

be surveyed and described ; not by transcribing what others have written,” but by fairly stating what “ they have themselves seen, experienced, and handled,” so that “their pains and diligence be not altogether vain.'

Such were the motives, and such was the language, of a traveller in the Holy Land, so long ago as the middle of the sixteenth century ;(s) who, with the liberal spirit of an enlightened and pious protestant, thus ventured to express his sentiments, when the bonfires for burning heretics were as yet hardly extinguished in this country. Writing five-and-thirty years before Sandys began his journey,(a)and two centuries and a half before Mons. De Chateaubriand published his entertaining narrative, he offers an example singularly contrasted with the French author's legendary detail ;(b) wherein the chivalrous (c) and bigotted spirit of the eleventh century seems singularly associated with the taste, the genius, and the literature of the nineteenth.

P.S. The only plants mentioned in the notes, are those which have never been described by any preceding writer. Not less than sixty new-discovered species will be found added to the science of Botany, in this and the subsequent section of Part the Second.

(8) See the Travels of Leonhart Rauwolff, a German physician, as published by Ray, in 1693. The words included by inverted commas, are literally taken from Ray's translation of that work. (See the Epist. to Widtholtz, Christel, and Bemer. Also Trav. part 3. chap. iv. p. 290.) Rauwolf was at Jerusalem in 1575. (See chap. viii. p. 315.) The religious opinions he professed, and his disregard of indulgencies, roused the indignation of the monks, particularly of the learned Quaresmius, a Franciscan friar, who wrote a most elaborate description of the Holy Land, already cited. This was published at Antwerp in 1639, in two large folio volumes, with plates. Referring to the passages here introduced from Rauwolff's book, Quaresmius exclaims, “Quid amplius Rauchwolfiu8 ? Ecce in ipso Monte Sion derepente in Prædicantem transformatus concionari cæpit, et ne tam ipsigpem, concionem ignoraremus literis eam mandavit quam ex Germanico idiomate in Latinum transtulit P. Gretserus, ut ad exteros quoque redundet, sed ne obstat, illain etiam rejicit. Audiamus........ Atqui, o prædicantice Medice! recte profecto dicis ; nihil penitus peregrinatione tua, aut impetrasti, aut meritus es !" Quaresmii. Elucid. Terr. Sanct. lib. iii. cap. 34, tom. I. p.

(a) Sandys began his journey in 1610.

(b) “ Here," says Mons. De Chateaubriand," I saw, on the right, the place where dwelt the indigent Lazarus ; and on the opposite side of the street, the residence of the obdurate rich man." Afterward he proceeds to state, that St. Chrysostom, St. Ambrose, and St. Cyril, bave looked upon the history of Lazarus and the rich man as not merely a parable, but a real and well-known fact. * The Jews tbemselves," says he," have preserved the name of the rich man, whom they call Naba!."-(See T'ravels in Greece, Palæstine, &c. vol. II. pp. 26, 27. Lond. 1811.) Moos. De Chateaubriand does not seem to be aware, that Nabal is an appellation used by the Jews to denote any covetous person.

(c) See the interesting description given by Mons. De Chateaubriand of the monkish ceremony which conferred upon him the order of " a knight of the Holy Seputchre." Ibid. pp. 176, 177.

836,

Antv, 1639.

CLARKE'S TRAVELS.

CHAP. I.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

Similarity of the ancient and modern City-Imperial Armoury

-Vase of the Bysantine Emperors- Description of the four principal Sultanas-Interior of the Seraglio--Sultan's Kiosk -CHAREM, or Apartments of the Women-Chamber of Audience-Assembly room-Baths--Chamber of Repose-saloon of the CHAREM~Garden of Hyacinths-Upper Walks of the Seraglio.

THERE are many interesting sources of reflection, in the present appearance of Constantinople, unnoticed by any author. To these my attention was early directed, and will be principally confined. The reader would not be much gratified by an elaborate detail, or even an abridgment of the volumes which have been written upon this remarkable city, sufficient alone to constitute a library. Historically considered, the period in which the eastern metropolis of the Roman empire ceased to exist as a seat of letters and refinement, seems, from the fulness and freshness of intelligence, to be almost within our recollection. The discovery of printing, taking place at the same precise period, brought with it such a tide of information, that, in the very instant when literature appeared upon the eve of expiring, science and philosophy beamed a brighter and more steady light. Thus, in the fourth century, which has elapsed since its capture by the Turks, we are carried back to the circumstances of their conquest, as though we had been actually witnesses of the victory. The eloquence and testimony of Isidore forcibly direct our attention to the scene of action : description is transmitted in all its original energy; and, in the perusal of the narrative, we feel as spectators of the catastrophe.*

* The description given by Cardinal Isidore, who was an eye witness of the horrible scene which ensued at the capture of Constantipopie by the Turkish army, af,

B

But, although time has had such inconsiderable influence in weakening impressions of this kind, it is believed the case would be far otherwise, viewing the spot memorable for those transactions. The literary traveller, visiting Constantinople, expects to behold but faiot vestiges of the imperial city, and believes he shall find little to remind him of “the everlasting foundations” of the master of the Roman world.

The opipiou, however, may be as erroneous as that upon which it was founded. After the imagination has been dazzled with pompous and glaring descriptions of palaces and baths, porticoes and temples, groves, circuses, and gardens, the plain matter of fact may prove, that in the obscure and dirty lanes of Constantinople ;* its small and unglazed shops; the style of architecture observed in the dwellings ; the long covered walks, now serving as bazars ;t the loose flowing habits with long sleeves worn by the natives ;I even in the practice of concealing the features of the women :// aud, above all, in the remarkable ceremonies and observances of the public baths; we behold those customs and appearances which characterized the cities of the Greeks. Such, at least, as far as ioanimate objects are concerned, is the picture presented by the interesting ruins of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiæ. With regard to the costume of its inhabitants, we fords a striking example. The art of printing has been scarcely adequate to its preservation; and without it, every syllable had perished. It is only rescued by a very rare work of Bernard de Breydenback, of Mayence ; printed in the black letter at Spire, in 1490, by Peter Drach; and since copied into a volume of Tracts, published at Basil in 1556. This document seems to have escaped pot only the researches of Gibbon, but of every other author wbo has written upon the subject of the siege.

* Athens itself was not very unlike Constantinople in its present state, if we may credit the statisticat testimony of Dicæarchus, who mentions the irregularity of the streets, and the poverty and meanness of the houses.— Vide Stut. Græciæ Geogr. Minor. Hudsoni.

| Bazar is the appellation used to signify a market, all over the east.

| Herodotus, speaking of the Persians, mentions their garments with long sleeves : and we learn from Xenophon, that Cyrus ordered two persons to be put to death, who appeared in his presence with their bands uncovered.

“ Dicæarchus, describing the dress of the women of Thebes, says, that their eyes only are seen; the other parts of their faces are covered by their garments. Βίος "Ελλαδος. . WVulpole's MS. Journal.

$". The city of Constantinople, in its actual state, presents some of those monuments and works of art, which adorned it at the end of the fourteenth century. They are alluded to in one of the epistles of Manuel Chrysoloras; from which I have extracted the three following passages. In the first we have the very form of

!! omit,' says he,' the covered and inclosed walks, formerly seen traversing the whole city, in such a manner that you might pass thro' it without being inconvenienced by the mud, or rays of the sun.' 'Ew di OXETTO.C TOUS xai opaxtous spóuous did πάσης ποτέ της πόλεως δεικνυμένους, ώστε εξείναι άνευ πηλού και ακτινος πάσαν διιέναι. In the second, he mentions the cisterns, which are still to be seen, supported by grapite columns and warble pillars. They were built by Constantine and Philoxen's.

the modern bazár.

have only to view the dresses worn by Greeks themselves, as they are frequently represented upon the gems and coins of the country, as well as those used in much earlier ages. There is every reason to believe, that the Turks themselves, at the conqnest of Constantinople, adopted many of the customs, and embraced the refinements of a people they had subdued. Their former habits had been those of Nomade tribes; their dwellings were principally tents; and the camp, rather than the city, distinguished their abode. Hence it followed, that with the houses, the furniture, and even the garb of the Greeks would necessarily be associated; neither do the divans of Turkish apartments differ from those luxurious couches on which the Greeks and Romans were wont to repose. At Hie capture of Constantinople, a certain portiou of the city was still retained in undisturbed possession by those Grecian families whose services to the conqueror obtained for them privileges which their descendants enjoy even at this hour;t yet, in their domestic habits, and in all things, except their religious ceremonies, there is nothing which distinguishes them from their fellow citizens the Turks. The temples of the citizens, we further know, were appropriated to the new religion. I The sumptuous haths of the vanquished were not less prized by the victors. Few, if any, of the public buildings were destroyed; and, from the characteristic disposition of oriental nations to preserve things as they are, we may reasoilably conclude, with the exception of those edifices which have yielded to the attacks of time, of earthquakes, and of fire, Constantinople presents one at least of the cities of the ancients, almost unaltered. Passing thence into Asia, the tra+ 1 omit also the number of pillars and arches in the cisterns.' Και το πλήθος των εν αύταις κιόνων και αψίδων. . Io the next, the baths are described, which appear to bare heen as numerous then in Constantinople, as now. But why should I speak concerning the baths; the number of which, mere 1 to relate it, would be incredible ? Τί δε περί λουτρών αν λέγοιμι' ών το ιστορούμενον εν αυτή γενέσθαι πλήθος απιστείται και ;" Talpole's Ms. Journal

* The dress worn by the popes of Rome upon solemn occasions, corresponds with the habits of the Roman emperors in the lower ages : and from a representation of the portrait of Manuel Palæologus, as taken from an antient manuscript, and preserved in Bandurius, ( Vid. Imperium Orientale, tom. ii. p. 991. ed. Par. 1711.) it appears that there is little difference between the costume of a Greek emperor in the fifteenth century, and a grand signior in the ninteenth.-The mark of distinction worn upon the head of the Turkish sultans, and other grandees of the empire, of which the calathus was an archetype, is also another remarkable circumstance in the identity of ancient and modern customs.

+ They live in a part of the city which, from its proximity to the lighthouse, goes by the name of phanar

1 0f which the church of St. Sophia is a particular instance: and it may be added, that the crescent which blazons the Turkish banner, is the most antient symbol of By zaptium, as appears by the medals of the city,

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