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About one hundred and fifty yards below the source, is a hot spring, close to the bed of the river, exactly of the same temperature as those before described at Bonarbáshy. We returned from this expedition to Evgillar; and leaving the village, went again to Kûchûnlû Têpe, to complete our survey of the ruins there. We were told that the pacha of the Dardanelles had built a mosque, the tomb of a dervish, a bridge of three inches, and all the new works at Beyramitch, with marbles and other materials from this place. As we passed through this last town, a Turk offered me a sardonyx for sale, exhibiting three distinct layers of brown and of white chalcedony upon the upper layer was an intaglio, representing the well-known figure of Mercury with the purse; a subject extremly common to gems found in Constantinople.* It was well executed, but the price exorbitant, therefore I declined the purchase. We here visited the intendant of the agha, and travelled the same day as far as Turkmanlé, where we passed another night with the hospitable owner of the mansion who entertained us so well upon a former occasion.

From Turkmanlé we returned by the way of Æné; and thence, intending to visit Alexandria Troas, took the road to Bergas, distant two hours from Ené, where we halted for the night. By the public fountains along this route, and wheresoever stone has been used, may be seen the capitals or shafts of columns, and other fragments from ancient ruins. The next

ANEMONE seapo aphyllo, foliis crassis profundissime tripartitis subrotundis laciniis fixbelliformibus subtrilobis acute dentutis: folio superiore tripartito, laciniis bis trifidis angustis: involucro tripartito laciniis lanceolatis inferiori unidentato: petalis latoovatis majusculis. We also observed upon this mountain the anemone apennina, lachen articulatus, fragaria sterilis, crocus aureus, and crocus vernus. At the source of the Scamander grew thlaspi montanum, "mountain shepherds purse;" origanem onites, woolly-leaved marjoram;" fumaria bulbosa, "bulbous fumatory:" anemone coronaria, the narrow-leaved garden anemone;" asplenium ceterach, common spleenwort:" and a beautiful species of ruscus, a shrub, hitherto unnoticed by any author, with leaves broader and more oval than those of the broad-leaved Alexandrian laurel, and the fructification covered by an oval leaflet, as in the ruscus hypoglossum. To this we have given the name of RUSCUS TROADENSIS.-Ruscus foliis lanceolato-ovalibus, supra floriferis. sub foliole. The leaves are about two inches broad, and from three to three and a half in length: the lowermost grow in whorls, the uppermost alternate: the leaflet covering the fructification is nearly half an inch broad, and about three fourths of an inch long: the fruit of the size of a small cherry. We did not see the flowers.

Immediately above the source grew alyssum deltoideum. "Purple blossomed alys


The peculiar locality of certain mythological subjects, as represented upon the gems of ancient Greece, has not, I believe, been noticed; yet they are almost as loeal as the medals of the country. Figures and symbols of Ceres are found in Cyprus; in Athens, the triple bust of Socrates, Alcibiades, and the Sicilian physician Raucondas; in Constantinople, representations of a crescent with one or three stars, of Mercury with the purse, heads or whole lengths of Esculapius, Apollo with the chariot of the sun; in Alexandria and other parts of Egypt, Scarabæi, with various hieroglyphic figures, &c.

* Πύργος,

morning, March the 14th, we passed through Chemalé, distant one hour from Bergas. Chemalé is full of antiquities.* In the cemetery I copied several inscriptions; too imperfect for insertion. Some granite columns were lying about, whose surfaces exhibited a very advanced state of decomposition. We had observed similar appearances at Ené; proving that the granite had been exposed to the action of the atmosphere during a very long period; and also serving to confirm a fact of some importance; namely, that the durability of substances employed for purposes of sculpture and architecture, is not proportioned to their hardness. Marble, much softer than granite, is capable of resisting longer the combined attacks of air and moisture. The cause of decomposition in granite columns cannot have originated in their interment; since nothing tends more to preserve granite than exclusion from external air. Of this we had satisfactory evidence, when our troops in Egypt subverted the cumbent obelisk near Alexandria. The hieroglyphical sculpture, upon the side which had been buried in the soil, appeared in the highest state of preservation; but the surface, so long exposed to the atmosphere, was considerably decomposed. Of all natural substances used by ancient artists, Parian marble, when without veins, and therefore free from extraneous bodies, seems to have best resisted the various attacks made upon the Grecian sculpture. It is found unaltered, when granite, and even porphyry, coëval as to their artificial state, have suffered decomposition. Terra cotta is more durable than marble. Works executed in baked clay have been preserved during a period of near three thousand years, as fresh as when they issued from the hands of the artificer; neither can any nation, desirous of transmitting a lasting memorial to posterity, employ a material better suited to the purpose than the plastic compound from the wheel of an ordinary potter.

After leaving Chemalé, in the road leading to a place called Lydia Hamam, distant about three quarters of an hour, our Greek servant who was before us ou horseback, and wandered into some underwood, returned suddenly, laughing immoderately, and saying, "As you are pleased with the sight of columns, here is one large enough to gratify your most sanguine expec tations." He then led us a short distance from the road, where, concealed among some trees, lay the largest granite pillar in the world, excepting the famous column of Alexandria in

Dr. Chandler believed this place to have been the Colond of the ancients. Ses "Travels in Asia Minor," p. 34.

It is of the same sub

Egypt; and this it much resembles. stance, and has the same form; its astonishing length equalled thirty-seven feet eight inches, and, without base or capital, its shaft was five feet three inches in diameter; of one entire stone.* It may, perhaps, serve to throw some light upon the origin of the Egyptian pillar: this I have always supposed of much more ancient date than the time of the Roman emperor whose name is inscribed thereon, and who added perhaps its present capital. The situation of the present pillar is upon a hill above Alexandria Troas. A paved road led from the city, to the place where it either stood, or was to have been erected. We have therefore the instances of two cities, both built by generals of Alexander the Great, in consequence of his orders; and each city having a pillar of this kind, in a conspicuous situation, upon an eminence, on the outside of its walls. These pillars may have served to support statues in honour of the founder of those cities. That such a custom existed among the ancients, in later ages, is proved by the appearance of the capital added by the Romans to the Alexandrian column; for on the top of this, the foot of a statue still remains. It may therefore be reasonably concluded, that they were intended to support statues of Alexander; surveying, from their colossal heights, the scenes of his conquest, and the cities of his pride.

The hot baths, called Lydia Hamam, have been so ably described by Dr. Chandler,† that it is not necessary to detain the reader with new observations upon them. The water has the colour of whey; it is impregnated with iron and salt; and its temperature, when ascertained deep in the crevices whence it issues, equals 142° of Fahrenheit. These baths are much resorted to, for the cure of rheumatism, leprosy, and every cutaneous disorder.

Journeying hence, toward Alexandria Troas, we observed, upon a granite soros, partof an inscription, of some importance in determining the particular nature of the sort of sepulchre whereon it was inscribed; namely, one of those huge stone sepulchres used, in all parts of Turkey, for cisterns, beneath the public fountains.

* Its diameter is five feet three inches at the base; and four feet five inches at the summit.

Travels in Asia Minor, p. 33.

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Sandys mistook them for ancient cisterns. In his description of the ruins of Alexandria Troas, (see Relation of a Journey, &c. p. 24.) he describes them as "ample cisternes for the receit of raine," the city being seated on a sandie soile, and altogether destitute of fountains." They generally consist of two immense masses of stone; one of which being hollowed, served as the coffin, and the other as its lid. They vary considerably in their dimensions. That to which allusion is here made, was nearly seven feet long, and above three feet wide; and this is the ordinary size.

The Romans began to call them sarcophagi about the time of Pliny, from a peculiar kind of stone used in their construction, found at Assos upon the Adramyttian gulph, and supposed to have the property of hastening the decomposition of the human body. St. Augustine relates, that the Greek appellation of this kind of tomb was soros:* his remark is forcibly Mustrated by this inscription, although so small a part of it is now remaining:




Other instances, of the same nature, occur in the account given of our future travels, where the legend is more entire.

The remains of Alexandria Troas have long served as a kind of quarry, whither not only Turks, but also their predecessors, during several centuriès, repaired, whenever they required materials for ornamental architecture, or stones for the ordinary purposes of building. Long before the extinction of the Greek empire, the magnificent buildings of this city began to contribute monuments of ancient splendor toward the public structures of Constantinople; and, at present, there is scarcely a mosque in the country that does not bear testimony to its dilapidation, by some costly token of jasper, marble, porphyry, or granite, derived from this wealthy magazine. After all that has been removed, it is truly wonderful so much should remain. The ruins of the place, although confused, are yet considerable. The first object, appearing in the approach toward the city from Chemalé, is the aqueduct of Herodes Atticus, formed of enormous blocks of hewn stone. The walls of the city exhibit the same gigantic style of masonry. Part of one of the gates still appears, on the eastern side, whose remains have been mistaken for those of a temple: they consist of two round towers, with square basements, supporting pedestals for statues. Immediately after passing this entrance, and coming within the district once occupied by the city, may be observed the ruins of baths, showing the reticulated work of the Romans upon the stucco of their walls. Broken marble soroi lie about, of such prodigious size, that their fragments seem as

"Quia enim arca in qua mortuus ponitur, quod omnes jam ΣAPKODAFON vocant, OPOΣ dicitur Græce." St, August. de Civitate Dei, 1. xviii, c. 5. See also Jultus Pollux, X. 150

rocks among the Valany oaks, covering the soil. But in all that now exists of this devoted city, there is nothing so conspicuous as the edifice vulgarly termed by mariners The Pa lace of Priam; from an erroneous notion, prevalent in the writings of early travellers, that Alexandria Troas was the Ilium of Homer.* This building appears from a considerable distance at sea. In frout it has three noble arches, and behind these are many others. The stones of which it consists are placed together without any cement. Large blocks of sculptured marble, the remains of a cornice, appear above and on each side of the arches in front; and that the whole structure was once coated over with marble, or plates of metal, is evident, for holes for the metal fastenings are seen all over the work. Of the three front arches, the center arch measured forty-eight feet wide at the base, and each of the other twenty-one. The stones in that part of the work were five feet ten inches long, and three feet five inches thick. Behind the center arch is a square court, having four other arches; one on each side. A noble flight of steps conducted to the center arch in front: on each side of this was a column of the prodigious diameter of eight feet, as appears by the remains of their bases, still visible upon the two pedestals. These columns were not of eutire blocks of stone, for we saw their disjointed parts among the ruins below the flight of steps. The back part of the building, and the two sides, were surrounded by walls supported on open arches: twelve of these remain on the northern side almost entire. The front of the building faces the west behind, that is to say, upon the eastern side, were three magnificent arched portals. The walls here, on each side of the center arch, were supported upon a vault containing six arches, and these yet remain entire. From this description it is evident, that a plan of the building might be delineated to show its original form. No very accurate representation has yet been engraved of any part of it. I am inclined to believe, with Chevalier, that it was intended for baths, as a grand termination of the aqueduct of Herodes Alticus. The opinions of Pococke and Chandler, that it was a gymnasium for the instruction of youth, is thereby rather

*Belon, De La Valle, Lithgow, and others, fell into this strange mistake. It is an error, however, which prevailed before they lived. Lithgow caused his own portrait to be represented in the midst of the ruins of Alexandria Troas, as a frontispiece to his work calling these the ruins of Ilium, with the tombs of Priam and Hecuba. (See Nineteen Years Travels, &c. by W. Lithgow, 4to. Lond. 1614.)

Plain of Troy, p. 10.

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