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following letters, of the only inscription we could find, on a broken slab of marble, afford no other information than that the language in use here was Grecian; and even this evidence must net here be disregarded :
We presently came to the cornice of a Doric entablature, of such prodigious size, that our artist, Mons. Preaux, said he had seen nothing like it in Athens. There were other Doric remains; and the shaft of one Corinthian column, twenty-two iuches diameter, distinguished from the Doric in having the edges of the canelure flat instead of sharp. Higher upon the bill we found the remains of another temple: the area of this measured one hundred and forty yards long, and forty-four wide. Here the workmen had taken up about a hundred blocks of stone and marble: every one of these measured five feet eleven inches in length, and was eighteen inches thick. We afterward found an angle of the foundation of this temple; a bath, whose roof was yet entire; and another fragment of the Doric entablature before mentioned. As the temples of Jupiter were all of the Doric order, it is very probable, whatever may be the antiquity of these works, that here was the situation of the temple and altars of Idæan Jove, mentioned by Homer,* by Æschylus,t and by Plutarch.f Their situation, with respect to Gargarus, precisely agrees with Homer's description. According to Æschylus, they were EN JAANI MATAI; and the highest point of all the Idæan chain extends itself into the plain, in such a manner, that the hill at its base, upon which these ruins appear, is, in fact, a part of Gargarus itself. The baths point out the history of the place, and there are warm springs in the neighbourhood. The original temple was, therefore, probably, a very ancient one of Jupiter Liberator, situated near the heights of Ida, on the site of which, in later ages, these buildings were accumulated.
* Iliad. . 47.
1 Παράκειται δ' αυτώ όρος "Ιδη, το πρότερον δε εκαλείτο Γάργαρον, όπου Διός και Μήτρος Θεών βομοί τυγχάνουσιν. “ Adhæret ipsi mons Ide, qui prius vocabatur Gargarus, ubi Jovis et Matris Deorum altaria occurrunt." Plutarch de Fluv. P. 44, Eu. Tolone ap Bosc, 1615.
The most remarkable part of the description is not to be related, as it seems to refer pointedly to superstitions concerning the summit of that mountain bearing the same of Gargarus; held by the ancients in such veneration, as the seat of the immortal gods.* A spacious winding road, sixteen yards in breadth, rises from the remaius of these temples to the top of the Kûchûplû. All the way up may be noticed traces of former works; but upon the summit, a small oblong area, six yards in length, and two in breadth, exhibits marks of the highest antiquity. The stones forming the enclosure are as rude as those of the walls of Tirynthus in Argolis; and the whole is encircled by a grove of venerable oaks, covering the top of the cone. The entrance to this area is from the south upon the east and west, on the outside of the trees, are stones ranged like what we, in England, call Druidical circles. From hence the view is grand indeed. Immediately before the eye is spread the whole of Gargarus ; seeming from its immeose size, and the vastness of its features, as if those who were stationed on this spot might hold converse with persons upon its clear and snowy summit.
A bold and sweeping ridge descends from its top to the very base of the cone of Küchûnlü Têpe ; and this, as a natural altar, stands before the mountain. Far below is seen the bed and valley of the Scamander, bearing a westward course, from the place of its origin.
* Vibius Sequester, in his treatise de Montibus, speaks of Gargarus as the summit of mount Ida : “ Gargarus in Phrygia Idæ montis cacumen." And Maussacus in his notes upon Plutarch (De Fluv.) who cites this passage, also observes, as a comment upon the word rápyapor, " Nón lda, sed ejus cacumen aut fastigium Gargarus dictum fuit. Hesychius, Grammaticorum princeps, Γάργαρον, άκρωτήριον όρους "Ιδης.» The fact is, however, that an actual view of the country affords, the best comment upon the ancient geographers, who have not clearly pointed out the nature of this part of Phrygia. The district called Ida consists of a chain of different mountains, one of which, separately considered, bore the name of Gargarus ; and this is higher than any of the rest. Freinshemius, in his Supplement to Quintus Curtius, affirms, that places thick set with trees were anciently called IDÆ : " Nam condensa arboribus loca İdas antiqui direre." Quint. Curt. Suppl. lib. ii. Freinsh.
ln Mr. Walpole's Journal I find a note upon this sulject, which I shall here insert.
** Ida is allowed, in Herodotus, to mean the summit of Gargarus. Now, from comparing the above passages with Strabo, p. 843. where Gargarus is said to be a tong on Gargarus, a height of Ida, (see Casaubon's note, there;) and p. 872. where it is said to be a promontory of the Adra myttian Gulph ; and consulting Hesycbiu, where Gargarum is a height of Ida, and a city of the Trojan district, near Antandros, we get the following particulars relating to this summit of Ida. It was near the coast, for it was near Antandros, which was on the coast, in a recess of it (Strabo, p. 872.) and the own Gargara on the coast was upon this mountain : so that Xerxes, on passing by Antandros, would pass by this mountain on his left; and on coming into the Iliean territory, would have some way to go before he reached Troy; for Alexandria Troas was thirty-five miles from Antandros (Anton. Itin.) and Troy was still farther."
Walpole's MS, Journal:
As I descended, I found my companions busied among the ruios before described. They had excavated a very beautiful column, part of which they discovered buried in the soil, and had found a bronze medal of the city of Corinth. Our artist had also completed some very interesting views
We passe the night at the foot of Gargarus, three hours distant from ibis place, in one of the most wretched villages of Turkey, called Evgillar. Our coming at first excited suspicion among the inhabitants, who regarded us as French spies, and even proceeded to menaces, in some degreee alarming; but our firmân being produced, and the object of our journey explained, we experienced from these simple and honest mountaineers every good office it was in their power to beslow.
On the following morning by day break, the sky being cloudless, we began to ascend toward the summit of the mountain.“ During the greatest part of the year, Gargarus, like Ætna, is characterized by a triple zoue; first, a district of cultivated land; afterward, an assemblage of forests; and lastly, toward the summit, a region of snow and ice. Passing through the first on horseback, we ascended by the banks of the river. The scenery was uncommonly fine; it resembled the country in the neighbourhood of Vietri, upon the Gulph of Salerno, where Salvato Rosa studied and painted the savage and uncouth seatures of nature, io his great and noble style. During the first hour, we passed the remains of some small Greek chapels, the oratories of ascetics, whom the dark spirit of superstition, in the fourth century of the christian æra, conducted, from the duties of civil society, to the wildest and most untrodden soliludes. Secluded from scenes of war and revolutionary sury, these baildings reniain nearly as they were left when the country became a part of the Turkish empire ; nor' would it have been marvellous if a mouldering skeleton), at the foot of a forsakep altar, had exhibited the remains of the latest of its votaries. One of them, indeed, placed above the roaring torrent, in a situation of uncommon sublimity, was so entire, that a painting of the Virgini, upon the stuccoed wall of the eastern extremily, still preserved its colours.
We now began to traverse the belt of forests, and were enabled to get half way through this part of the ascent upon our horses : the undertaking afterward became more tedious and difficult, and we were compelled to proceed ou foot. Half congealed snow lying among the rocks; and loose stones, rendered be
way dubious and slippery. In this region of Gargarus there
a e many wild boars, the traces of whose ploughing were very fresh in many places. Higher up, our guides showed to us marks left by the feet of tigers. - They fiod also leopards in these wilds, and are obliged to take their skins, when any are killed, to the pacha of the Dardanelles. The extensive survey we should enjoy from the heights was occasionally disclosed by partial openings in this scene of forests. Already the whole island of Tenedos was iu view, and all the Trojan plain. Our guides began to talk of the impossibility of reaching the top of the mountain, and murmured their alarms of chasms and preci. pices in the glacier above: at this I did not wonder, having often been accustomed to such treatment in similar enterprises. I expected to be deserted by them in the end, and it proved to be the case ; although I consess I was not prepared for what I encountered afterward. At length we cleared the zone of forests : all above was icy, bleak, and fearful. Our little party, by the number of stragglers, was soon reduced to a smali band, Neither the Jewish interpreter, whom we had brought from the Dardanelles, nor the artist, would go a step farther. One of the guides, with Mr. Cripps, and our Greek servant, remained with me. We were reduced to the necessity of advancing upon our hands and feet, neither of which made the smallest-impresa sion
upon the icy surface of the show. Soon afterward we found ourselves hanging over the brink of a precipice, so tre. mendous, that the slightest slip of one of our feet would, we perceived, afford a speedy passage to eternity. Here our servapt refused to proceed, and the guide was only prevented from leaving me by brandy. I therefore prevailed on Mr. Cripps, much against his inclination, to remain behind ; and by making holes for our hands and feet, advanced with the guide. The mountain has four points of eminence toward the summit, each of which is lrigher than the other. Our progress led us to the third of these; the lowest, except one; and this point we ata tained in the manner I have described. From hence the transition to the base of the second point, over the frozen snow along the ridge of the mountaio, was made without difficulty : although the slope on each side presented a frightful precipice of above a thousand feet. At the base of the second poiut, viewing the sheet of ice before him, my guide positively refused to proceed; and finding me determined to make the trial, he began to scream with all his might, breaking off with his feet some nodules of the frozen snow, in order to intimidate me, by shoire ing how the smallest fragment set in motion was carried into the
gulph on either side below us. The ascept ras, to be sure, somewhat critical, and could only be effected by a ladder of ice. I cut holes for my hands and feet, my face touching the surface of the steep as I continued climbing. The north wind blew with a degree of violence that made the undertaking more difficult for my fingers, almost frozen, lost their feeling. A tiger, when the snow was fresher, had left the impression of his feet ; and these marks proved a valuable guidance to me, in showing the direction I was to pursue.
In this manner I reached the second point. Still a long and laborious track was before me; but the greatest difficulty was over. I advanced with eagerness over an aërial ridge, toward the highest point of all, where po vestige of any living being could be discerned. Here the ascent was easier than before; and in a few minutes I stood upon the summit. What a spectacle ! All European Turkey, and the whole of Asia Minor, seemed as it were modeled before me on a vast surface of glass. The great objects drew my attention first; afterward I examined cacb particular place with minute observation. roaming to Constantinople, beheld all the sea of Marmora, the mountajus of Prusa, witb Asiatic Olympus, and all the surrounding territory, comprehending, in one wide survey, all Propontis and the Hellespont, with the shores of Thrace and Chersonesus, all the north of the Ægean, Mount Athos, the islands of Imbrus, Samothrace, Lemnos, Tenedos, and all beyond, even to Eubea; the gulph of Smyrna, almost all Mysia, and Bithynia, with part of Lydia and Ionia. Looking down upon Troas, it appeared spread as a lawn before me. I distinctly saw the course of the Scamander through the Trojan plain to the
The visible appearance of the river, like a silver thread, offered a clue to other objects. I could discern the tomb of Asyeles, and even Bonarbashy. At the base of the mountain), and immediately below my eyes, stood the conical hill of Kuchunlu Tepe, on whose sides and summit are the ruins before described. Nothing could be better calculated to show the erroueous nature of all the maps published of the country than my situation here. The Adramyttiau gulph is so close to the mountain, that it inay be said to skirt its base; inclining toward the northeast, and bearing so much round upon the northeastero side, that the extremity of it is concealed by that part of the Idean Chain. Thus it would seem impossible for any oue to pass in a direct live from the eud of the gulph to the Dardanelles, without leaving not only the chain of Ida, but