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pillar, upright in the soil, among fragments of others. The pil. lar was hexagonal; about seven feet in height, and ten inches diameter; of hard black basalt, without any horizontal fissures, like those seen in the pillars of the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, but as regular in its sides and angles as the finest spécimen of crystalized emerald. Having attended particularly to the appearances presented by basalt in many parts of the World, in the beds of rivers, in lakes, and in the sea ; and hav. ing traced them almost the whole way from the north coast of Ireland, through all the Hebrides, to Iceland; I am persuaded the regularity of this structure is entirely owing to crystalization. The criginal deposit whence the pilars in this place were derived, does not lie far from the road. The strata on each side consisted, for the most part, of limestone ; but we observed a subjacent bed of schistus, containing greenish asbestus, like that found on the western coast of Inverness shire in Scot. lavd. A wild race of mountaineers appeared occasionally descending the heights into the defile; or seated by the banks of the river, with sandals op ibeir feet, made of undressed bulls' hides, bound with thongs of the same materials around their ancles and iusteps. Such was the caliga, or military shoe, as we now see it represented on Grecian bronizes and medals ; and it is probable that from these mountains a costume might be selected, exhibiting the appearance of the people in the same district, over whom Æneas, retiring up the country, is said to have reigned, after the capture of Troy.* At four hours' distance from Bonarbashy we came to the town of Æné, the ÆNEIA of Strabo,f situated upon a river falling into the Mender, which Mr. Wood described as being itself the Scamander. The appearance of the town is very pleasing, being ornamented with cypresses, and backed by lofty rocks and mountains. We were surprised in finding a place of so much consequence so remotely situated. Its remarkable appellation, still commemorating the vanie of Æneas, and haviog borne the samc appellation in the time of Augustus, speaks more forcibly the truth of the story of Troy, than any written document. It is an existing evidence, against which there is no possible appeal. Its situation exactly corresponds with the position assigned to it by Strabo, who relates its distance from Palæ Scepcis, a name
* Strah. Geogr. lib. xiii. p 873. Ed. Or.
ή 1bid. p. 89. Φησί χύν την Παλαισκήψιν τής μεν Αιγείας διέχειν πεντήκοντα σταδί85. κ. τ. λ.
Descript. of the Troade, p. 323.
also preserved in the modern apppellation, Esky Skûpshu.* Upon the right hand, in the approach to Æne, is a most stupendous tumulus, called Æné Tepê, literally Æneas'. Tomb. Some Jews called it also Sov'ran Têpe, or Tomb of the King. The word Sov'ran has been perhaps taken from the Italian. Têpe, signifying, in T'urkish, an heap or tomb, is evidently the same with Tapos; and traditiou seems to afford, with regard to this tomb, as good foundation for believing it the sepulchre of Æneas, as Strabo found in the authority of Demetries of Scepsis for his royalty io the country. The inhabitants of Æré say they find medals in considerable number : we could hear of Bone, however, that had been seen of gold or silver ; therefore these medals cannot be of very ancient date. To the wall of the Khan, or Inu, I observed a marble, on which was the fol. lowing imperfect inscription :
In a cemetery close to the road leading from Æné to Turkmanlė, the johabitants had used natural as well as artificial pillars for grave stones. We saw several columps of basalt upright in the earth, mixed with others of granite. There were Do less than twelve of the latter, of the Doric order. This part of our journey, from Æné to Turkman!é, conducted us through part of the beautiful plain of Beyramitch ; appearing to the eye one of the happiest territories in nature, cultivated like a garden, regularly inclosed, and surrounded by mountains. The distance between the two places is said to be two hours and a half. We frequently met camels and dromedaries, and observed buffaloes everywhere used in tillage.
The road in some places consisted of ancient pavement, to a considerable extent. We also crossed an ancient bridge. Before entering Turic. munlé, we observed the appearances of mounds heaped upon the soil, together with a few gravite pillars, some of which were still standing, and other remains denoting the site of some ancient citadel or temple. Various antiquities may be noticed * Fifty stadia, or six miles and a quarter. The Greek word Ilárai and the Turkish Esky have the same signification. The Turks often translated epithets conbected with the names of places into their own language, while they retained the substantive unaltered. Thus the Palæ Scepsis of Strabo still bears the name with them of Esky Slupsku,
in the whole of this route: they are very abundant in and about the town of Turkmanlé.
As we drew nigh to this place, the view of Gargarus, the highest of all the chain of mountains belonging to Ida, appeared in great grandeur ; but so invested by snow, that we entertained great fear of being unable to reach. its summit. The north wind blowing at the same time piercingly, we had reason to apprehend our difficulties would railer increase than diminish. We continued our journey, however, and arrived at Turkmanlé. Here we experienced that cleanly hospitality, and simple welcome, often characterizing the inhabitants of mountainous districts. Our host receiv. ed us in a large and airy room, upon whose spacious hearth he had heaped together the entire truuks of trees, all of which were io a blaze. A slicep was iustantly killed, and dressed ; not only for our present meal, but to serve as provision for our journey. Instead of torches or candles, lighted splinters of wood were used. The interior of our chanıber reminded us of the halls of our oldest English mansions; in which all the members of the family, from the highest to the lowest, met together. I have osteu suspected that our ancestors borrowed the style of their dwelling houses from the east, during the crusades. The custom of suspending armour, weapons, and instruments for the chace, upon the walls, is quite oriental ; so is that of the raised platform, for superior guests, constituting the upper extremity of the apartment. To these may be added the small panneled wainscot, full of little cupboards, and the latticed windows, nearer to the roof than to the floor. Several of the inhabitants came to pay their respects, and welcome the strangers. They had never before seen Englishmen; but they gave us an account of certain Frenchmen, who had endeavoured, without success, to visit the top of Gargarus, which they called Kazdaghy. From this place a road leads to Beyram, anciently Assos, upon the Adramyttian Gulph, now called Ydramit. The ruins of Assos were described to us as sufficient to employ any person two days in a mere survey. Many inscriptions are said to exist there, hitherto unobserved by Eu
Half an hour after leaving Turkmanlé we came to Bonarbashy of Beyramitch, the second place we bad seen of that vame; and so called, like the first, from its vicinity to the fountain head of some very remarkable warm springs; three of which gush with great violence from artificial apertures, into a marble reservoir entirely constructed of ancient materials.
This beautiful bason is shaded by the oldest and fiuest oriental plane trees. Its waters take their course into the plain, where they fall into the Mender. The people of the place relate the same story of these springs as of the others at Bonarbashy, the supposed site of Ilium. They affirm, that they are cold in summer, and hot in winter, when it is said smoke ascends from them. The frost was on the ground at the same time we tasted the water, which was quite warnı; yet buffaloes were swallowing it greedily, and seemed to delight in the draught they made. Its temperature is probably always the same. We fouod it equal to 69° of Fahrenheit. The shafts of two pillars of gradite, of the Doric order, stood, one on each side of the fountains: and half the operculum of a marble soros* lay in the wall above them. Peasants brought us a few barbarous medals of the lower ages, with effigies of saints and martyrs.
An hour after leaving this place we came to Beyramitch, a city belonging to the pacha of the Dardanelles, and present capital of all Troas. It is a large place filled with shops. The houses seemed better built, and more regularly disposed than in Constantinople. All the land around belongs to the pacha before mentioned, whom the Porte has nearly ruined by extorted contributions. In the yard of the khan, or inn, is a marble column, exhibiting a style of the Doric order, which I have observed oo where but in Troas. Instead of being fluted, the shaft is bevelled, so as to present a polygonal surface. Others, of the same kind, were among the antiquities lying on the hill at Tchiblack. This column stands in the middle of a bason, serving as a public couduit, wholly constructed of ancient inaterials. All these, together with an astonishing quantity of substances for building, were derived from ruins lately discovered upon a lofty hill, which we were told we should pass immediately after leaving Beyramitch, in our journey toward the source of the Mender; the pacha having made very considerable excavations, in search of marbles, and other materials, there buried. In the streets of Beyramítch we noticed more than one soros of entire blocks of granite, which the inhabitants bad procured from the same place. One of the inhabitants told us he had receptly brought from thence certain
* The substitution of soros for sarcophagus is not made with the smallest disposition to pedantry, but as it strictly applies to the ancient Greek tomb. Some remarks up on this subject will be found in the following chapter.
broken pieces of sculpture, to which we should be welcome, if we could get permission from the pacha for their removal. This we afterward obtained, and brought them to England.*
The place where all these antiquities have been discovered is rather a conical mountain than a bill, bearing the name of Küchûnlü Têpe, at two hours' distance from Beyramitch, toward Gargarus. Indeed, it has been placed by nature so as to resemble a sort of advanced position at the base of that mountain, immediately beceath its summit. The Mender, or Scamander, flows at its foot. This river is here generally called Kasdaghy, from the name now given to Gargarus, the mountain whence it issues. The principal site of the antiqui. ties
upon Küchûnlû Têpe is about half way up the side of the immense cone bearing that name; but very remarkable remains may be traced thence all the way to the summit. These will be described in the sequel. Having arrived at the base of the cone, we left our horses by the side of the river, and ascended to the ruins. The first appearance that struck us was an oblong area, ninety-two yards long and fifty-four wide, covered with fragments of terra cotta, and also with pieces of ancient glass, such as broken lachrymatories, and other small vessels. On the porth side, part of a wall remained by which the area was originally inclosed, about fourteen feet in height. The work seemed to be of the age of the Romans, from the baked titles, four inches thick, and the cement used in its construction. On the western extremity of the area were considerable remains of baths, whose stuccoed walls and earthenware conduits were still entire in several places. An excavation had been made by the Turks, on the south side, for the stones of the foundation, to the depth of twenty-two feet. By the appearance of the foundation, the walls, on this side at least, were double, and admitted a passage between them, Above this area (perhaps that of a temple), toward the north, were tombs. We entered an arched vault, thirteen yards long, and five wide, and saw pear it the remains of a bath, wanting only the roof. Here lay sone columns sixteen inches in diameter, among pieces of bioken amphore, fragments of marble, granite, basalt, blue chalcedony, and jasper. The
*They are now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge. One of them Tepresents the lower balf of a female figure, the drapery of which is exquisitely fine : the other is a bust of Juno, in Parian marble. See Greek Marbles," &c. p. 3& No. XVI. and p. 46. No. XXVI.