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the Castle Hill at Cambridge. The first inquiry that sag: gests itself, in a view of this extraordinary scene, naturally involves the original calise of the veneration in which the place was anciently held. Does it denote the site of Pagus Iliensium, whose inhabitants believed that their village stood op the site of ancient 'Troy ?* This place was distant thirty stadiat from the New Ilium of Strabo; and the distance corresponds with the relative situation of this hill and Palaio Callifat, or Old Callifat, where New Ilium stood; as will hereafter be proved: Or may it be causidered the eminencef described by Strabo as the beautiful colone, five stadia in circumference, near which Simois flowed; and Tebiblack, the Pagus Iliensium? It was rather more than a mile distant|| from the Village of the Ileans, and stood above it; exactly as this hill is situated with regard to Tchiblack.**
It will now be curious to observe, whether an inscription ve discovered here does not connect itself with these inquiries. It was found upon the fluted marble shaft of a Doric pillar two feet in diameter; so coostructed, as to contain a cippus, or inscribed slab, upon one side of it;tt presentiug the following characters :
* Strab. Geogr. lib. xii. p. 861. Ed. Ox.
Three English miles and six furlongs. * Η καλη Κολωνη λυφος τις.
Rather more than half a mile.
Ten stadia. ** It is a feature of Nature so remarkable. and so artificially characterized at this Hour, that future travellers will do well to give it due attention. In our present state of ignorance concerning Troas,.we must proceed with diffidence and caution; Dothing has been decided concerning the side of the plain on which this hill stands, and where all the objects most worthy of attention seem to me concentrated. I do not hesitate in expressing a conviction, that when the country sball have been properly examined on the northeastern side of the Mender, instead of the southwestern, mapy of the difficulties impeding a reconciliation of Homer's Poems with the geograpby of the country, will be done away. This has not yet been attempted.
# The cippus, or inscribed part of tbe pillar, ivas two feet eleven inches longs and two feet four incbes wide,
* 13ΕΡΙΩΙ ΚΔΑΥΑΤΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΗ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩΙ ΚΑΙΓΟΥΛΑ : Ε: BA ΣΤΗΑΓΡΙΠΠΕΙΝ Η ΚΑΙΤΟ ΣΤ' ΕΚ ΝΟ1ΣΑΥΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΥΙ. ΚΑΙΤΗΤΑΘΗΝΑΤΗ ΙΔΙΑ Δ. ΙΔΗΜΩ ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟ ΣΚΑΙ. .Φ.ΑΝΟΥΣΎΙΟ Σ ΦΙΛΟΚΑ :Σ ΑΡΚΑ ΤΗΓYN ΕΑΥΤΟΥΚΛΑΥΔ.,. ΙΝΟΣ ΘΥΓΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΡΜΕΝ .... ΤΗΝ ΣΤΟΑΝΚΑΙΤΑ ΕΝΑΥΤΗ: ΤΙ ΝΤΑ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΑΣΑΝΤΕΣ Ε ΚΤΩΝΙΔΙ ΩΝΑΝΕ ΘΗΚΑΝ
The inscription records the consecration of a stoa, and all things belonging to it, to Tiberius Claudius Cæsar Germanicus, the emperor, and to Julia Augusta Agrippina, his wife, and their children, and to Minerva of Ilium. The reason why the Emperor Claudius and his children were honoured by the Ilienses, is given by Suetonius aud Tacitus.* Eckhel mentions, I know not on what authority, a fane consecrated to the Ilian Minerva, as having existed in the Pagus Hiensium, which Alexander adorned after his victory at Grapicus.t Arrian states merely the offerings to Minerva of Ilium, making do mention of the fane; but Strabo, who expressly alludes to the temple, places it in the Iliensian city. But whence originated the sanctity of this remarkable spot, still shaded by a grove of venerable oaks, beneath whose branches a multitude of votive offerings yet entirely cover the summit of the bill? An inscription commemorating the pious tribute
a people io erecting a portico to the family of Claudius Cæsar and the Iliean Minerva, can only be referred to the inhabitants of that district of Troas who were styled Ilienses. It has been shown that Claudius, after the example of Alexander, had perpetually exempted them from the payment of any tribute. In their district stood the Pagus Iliensium, with the (callicolone) beautiful hill ; and nearly thirty stadiat farther toward the west, reversing the order of the beariog given by Strabo, the Niensium Civitas. If, therefore, this hill, so preeminently entitled to the appellation of Callicolone, from the regularity of its form, and the groves by which it seems for ages to have been adorned, he further cousidered, on account of its antiquities, an indication of the former vicinity of the Iliensian village, it should follow, that observing a westward course, the distance of three miles and three quarters, or nearJy.so, roull terminate in the site of the Iliensian city ; and any discovery ascertaining either of these places would infallibly identify the position of the other. This line of direction we observed in our route, advancing by a cross road into the plain.
*" Iliensibus Imperator Claudius tributa in perpetuum remisit, oratore Nerone Cæsare. Eckhel. Doctrina Num. Vet. vol. ji. p. 483. Vindob. 1794. 1 Eckhel. Doct. Num. Vet. vol. ii. p. 183. Vindob., 1794. " TWY DĚ TW, "JAWY TOMY Thy vor. Strab. Geogr. lib. xiii. p. 855. Ed. OXF
There were other inscriptions, commemoratiog the good of fices of Roman emperors; but these were so much mutilated, that no decisive information could be obtained from them. Up. on one, we read :.
THE ALEXANDRIAN TRIBE HONOUR SEXTUS JULIUS, THE
FLAVIAN COHORT," &c. Another, inscribed upon the cover of a large marble sarcophagus, mentioned a portico; and the daughter of some persos for whom both the XTOA and the zopo had been construct ed.
As we journeyed from this place, we found, in a coro field below the hill, a large block of inscribed marble; but owing to * Arriam Expedit. lih. i.
Three miles and three quarters, Strab. Geogr. lib. xjli.
the manner in wliich the stone was concealed by the soil, as well as the illegibility of the inscription, we could only disor cera the following characters, in which the name of Julias again occurs
KO IM ON.
ềustaining what was before advanced, concerning the preva: lepce of names belonging to the family of Germanicus, or of persons who flourished about his time. Upon a medal of Claudius, described by Vaillant,* belonging to Cotyæium, a city of Phrygia, bordering upon Troast we read the words Ein iorΛΙΟΥ ΥΙΟΥ ΚΟΤΙΑΕΩΝ. We proceeded hence toward the plaio ; and no sooner reached it, than a tumulus off very remarkable size and situation drew our attention, for a short time, from the main object of our pursuit.
This tumulus, of a high couical forin, and very regular structure, stands altogether insulated. Of its great antiquity no doubt can be entertained by persons accustomed to view the everlasting sepulchres of the ancients. On the southern side of its base is a long natural mound of limestone: this, beginning to rise close to the artificial tumulus, extends toward the village of Callifat, ip a direction nearly from north to south across the middle of the plain. It is of such height, that an army, encamped on the eastern side of it would be concealed from all observation of persons stationed upon the coast, by the mouth of the Mender. It reaches pearly to a small and almost stagnant river, hitherto unnoticed, called Callifat Osmack, or Callifat Water, taking its name from the village pear which it falls into the Mender: our road to that place afterward led us along the top of the mound. Here then both art and
nature have combined to mark the plain by circumstances * Numism. Imperat. Angust et Cæs. P. 12. par. 1698. See the observation of Mentelle, (Encyclop. Method. Geogr. Ancienne. Par. 1787.) who thus places it on the authority of Pliny This position of the city does not, howover, appear warranted by any explicit declaration of that author. Pliny's words ure; " Septentrionali sui parte Galatiæ contermina, Meridiana Lycaoniæ, Pisidia, Myga donidque, ab oriente Cappadociam attingit. Oppida ibi celeberrima, prater jam dicta, Auyra, Andria, Celana, Colossa, Carina, Cotiaion, Cerana, Iconium, Midaion.” Plin. Hist. Nat. tom. i. lib. y. p. 284. Ed. L. Bat. 1635.
* Mr. Bryant says, the tumuli on the plain of Troy are Thracian. In addition to the passages in Strabo which prove the Phrygians, the inhabitants of the country, 10 have been in the custom of erecting tumuli, the following passage from Athenæus may be added: You may see every where in the Peloponnesus, but particularly at Lacedæmon, large heaps of earth, which they call the tombs of the Phrygians, wlio same with Pelops.' . xiv. p. 625.) Walpole's MS. Journal,
of feature and association not likely to occur elsewhere ; although such as any accurate description of the country might well be expected to juclude: and if the poems of Homer
, with refereuce to the Plain of Troy, have similarly associated an artificial tumulus and a natural mound, a conclusion seems warranted, that these are the objects to which he alludes. This appears to be the case in the account he has given of the tomb of Ilus and the mound of the plain.*
Upon the surface of the tomb itself, in several small channels caused by rain, we found fragments of the vases of ancient Greece.t I know not any other cause to assigo for their appearance, than the superstitious veneration paid to the tombs of Troas in all the ages of history, until the introduction of christianity. Whether they be considered as the remains of offerings and libations made by Greeks or Romans, they are indisputably not of modern origin. The antiquity of earthenware, from the wheel of a Grecian potter, is as easily cognizable as any work left for modern observation, and, as a ves. tige of that people, denoting the site of their cities, towns, and public moluments, may be deemed perhaps equal io importance to medals and inscriptions.
From this tomb we rode along the top of the mound of the plain, in a southwestern direction, toward Callifat. After we bad proceeded about half its length, its inclination became southward. Having attained its extremity in that direction, Fe descended into the plaid, when our guides brought is te the western side of it, near its southern termination, to notice a tumulus, less considerable than the last described, about three hundred paces from the mound, almost concealed from observa Lion by being continually overflowed, upon whose toptir small oak trees were then growing. This tumulus will not b easily discerved by future travellers, from the uniformity its appearance at a distance with the rest of the vast plain which it is situated, being either covered with corn, or fu
* The Trojans were encamped (iT @qwouw medioio) upon, or gear, the mound the plain (II. K. 160.); and Hector holds his council with the chiefs, apart from camp, at the tomb of Ilus (II. K. 415.); which was therefore near the mound. Th coincidence of situation induced Mr. Chevalier to conclude they were one and same. Descript, of the Plain of Troy, P: 113., Mr. Bryant combated this opini Observations upon a Treatise, &c. p. 9. Mr. Morritt very properly derides the gurdity of supposing the council to be beld at a distance from the army Yindicat Homer. p. 96
1 These are still in our possession, and resemble the beautiful eart benware fo in the sepulchres of Athens, and at Nola in Italy. The durability of such a substa is known to all personis courersants in the arts, it is known to have resisted the 3cks of water and air, at least two thousand years.