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that time covered with snow, ascertaio, from the appearance of the plain, and the objects connected with it, whether its summit might be deemed the Gargarus of Homer; described as being upon the left of the army of Xerxes, during its march from Antandrus to Abydus.* But as the Thymbrius, a river still retaining its ancient name, in the appellation Thymbreck, and which here disembogues itself near the embouchure of the Mender, has been confounded by Dr. Chandler with the Simois of Homer, we determined first upon an excursion along its banks, to the ruins situated at a place now called Halil Elly; and to Thymbreck Keuy, or the village of Thymbra.
We crossed the Mender by a wooden bridge, immediately after leaving Koum-kalé; and ascertained its breadth, in that part, to equal-one hundred and thirty yards. We then enter ed av immense plain, in which some l'urks were engaged hunting wild boars. Peasants were also employed in ploughing a deep and rich soil of vegetable earth. Proceeding toward the easty. and round the bay distinctly pointed out by Strabo,f as the harbour in which the Grecian fleet was stationed, we arrived at the sepulcbre of Ajax, upon the ancient Rhotean promontory. Conceruing this tumulus, there is every reason to believe our information correct. If we had only the text of Stra-, bo for our guidance, there would be little ground for incredulity; and, by the evidence afforded in a view of the monument itself, we have the best comment upon his accuracy. It is one of the most interesting objects to which the attention of the literary traveller can possibly be directed. Instead of the simple Stélé, usually employed to decorate the summit of the most anciert sepulchral niounds, all writers, who have mentioped the tomb of Ajax, relate, that it was surmounted by a shrine, in which the statue of the hero was preserved. [ Religious regard for this hallowed spot continued through so mang ages, that even to the time in which christianity decreed the destruction of the Pagan idols, the sanctity of the AFAN*TEUM was maintained and venerated. Such importance was annexed to the inviolability of the mouument, that after Anto# Herodot. lib. vij. 4 Strab. Geogr. lib. xvii. p. 859. Ed. Ox.
Diodorus Siculus, describing the visit paid by Alexander the Great to the Tomb of Achilles, says he anointed the Stele with perfumes, and ran naked round it with his companions. At the Tomb of Ajax be performed rites and made offerings ; but no to mention occurs of the Stele. Diodor. Sic. lib. xvii. See the proofs adduced, in regular
series, by Chandler, in his History of Illum: + Innt. 1802.
py had carried into Egypt the consecrated image, it was again recovered by Augustus, and restored to its pristine shrine.*
These facts may possibly serve to account for the present appearance of the tomb, on whose summit that shrine itself, and a considerable portion of the superstructure, reniain uuto ibis hour. Pliny, moreover, mentioris the situation of the tomb as being in the very station of the Grecian fleet; and, by giving its exact distance from Sigeum, not only adds to our cooviction of its identity, but marks at the same time, most decisively, the position of the Portus Achæorum. In all that remains of former ages, I know of nothing likely to affect the mind by emotions of local enthusiasm more powerfully than this most interesting tomb. It is impossible to view its sublime and simple, form, without calling to mind the veneration so long paid to it; without picturing to the imagination a successive series of marivers, of kings and heroes, who from the Hellespoot, or by the shores of Troas and Chersonesus, or on the sepulchre itself
, poured forth the tribute of their bomage ; and finally, without representing to the mind the feelings of a native, or of a traveller, iu those times, who, after viewing the existing monument, and witnessing the instances of public and of private regard 50 coustantly bestowed upon it, should have been told the age was to arrive when the existence of Troy, and of the mighty dead entombed upon its plain, would be considered as having no foundation in truth.
The present appearance of the shrine, and of a small circular superstruction, do not seem to indicate higher antiquity than the age of the Romáus. Some have believed, from the disclosure of the shrine, that the tomb itself was opened ; mistaking it for a vault, although its situation near the sunmit might have controverted the opinion. This was perhaps .constructed when Augustus restored the image Antony had taken from the Aianteum. A cemeut was certainly employed in the work; and the remaios of it to this day offer an opportunity of confuting very prevailing error concerning the buildings of the ancients. The Greeks erected many of their most stupendous edifices without cementation; hence it has been supposed that the appearance of mortar in a building precludes its claim to antiquity. This potion is however set aside at once * Strab. Geogr. lib. xvii. p. 858. Ed. Ox.
"Fuit et Jeantium, a Rhodiis conditum in altero cornu (Rhæteo) Ajace ibi sepulto, XXX. stádiorum intervallo a Sigeo, et ipso in statione classis suæ." Sic. leg. Casaube
ÅR Plin. lib. V. C, 30.
by referenee to the pyramids of Egypt; io building these, mortar was undoubtedly used. *
The view here afforded of the Hellespont and the plain of Troy is one of the finest the country affords. Several plants, during the season of our visitzt were blooming upon the soil. Upon the tomb itself we noticed the silvery mezereon, the poppy, the beardless hypecoum, and the field star of Bethlehem.
From the Aïanteum we passed over a Heathy country to Halil Elly, a village near the Thymbrias, in whose vicinity we had been instructed to seek the remains of a temple once sacred to the Thymbreau Apollo. The ruins we found were rather the remains of ten-temples than of one. The earth to a very considerable extent was covered by subverted and broken columus of marble, granite, and of every order in architecture. Dorie, Ionic; and Coriothian capitals, lay dispersed in all directions, and some of these were of great beauty. We observed a bas-relief representing a person on horseback pursued by a winged figure, also a beautiful representation, sculptured after the same manner; of Ceres in her car drawn by two scaly serpents. Of tbrec inscriptions which I copied among these ruins, the first was engraveu upon the shaft of a marble pillar.
This we removed, and brought to England.: It is now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge, and commemorates the public services of a Plurontistes of Drusus Cæsar.|| The names of persons belonging to the family of Germanicus eccur frequently among inscriptions found in and near the
Troase, Drusus, the son of Germanicus, was himself appointed to a government in the district. The second inscription has
been once before printed, but most erroneously : it may there fore be again presented to the public in a more accurate form.** Whatsoever tends in any degree to illustrate the origiu of the kuins in which it was discovered; will be considered interestingi although, after all, we must remain in a state of the greatbest uncertaioty with regard to the city alluded to in either of sathese documents. Possibly, it may have beeir Scamandria ; but in the multitude of cities belonging to Troas a mere conjecture, without any positive evidence, is less pardonable than silence. The inscription, offering our ooly remaining clue, sets forth, that the tribe Attalis commemorated Sextus Julius Festus, a magistrate of the city, and præfect of the Fla. vian cohort, who had been gymnasiarch, and given magnifi cently and largely, to the senators and all citizens, oil and pintment for some public festival.
* To prove this, the author brought specimens from the spot, of the mortar etaployed in building the greater pyramid † March 3d.
Daphne argentes, Anemone coronaria: Hyperoun imberbe, Orwithogalum arvense. Our aruist, Monsieur Preaut, as well as another of our company, Don Tila LusieTi, nf Naples, then employed in making drawings for the British Ambassador, although
architectural remains, declared, they co reconcile the ruins at Halil Elly to no account yet gived of the country, ancient or modern.
This inscription has been already published in the account given of the Greek marbles at Cambridge. See p. 13: No. XXI. of that work.
** It was also since copied by Mr. Walpole, from whose copy it is hero given, ac“. companied by his potes. See the following page.
both accustomed to the view
- ΗΑΤΤΑΛΙΣ ΦΥΛΗ
.ΤΟΝ ΚΟΣ ΜΟΝΤΗΣ Π
ΛΟΤΕΙΜΩ ΣΚΑΙ ΠΡΩΤΟΝ
The third inscription, and perhaps the most important, kad these remarkable words:
this had been found by a late respectable and learned author,* it might bave coufirmed him in the notion that the Thymbrius was in fact the Simois, as he believed ; and perhaps have suggested, in the present name of the place, Halil Ili, (or, as I have written it, Halil Elly, to conform to the mode of pronunciation,) and etymologyt from IAION.
From the ruins at Halil Elly we proceeded through a delightful valley, full of vineyards, and almond-trees in full bloom, intending to pass the night at the village of Thymbreck. We found no antiquities, nor did we hear of any in the neighbourhood. The next day, returning toward Halil Elly, we left it upon our right, and crossed the Thymbrius by a ford. In summer this river becomes almost dry; but during winter it oster presents a powerful torrent, carrying all before it. Not one of the maps, or of the works yet published upon Troas, has ipformed us of its termination : according to some, it empties itself into the Mender near its embouchure; others describe it as forming a junction pear Tchiblack; a circumstance of considerable importance ; for if this last position be true, the ruins at Tchiblack may be those of the temple of the Thymbræan Apollo. Strabo expressly states the situation of the temple to be near the place where the Thymbrius discharyes itself into the Scamander.After we had passed the ford, we ascended a ridge of hills, and found the remains of a very ancieot paved way. We then came to the town or village of Tchiblack, where we noticed very considerable remains of ancient sculpture, but in such a state of disorder and ruin, that 110 precise description of them can be given. The most remarkable are upon the top of a hill called Beyan Mcsaley, near the town, in the midst of a beautiful grove of oak trees, toward the village of Callifat. Here the ruins of a Doric temple of white marble lay heaped in the most striking manner, mixed with broken stélæ, cippi, sarcophagi, coruices and capitals of very enormous size, entablatures, and pillars.All of these have reference to some peculiar sanctity by which this hill was anciently characterized. It is of a conical form, and stands above the town of Tchiblack, appearing as large as * The author of the History of Ilium, &c. &c.
Elly, in the language of the country, signifies a district ; so that the name of this place admits a literal interpretation, signifying " The District of Halil;” which may be further interpreted, " The District of the Sun,” from one of the naties of Apollo, AI'L or AEXIOE.
Strab. Geogr. lib. xiij. p. 861. Ed. Os.