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Djezzar Pacha to convey us to Acre had not arrived, and that boats laden with fruit were daily sailing thither, Captain Culverhouse, fearful of detaining his frigate a moment after the supplies for the fleet had been completed, judged it prudent to engage a passage for us in one of these boats. We therefore took leave of our aged and respectable host, the English Consul; and upon the evening of July the fifteenth, after sun set, embarked for Acre, to avail ourselves of the land wind, which blows during the night, at this season of the year. By day break the next morning we were off the coast of Cæsarea, and so near in with the land, that we could very distinctly perceive the appearance of its numerous and extensive ruins. The remains of this city, although still considerable, have long been resorted to as a quarry, whenever building materials were required at Acre. Djezzar Pacha, as it has been already mentioned, brought from hence the columns of rare and beautiful marble, as well as the other ornaments, of his palace, bath, fountain, and mosque, at Acre. The place at present is inhabited only by jackals and beasts of prey. As we were becalmed during the night, we heard the cries of these animals until day break. Pococke mentions the curious fact of the former existence of crocodiles in the river of Cæsarea.* Perhaps there has not been, in the history of the world, an exam- * ple of any city, that in so short a space of time rose to such an
longioribus; calycibus nudis margine laceris; corollæ laciniis ovato-triangularibus; stylo pubescente longissimo.
11. A very small non descript prostrate species of St. John's wort, HYPERICUM, Linn. with inversely ovate leaves and terminal flowers, and the teeth of the calyx entire at the margin. The stems are from one to four or five inches long, the leaves hardly the fourth of an inch, the blossoms yellow, rather more than half an inch across We have called it HYPERICUM TENELLUM. Hypericum prostratum, giaarum; floribus terminalibus trigynis subcorymbosis; calycis dentibus integer rimis margine glandulosis; caulibus filiformibus brevibus; foliis cuneato obovatis, punctatis glabris.
III. "A minute, nearly stemless, umbelliferous plant, seldom rising to an inch in height, with simple linear leaves a little hispid at the edges; the fruit hispid, as in caucalis, but the flowers and the whole habit of the plant as in bupleurum; to which genus we have added it, by the name of BUPLEURUM MINIMUM: and the mere willingly, as two other species, the bupleurum semicompositum of Linnæus, and the bupleurum procumbens of Desfontaines, have also seeds more or less hispid. Bupleurum subacaule, ramis quadrangulis brevissimis; foliis sublinearibus margine asperis; involucello pentaphyllo umbellulâ vix breviore; fructu hispidissimo.
IV. A small downy annual species of scabious; SCABIOSA, Linn. about five inches in height: the leaves pinnatifid, with their lobes distant from each other: the heads of flowers upon long peduncles, with a five leaved common calyx; the flowers purple, unequally five cleft, not radiating; the seeds with a downy pluxe of about fifteen rays. Not only the leaves, peduncles, and common calyx, but even the outside of the flowers, are downy. We have called it SCABIOSA DIVARICATA. Scabiosa pubescens, annua: corollulis quinquefidis laciniis inæqualibus; calycis lacyniis septenis, inaequalibus, lanceolatis; coronâ obsoletâ, pappo plumoso; foliis pinnatifidis.
Pococke's Observations upon the East, vol. II. p. 58. Lond. 1745
extraordinary height of splendour, as did this of Cæsarea;* or that exhibits a more awful contrast to its former magnificence, by the present desolate appearance of its ruins. Not a single inhabitant remains. Its theatres, once resounding with the shouts of maltitudes, echo no other sound than the nightly cries of animals roaming for their prey. Of its gorgeous palaces and temples, enriched with the choicest works of art, and decorated with the most precious marbles, scarcely a trace can be discerned. Within the space of ten years after laying the foundation, from an obscure fortress it became the most celebrated and flourishing city of all Syria. It was named Cæsarea by Herod, in honour of Augustus, and dedicated by him to that emperor, in the twenty-eighth year of his reign. Upon this occasion, that the ceremony might be rendered illustrious by a degree of profusion unknown in any former instance, Herod assembled the most skilful musicians, wrestlers, and gladiators, from all parts of the world. The solemnity was to be renewed every fifth year. It was afterward called Colonia Flavia, in consequence of privileges granted by Vespasian. But, as we viewed the ruins of this memorable city, every other circumstance respecting its history was absorbed in the consideration, that we were actually beholding the very spot where the scholar of Tarsus, after two years' imprisonment, made that eloquent appeal, in the audience of the king of Judæa, which must ever be remembered with piety and delight. In the history of the actions of the Holy Apostles, whether we regard the internal evidence of the narrative, or the interest excited by a story so wonderfully appealing to our passions and affections, there is nothing we call to mind with fuller emotions of sublimity and satisfaction. "In the demonstration of the spirit and of power," the mighty advocate for the Christian faith had before reasoned of "righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come," till the Roman governor, Felix, trembled as he spoke. Not all the oratory of Tertullus; not the clamour of bis numerous adversaries; not even the countenance of the most profligate of tyrants, availed against the firmness and
See the account of it in Josephus. De Antiq. Jud. lib. xv. c. 13. (the buildings were all of marble;) lib. xvi. c. 9. Colon. 1691.
† Herod caused the tower of Strato to be completely covered with white marble, against the arrival of Augustus.
In the 192 Olympiad.
Josephus rates the expense of it at five hundred talents.
"Eadem Cæsarea, ab Herode rege condita: nunc colonia prima Flavia, à Vespa siano Imperatore deducta." Plinii Histor. Natural. lib. v. c. 13. tom, I. p. 262. I at, 1635.
intrepidity of the oracle of God. The judge had trembled before his prisoner ;—and now a second occasion offered, in which, for the admiration and the triumph of the Christian world, one of its bitterest persecutors, and a Jew, appeals in the public tribunal of a large and populous city, to all its chiefs and its rulers, its governor and its king, for the truth of his conversion, founded on the highest evidence, delivered in the most fair, open, and illustrious manner.
As the day advanced, a breeze sprang up, and, standing out farther from the shore, we lost sight of Cæsarea. The heat became intolerable; and the powerful odour from the melons, which constituted the freight of our little bark, produced faintness and indisposition throughout all our party. Toward evening we made the point of Mount Carmel, and saw the monastery very distinctly upon its summit. Afterward, doubling the promontory, we entered the Bay of Acre, and were greeted with the welcome sight of the Romulus at anchor. As we drew near, the Captain's barge came to meet us, and we quitted our vessel. Suddenly, as the boat's crew pulled stoutly for the frigate, a shout from all the sailors on board was repeated from the barge, the men standing with their oars erect, and waving their hats. Supposing this to be intended as an expression of welcome, upon the return of the captain, we congratulated him upon the mark of attachment manifested by his crew. This worthy officer shook his head, however, and said he should feel more satisfied without any such demonstration, which amounted to little less than a symptom of mutiny. Upon our arrival on board we were informed that the men, having been employed in hard labour during the captain's absence, repairing the rigging and painting the frigate, had thus thought proper to testify their satisfaction at what they conceived to be a conclusion of tyrannical government in the inferior officers.
The Chinese possess the art of perfecting such works."] As all siliceous concretions are soft and moist when first removed from the stratum wherein they have been deposited, it is probable that Jade, with whose natural history we are little acquainted, hardens by exposure to the atmosphere; and that the Chinese, who give it such various shapes, avail themselves of its softness, when fresh dug, in order to manufacture it. The chymical analysis of this mineral was only lately ascertained. Jade is an alkaliferous silex, containing also lime: its proper place, in a mineralogical system, ought to be with Obsidian and Pitchstone.
P. 39. The servant of the Imperial Consul at the Dardanelles performed this feat, &c." Lord Byron, in company with Lieutenant Ekenheid of the Salsette frigate, swam across the Hellespont, upon the third of May, 1810. They were only an hour and five minutes in completing the passage. See" Childe Harolde's Pilgrimage," p. 178. London, 1812.
P. 368. We observed also that reticulated stucco, which is commonly considered as an evidence of Roman work."] The extraordinary appearance of the opus reticulatum(a) in this building, being irreconcilable with Jewish masonry, may lead to a very curious, if not important inference, concerning these foundations. The author was at first inclined to believe, with Phocas and Golius, (b) that they were the remains of the temple of Solomon, as it was restored by Herod a few years before the Christian æra.(c) Judaea, it is true, was then a Roman province; but it does not necessarily follow, either that Roman workmen were employed,(d) or that the Roman taste was consulted in the style of the superstructure. Upon maturer deliberation, after duly considering what has been written upon the subject, particularly by Chrysostom, there seems every reason for believing, that, in the foundations here alluded to, we have a standing memorial of Julian's discomfiture, when he attempted to rebuild the temple; and perhaps of a nature which might have satisfied Lardner himself,(e) that his doubts concerning the fact were unwarrantable. Ammanianus Marcellinus, whose testimony, as that of a Heathen writer, confounded even Gibbon's incredulity, (f) pretty plainly indicates that some progress had been made in the work, before the prodigy occurred which rendered the place inaccessible to the artificers whom Julian had employed. It is expressly stated by him.(g) that Alypius of Antioch was earnestly employed in carrying on the building, and that the governor of the province was assisting the operation when the flames burst forth Chrysostom, alluding to the fact, as notorious, and attested by living witnesses, says, (h) YEA, THEY MAY VIEW THE FOUNDATIONS LYING STILL BARE AND NAKED; AND IF YOU ASK THE REASON. YOU WILL MEET WITH NO OTHER ACCOUNT BESIDE THAT WHICH I HAVE GIVEN." From these concurring testimonies, and from the extraordinary remaining evidence of the opus reticulatum, it can hardly be denied but that an appeal may be made to these remains as the very work to which Chrysostom alludes. The words of Ammianus(i) seem to warrant a similar conclusion: "Metuendi globi flammarum PROPE FUNDAMENTA crebis assultibus erum
(a) See Winklemann Hist. de l'Art. tom. ii. p. 561. Par. an. 2.
(b) See p. 368 of this volume.
(c) Josephus, lib. xv. Antiq. c. 14. Colon. 1691.
(d) Indeed, the text of Josephus seems to prove the contrary; for he states, that the Jewish priests were employed to superintend the plan of the work, and the labours of the artifiVid. lib. xv. de Antiq. c. 14. Colon. 1691.
(e) Lardner made objection to the miraculous interposition, and even doubted the attempt. (Testimonies, vol. IV. pp. 61, 64.) All the authorities cited for the fact ars brought together by J. Alb. Fabricius. Lardner, however, is not satisfied with them; although Gibbon was compelled to say, "such authority should satisfy a believing, and must astonish an incredulous mind." The reader may examine Mosheim's Remarks, Eccl. Hist. Maclaine's Transl. vol. I. p. 332. also Moyle's Posthumous Works, vol. II. pp. 100, 101.
(f) Hist. vol. IV. c. 23. London, 1807.
(g) Ammian. Marcellin. lib. xxiii. c. 1. Lips. 1773.
(h) Chrysostom, advers. Jud. etc. as cited by Whitby in his General Preface. See also, Vest on the Resurrection; and Newton on the Prophecies, (Works,) vol. I. p. 447. London, 1782.
(i) Ammian. Marcellin. ubi supra.
pentes." On what authority Mosheim asserts(k) that the Jews, who had "set about this important work, were obliged to desist, before they had even begun to lay the foundations of the sacred edifice," does not appear, except it be upon the following passage from Rufinus,(1) "A pertisigitur fundamentis calces cementaque adhibita: nihil omnino deerat, quin die postera, veteribus deturbatus nova jacereni fundamenta." Warburton, who has cited this passage, (m) is nevertheless careful in weighing the evidence, as to the fact, to consider the testimony of Chrysostom as of a superior nature, being that of a living witness; whereas Rufinus, who lived in the subsequent age, could only relate things as they had been transmitted to him; therefore the appeal made by Chry. sostom to the existence of the foundations may be supposed to supersede any inference likely to be derived from these words of Rufinus, as to their not having been laid before the prodigy took place; and the present appearance of the opus reticulatum in the masonry, proves that the workmanship is strictly Roman.(n) Prideaux, in his "Letter to the Deists," makes indeed a bold assertion, and without veracity, in saying, that there" is not now left the least remainder of the ruins of the temple, to show where it once stood; and that those who travel to Jerusalem, have no other mark, whereby to find it out, but the Mahometan mosque erected on the same plat by Omar." There is in fact a much better mark; namely, the mark of Julian's discomfiture, in the remains of Roman masonry upon the spot; and if this be disputed, it can only be so, by admitting that the foundations now " lying bare and naked" were those of the temple built by Herod; in direct opposition to authenticated records concerning their demolition by Titus, who commanded his soldiers to dig up the foundations both of the temple and the city.(o) "Both the Jewish Talmud and Maimonides affirm," says Whitby,(p) that Terentius Rufus, the captain of his army, caused a ploughshare to raise the soil whereon the foundations of the temple stood."
After all that has been said, let the reader bear carefully in mind, that the prophecy of Christ, existing in full blaze, needs not any support from the establishment of Julian's miraculous discomfiture. (q) The ruins of the temple, and of the city; the abolition of the Mosaical dispensation; the total overthrow and dispersion of the Jews; constitute altogether an EXISTING MIRACLE, perplexing the sceptic with incontestable proof of the divine origin of our religion.
P. 372. A curious undescribed herbaceous plant, of the natural order of boragineas, was found by the author in Jerusalem, upon the very spot which is exhibited by the monks as the judgment seat of Pontius Pilate. It has the habit of a lycopsis, but the flowers of a symphtum, and seeds attached nearly as in cynogiossum; but the form is peculiar to itself. The fruits of the order not having been yet thoroughly examined, we have for the present arranged it in symphytum; denominating it, from the remarkable spur near the base of the seed, symphytum calcaratum. The stems are very slender and crooked; the leaves an inch to an inch and a half in length; the flowers upon pedicles, turned to one side, with the calyx nearly half an inch long, but shorter than the bract at the base of the pedicle.
Symphytum caulibus flexuosis debilibus; foliis lato-lanceolatis, integris, ciliatis, hirsutis; racemiis bractatis secundis laxis; bracteis oblongo-lanceolatis; corollis calyce hirsuto brevioribus, acutis; seminibus obtuse triangulis calcaratis, scabris.
(k) See Maclaine's Translation, vol. I. p. 332.
(1) Rufin. Hist. Eccl. lib. x. c. 37.
(m) Warburton's Julian, p. 37. Note (h.) London, 1750.
(a) Vide Vitruv. lib. ii. c. 8. Amst. 1549. Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xxxvi. c. 22. L. Bat. 1635. Winkelmann Hist. de l'Art. &c. &c.
(0) Joseph. de Bell. Jud. See Whitby's General Preface. West on the Resurrection. London, 1807; &c.
(p) Gen. Pref. as cited by West.
(a) Yet even this is attested by four contemporary writers; by Ammianus Marcellinus; by Chrysostom; by Gregory of Narianzen; and by Ambrose, bishop of Milan.