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were gone in search of plants and shells, a powerful and most offeesive smell, as from dead bodies, which we had before expe. rienced more than once, in approaching the town, caused us to hesitate whether we should proceed or return.

At this moment the author observed the remaios of bodies in the sand ; aud Captaio Culverhouse, being in doubt whether they beloog, ed to human bodies or to those of cattle, removed a part of the sand with his sword, and uncovered part of a hand and arm. Upon this, calling to our friends, we told them what we had discovered; and returning to the consul's house, asked him the cause of the revolting spectacle we had witnessed. He told us, that these were the remaius of bodies carried thither, duriog the late plague, for interment; but that the sea, frequently removing the sand which covered them, caused them to be thus exposed ; and he cautioned us in future agaiost walking that way, as the infection might possibly be retained, not only by those bodies, but by the clothes and other thiogs. there deposited.

Joppa, called also Japha, and now universally Jafa, over all the circumstances of its celebrity, as the principal port of Judæa, to its situation with regard to Jerusalem. As a station for vessels, its barbour is one of the worst in the Mediterra. peap. Ships generally anchor about a mile from the town, to avoid the shoals and rocks of the place. * In ancient times it was the only place resorted to as a seaport, in all Judæa. Hither Solomon ordered the materials for the temple to be brought from Mount Libanus, previous to their conveyance by land to Jerusalem. A tradition is preserved, that here Noah lived and built his ark. Pliny describes it as older the deluge. In his time they pretended to exhibit the marks of the chaios with wich Andromeda was fastened to a rock : the . skeletop of the sea monster, to whom she had been exposed, was brought to Rome by Scaurus, and carefully preservedi

** Minus tutus est, et non nisi parva navigia admittit. Nec etiam celebris est, quoniam propter portus incommoditatem baud multae merces illuc advebuntur." Quaresm Eluc. T. S. tom. II. p. 5. Anty. 1639.

" Joppe Phænicum, antiquior terrarum inundatione." Hist. Nat. lib. v. C. 13. tom. I. p. 262. L. Bat. 1635,

Julius Solinus in Polyhistor. cap. 37. Norimb. 1777. The ribs were forty feet in length; and from the account given of the animal, it was probably a whale. Vid. Abulensis in cap. 14. Exod. quaest. 11. Quaresm. Eluc. T. 9. tom. II. p. 5. Antr. 1639., Strab. Geog. lib. i. et xvi. Pomponius Mela, lib. i. cap. 11, &c. Thus we have evidence of whales in this sea, without having recourse to the testimony of sacred scripture. Mr. Briant, however, in his “ Observations upon some passages in scripture, which the enemies of religion have thought most ponoxious," &c. ato. pp. 243, 244, 245, is of the opposite opinion. But if he be right with respect to the single whale in the Mediterrapean, low came that fisht, from earliest limes, to have been

proving that every church has had its reliqués, so universal is a passion for the marvellous. Some authors ascribe the origio of Jaffa to Japhet, son of Noah, and thence derive its name. However fabulous such accounts may be now deemed, they afford proof of the great antiquity of the place; having been recorded by historians, for so many ages, as the only traditions extant concerning its origin. Jaffa is also celebrated as the port whence the prophet Jonas embarked for Nineveh.* Here also St. Peter restored Tabitha to life.f Io the time of St. Jerom it was called Japho. Doubdan gives a long account of its history in later times. It was fortified in the begioning of the thirteenth century, by Louis, king of France. An Arab fisherman at Jaffa, as we were standing upon the beach, came ruppiug to us with a fishi he had just taken out of the water, and, from his eagerness to show what he had caught, we supposed it could oot be very common. It was like a small tenchi, but of a dark and exceedingly vivid green colour, such as we had never seen before vor since ; neither is it described by any author we are acquainted with.

We had po means of preserving it, and therefore would not deprive the poor man of an acquisition with which he seemed so delighted, but gave him a trifle for the gratification its very extraordinary appearance

afforded iis, apd left it in his hands. Notwithstanding the desolate appearance of the town, its market surprised us, by the beauty and variety of the vegetables it exhibited. Melons of every sort and quality were sold in such number, that boats from all the coast of Syria came to be freighted with them. Among these, the watermelons were in such perfection, that, after tasting them at Jaffa, those of any other country are not like the same fruit.** Finding that the vessel sent by Djezzar Pacha to convey us to Acre had not arrived, and that boats laden with fruit were daily sailing thither, Captain Culverhouse, fearful of detaining his frigate a moment after the supplies for the fleet had been completed, judged it prudent to engage a passage for us in one of these boats. We therefore took leave of our aged and respectable host, the English Consul; and upon the evening of July the fifteepih, after suo set, embarked for Acre, to avail ourselves of the land wind, which blows duriog the night, at this season of the year. By day break the vext moroirig re were off the coast of Cæsarea, and so near in with the land, that we could very distinctly perceive the appearance of its numerous and extensive ruios.

an object of worship at Joppa, unless, as Pliny relates, Joppa bad been founded be fore the deluge. See p. 24.

* But Jonab rose up to dee unto Tarshish from the presence of the Lord, and went down to joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarsbish." Jonah j. 3. † Acts ix. 40.

Adrichom Theat. Terr. Sapct. p. 23. Colon. 1628.
Voyage de la Terre Saincte, p. 496. Paris, 1657.

A. D. 1250. Vid. Adrichom. Tbeat. T. S. ubi supra,
** We found near Jalfa four undescribed plants, with several others that were rare
The new species were as follow:
L. A non-descript species of PLANTAGO, with flat linear curved leaves, about two,

or two and a hall, inches long, bristly on both sides, and at the edges the flower stalks hoary, with flat pressed hairs, and rising above the leares: the spikes cylindrical, a little curved. from one to two inches and a half long: the stamens longer than the blossom, but much shorter than the woolly style. This species seems to come nearest to the plantago cylindrica of Forskahl, which is unknown to us. We have called it PLANTAOO SETOSA. Plantavo foliis linearibus planiz. utrinque marginibusque se toso-asperis; scapis pilis alpressis canescentibus folka

The remains of this city, although still considerable, have long been resorted to as a quarry, whenever building materials were required at Acre. Djezzar Pacha, as it has been already meitioned, brought from hence the columns of rare and beautiful marble, as well as the other ornaments, of his palace, bath, fountaio, and mosque, at Acre. The place at present is in. Habited only by jackals and beasts of prey. As we were becalmed during the night, we heard the cries of these animals until day break. Pococke mentions the curious fact of the former existence of crocodiles in the river of Cæsarea.* Perhaps there has not been, in the history of the world, an example of any city, that io so short a space of time rose to such an extraordinary height of splendour, as did this of Cæsarea ;* or that exhibits a more awful contrast to its former magoificence, by the present desolate appearance of its ruins.


longioribus; calycibus nudis margine laceris; corollæ laciniis ovato-triangularie

hus ; stylo pubescente longissimo. II. A very small non descript prostrate species of St. John's wort, HYPERICUM, Linn.

with inversely ovate leaves and terminal flowers, and the teeth of the calyx en. tire at the margin. The stems are froni one to four or five inches long, the leaves hardly the fourth of an inch, the blossoms yellow, rather more than half an incb

We have called it uyPERICUM TENELLUM. Hypericum prostratum, glabrum, foritus terminalit:us trigynis subcorymbosis; calycis dentibus integer rimir margine glandulosis ; caulibus filiformibus brevibus; foliis cuneato oboratis,

punctatis glabris. II. A minu e, nearly stemless, umbelliferous plant, seldom rising to an inch in beight,

with simple linear leaves a little hispid at the e-lges; the fruit hispid, as in cauca. lis, but the flowers and the whole habit of the plant as in bupleurum ; to which genus we have added it, by the name of BUPLEURUM MINIMUM: and the mere willingly, as two other species, the bupleurum semicompositum of Linnæus, and the bupleurum procumbens of Desfontaines, have also seeds more or less hispid. Bupleurum subacaule, ramis quadrangulis brevissimis ; foliis sublinearibus margine asperis; involucello pentaphyllo umbelluiâ vix breviore; fructu his

pidissimo Ir. A small downy annual species of scabious; SCABIOSA, Linn. about five inches in

height; the leaves pinnatifid, with their lobes distant from each other: the beads of flowers upon long peduncles, with a five leaved common calyx ; the florers purple, unequally five cleft, not radliating; the seeds with a downy plume of about firieen rays. Not only the leaves, peduncles, and common calys, but even the outside of the flowers, are downy. We bave called it SCABIOSA DIVARICATA. Scabiosa pubescens, annua; corollulis quinquefidis laciniis inæqualibus ; calycis lacyniis septenis, inaequalibus, lanceolatis; coronâ obsoletâ, pappo pluroso; foliis pinnatifidis. Pococke's Observations upon the East, vol. II. p. 58. Lond. 1745:

Not a single inhabitant remains. Its theatres, once resounding with the shouts of maltitudes, echo no other sound than the nightly cries of animals roaming for their prey. Of its gorgeous palaces and temples, enriched with the choicest works of art, and decorated with the most precious marbles, scarcely a trace.can be discerned. Within the space of ten years after laying the foundation, from an obscure fortress it became the most celebra. ted and flourishing city of all Syria. It was named Cæsarea by Herod, in honour of Augustus, and dedicated by him to that emperor, in the twenty-eighth year of his reign. Upon this occasion, that the ceremony might be rendered illustrious by a degree of profusion unknown in any former instance, Herod assembled the most skilful musicians, wrestlers, and gladiators, from all parts of the world. The solemnity was to be renew

y fifth

year. It was afterward called Colonia Flavia, io consequence of privileges granted by Vespasian. But, as we viewed the ruins of this memorable city, every other circumstance respecting its history was absorbed in the consideration, that we were actually beholding the very spot where the scholar of Tarsus, after two years' imprisonment, made that eloquent appeal, in the audience of the king of Judæa, which must ever be remembered with piety and delight. In the his. tory of the actions of the Holy Apostles, whether we regard the internal evidence of the narrative, or the interest excited by a story so wonderfully appealing to our passions and affections, there is nothing we call to mind with fuller emotions of sublimity and satisfaction. “In the demonstration of the spirit and of power," the mighty advocate for the Christian faith had befowe reasoned of "righteousness, temperance, and judg. ment to come,” till the Roman governor, Felix, trembled as he epoke. Not all the oratory of Tertullus ; not the clamour of his bumerous adversaries; not even the countenance of the most profligate of tyrants, availed against the firmness and

ed every

* See the account of it in Josephus. De Antiq. Jud. lib. xv. c. 13. (the buildings were all of marble;) lib. xvi. c. 9. Colon. 1691.

† Herod caused the tower of Strato to be completely covered with white marble, against the arrival of Augustus. 1 In the 192 Olympiad.

Josephus rates the expense of it at five hundred talents. 11 “ Eadem Cæsarea, ab Herode rege condita : nunc colonia prima Flaria, à Vespasiano Imperatore deducta." Plinii Histor. Natural. lib. v. c. 13. tom, I. p. 262. lis

at. 1635.

intrepidity of thie oracle of God. The judge had trembled before his prisoner ;-and now a second occasion offered, io which, for the admiration and the triumph of the Christian world, one of its bitterest persecutors, and a Jew, appeals in the public tribunal of a large and populous city, to all its chiefs and its rulers, its governor and its king, for the truth of his conversion, founded on the highest evidence, delivered in the most fair, opeo, and illustrious manner.

As the day advanced, a breeze sprang up, and, standing out farther from the shore, we lost sight of Cæsarea. The heat became intolerable ; and the powerful odour from the melons, which constituted the freight of our little bark, produced faiotness and indisposition throughout all our party. Toward evening we made the point of Mount Carmel, and saw the monastery very distinctly upon its summit. Afterward, doubling the promontory, we entered the Bay of Acre, and were greet. ed with the welcome sight of the Romulus at anchor. As we drew near, the Captain's barge came to meet us, and we quitted our vessel. Suddenly, as the boat's crew pulled stoutly for the frigate, a shout from all the sailors on board was repeated from the barge, the men standing with their oars erect, and waving their hats. Supposing this to be intended as an ex pression of welcome, upon the return of the captain, we congratulated him

upon the mark of attachment manifested by his crew. This worthy officer shook his head, however, and said he should feel more satisfied without any such demonstration, which amounted to little less than a symptom of mutiny. Upod our arrival on board ire were informed that the men, having been employed in hard labour duriog the captain's absence, repairing the rigging and paipting the frigate, had thus thought proper to testify their satisfaction at what they conceived to be a conclusion of tyrannical government in the inferior officers.

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