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Rama, **

the oldest writer by whom Rama is mentioned. * Bernard visited the Holy Land in the ninth century. Oriental geographers describe it as the metropolis of Palæstine, In this place the famous, tutelar Saiot of our ancestors in England is said, by some, to have suffered martyrdom; although, according to most authors, his reliques reposed in a magnificent temple at Lydda or Diospolis.ll We observed the remains of very cousiderable edifices witbiu, this desolated city: no one was present to give us any information concerning them; even the monastery, which for centuries had entertained pilgrims at

was deserted and left to ruin. Its distance from Jerusalem, usually estinated at a day's journey,it is described by Phocas as equal to thirty-six or thirty-seven miles. If Phocas distinguishes Armathem, the pative place of the prophet Samuel, from Ramola, or Rama, with which Adrichomius seems to have confounded it;&S and places the Church of St. George within the latter city ; which position, although disputed by Relaod and other authors, not only seems to coiucide with the testimony already given from the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, but also with the evidence afforded by Bernard the Monk, who mentions a mouastery of St. George near Ramula. ||||

There is not a part of the Holy Land more fertile than the plaio around Rama; it resembles a continual garden; but cultivation had been neglected at the time of our arrival, on account of the dreadful plague with which the whole country had been infested.

Rama and Lydda were the two first cities of the Holy Land that fell into the haods of the Christians,

* Palæst, Illust. tom. II. p. 959. Utr. 1714.

A. D. 870. His Itinerary was published by Mabillon, in the ". Acta Sanctorum Ora dinis Benedicti," printed at Paris iu 1672. It follows Arculfe's Itinerary, as given by Adamnanus, abbot of Iona. These are Bernard's words : * Deinde venerunt Alarixa; de Alarixa in Ramula, juxta quam est Monasterium beati Georgii Martyris, ubi ipse requiescit.” Bernardus de Locis Sanctis, ap. Mabill. p. 524.

1“ Abulhasep Persa in geographia sua MSta vocat Ramolam caput Palaestinae." Rel. Pal. Illust. tom. II. p. 959 Utr. 1714.

ο Ετ τα εκείθεν κατέλαβαν το “Ράμελ, ενώ και ο μεγαλομάρτος Γεώργιος μεμαρτύρηκέ. ** Postea tamen in Ramel transeunt, ubi magnus Martyr Georgius martyrium subiit." Annae Comnenae Alexiad. lib. xi. p. 328. Par. 1651.

# See the long account given by Adamnanus, de Loc. Sanet: lib. ii. e. 4. Apud Mabillon, Acta Ord. Benedict. Saec. 3. p. 520. Par. 1672. Also Quaresm tom, II. p. 9. Antv. 1639, &c.

**** Hospitantur enim Peregrini in ea domo, quae Nicodemi Christi oceultidiscipuli fuit. Haec domus in Monasterium fuit co-aptata, nunc et Monasterium, et Hospitium, Peregrinorum est.” Bonifacius, lib. ii. de Perenni Cultu Terrae Sanctae. it “ Abesse ab urbe Hierosolymitana iter unius diei." Rel. Pal. Ilust. tom. II. 960. Utr. 1714

| Phocae Descript. Terr. Sanct. e. 29. p. 44. Colon. 1653. $ Theatrum Terr. Sanct. p. 29. Colon. 1628.

.“ Lyddam sive Diospolin intelligit, quae patria est S: Georgii DOD lodge a Rsmola." Rel Pal. Ilust. tom. II. p. 963. Utr. 1714,

great mourning ; Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.”

The history of Rama is more interesting than the neglect shown to it by travellers would induce us to believe. Its origin has been ascribed to the Moslems, under Soliman, son of Abdolmelic,* who built the town with materials furnished by the ruins of Lydia, distant three miles from Rama. That this, however, is not true, may be proved by reference to the writings of St. Jerom: he speaks of its vicioity to Lydda, and calls it Arimathea, I from an opinion very prevalent, that it was the native place of Joseph, who buried our Saviour. The testimony of St. Jerom, given anterior to the Mahometan conquest of the country, is sufficient to prove that the city existed before the Moslems invaded Palæstine. Indeed they are, of all mankind, the least likely to found a city; although the commercial advantages of situation have sometiines augmented places where they reside. It is possible that Rama, from a small village, became a large town under their dominjou; and of this opinion is Quaresmius.|| There seems very little reason to doubt but that this Rama was the village mentioned with Bethoron, by St. Jerom, in the passage already twice referred

the only remaius of the two cities so pamed, which were built by Solomon.tt Reland considered Bernard the Monk as

10, **

as

Land ; and the learned reader is requested to determine, whether the modern vil. lage of Bethoor and the modern Rama do not appear to be the places mentioned in the following passage cited in a former note from St. Jerom : Rama et Bethoron et reliquae urbes nobiles a Salomone constructae parvi viculi demonstrantur." Rama was a village in the time of Jerom; and the situatiod of Bethoor is distiøctly marked in the Apocry. pha, with reference to the plain of Rama : 'Εν καταβάσι Βαιθωρών έως τ8 πεδιο. T1 Maccab. iii. 16. 24.)

* Urvene hanc idem non antiquam, sed conditam esse scribit (Abulfeda, in geogra. phiu sun manuscripta) ab Solimanno filio Al dolmelic, vastata urhe Lydda, et aquae ductu, cisterna, aliisque rebus ornatam," &c. (Rel. Pal. Illast. tom. 11, p. 959, Utr. 1714.) - Hanc civitatein aedificaverunt Arabes prope Lyddam, quum peregrini primo iverunt ad partes illas post tempora Mahumeti." Sarutus in Secret. Fidel. Crucis, pag. 152

+ Otherwise named Disspolis. It was also called St. George. (See the Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela.) Pliny mentions it among the ten Toparchies of Judaea. (Vid. lib. y. Hist Nat. c, 14. tom. I. p. 262. L. Bat. 1635.) It was tamous for a church dedicated to St. George, said by Boniface (lib. ii. de Perenni Cultu Terr. Sanct.) to have been built by an English king. There was also a monastery of that name in Rama.

* Haud procul ab ea (Lydda) Arimathian viculum Joseph qui Dominum sepelivit." Hieronymus in Epitaphio Paulæ.

See also Adrichomius, Theat. T. S. p. 29. Colon. 1628.

Elucidat. Terr. Sanct. tom. II. p. 8. Antv. 1639. ** See former notes of this chapter.

# Its most ordinary appellations have been Pama, Ramola, and Ramula ; although Adrichomius, who believed it to have been Arimathea, ineptions the various moditications of Ramatha, Ramathæ, Ramathaim, and Arimatha, or Arimathia, afterward, says he, called Rama, and famula Fid Adriciom. Tbeat Terr. Sapet. p. 29 Colon. 1628.

**

tire oldest writer by whom Rama is mentioned.* Bernard visited the Holy Land in the ninth century.t Oriental geographers describe it as the metropolis of Palæstine, In this place the famous tutelar Saiot of our ancestors in England is said, by some, to have suffered martyrdom ; although, according to most authors, his reliques reposed in a magnificent temple at Lydda or Diospolis.l" We observed the remains of very considerable edifices witbiu this desolated city : no one was present to give us any information concerning them; even the monastery, which for centuries had entertained pilgrims at Rama, was deserted and left to ruin. Its distance from Jerusalem, usually estimated at a day's journey,it is described by Phocas as equal to thirty-six or thirty-seven miles.ff Phocas distinguishes Armathem, the native place of the prophet Samuel, from Ramola, or Rama, with which Adrichomius seems to have confounded it;& and places the Church of St. George within the latter city ; which position, although disputed by Reland and other authors, not only seems to coincide with the testi. mony already given from the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, but also with the evidence afforded by Bernard the Monk, who mentions a mouastery of St. George near Ramula. |||

There is not a part of the Holy Land more fertile than the plaio around Rama; it resembles a continual garden ; but cultivation had been peglected at the time of our arrival, on account of the dreadful plague with which the whole country had been infested. Rama and Lydda were the two first cities of the Holy Land that fell into the hands of the Christians,

* Palæst, Illust. tom. II. p. 959. Utr. 1714.

A. D. 870. His Itinerary was published by Mabillon, in the “ Acta Sanclorum Ordinis Benedicti," printed at Paris in 1672. It follows Arculfe's Itinerary, as given by Adamnanus, abbot of Iona. These are Bernard's words : * Deinde venerunt Alarixa'; de Alarixa in Ramula, juxta quam est Monasterium beati Georgii Martyris, ubi ipse requiescit.” Bernardus de Locis Sanctis, ap. Mabill. p. 524.

1" Abulhasen Persa in geographia sua MSta vocat Ramolam caput Palaestinae.!! Rel. Pal. Illust. tom. II. p. 959 Utr. 1714

και Ε τα εκείθεν κατέλαβαν το Ράμελ, ενώ και ο μεγαλομάρτυς Γεώργιος μεμαρτύρηκε. * Postea tamen in Ramel transeunt, ubi magnus Martyr Georgius martyrium subiit." Annae Comnenae Alexiad. lib. xi. p. 328. Par. 1651.

ll See the long account given by Adamnanus, de Loc. Sanet. lib. iii. c. 4. Apud Mabillon, Acta Ord. Benedict. Saec. 3. p. 520. Par. 1672. Also Quaresm tom, II. P.9, Anty. 1639, &c.

**" Hospitantur enim Peregrini in ea domo, quae Nicodemi Christi oceultidiscipuli fuit. Haec domus in Monasterium fuit co-aptata, nunc et Monasterium, et Hospitium, Peregrinorum est.” Bonifacius, lib. ij. de Perenni Cultu Terrae Sanctae.

tt " Ahesse ab urbe Hierosolymitana iter unius diei." Rel. Pal. Illust. tom. II. . 960. Utr. 1714

11 Phocae Descript. Terr. Sanct. c. 29. p. 44. Colon. 1653. 3 Theatrum Terr. Sanct. p. 29. Colon. 1628.

till " Lyddam sive Diospolin intelligit, quae patria est 8: Georgii pod longe a Ramola." Rel. Pal. Illust, tom. II. p. 963. Utr. 1714,

when the army of the Crusaders arrived. Rania was then in its greatest splendour ; a magoificent city, filled with wealth and abundance of all the luxuries of the east. It was ex ceedingly populous, adorned with stately buildings, apd well fortified with walls and towers. The princes and generals of the Christian army, having despatched the Count of Flanders, with five hundred cavalry, to reconnoitre the place, and suma mon the city to surrender, found the gates open; the inhabi tants, alarmed by the sudden approach of so powerful an army, had abandoned their dwellings and all their property during the preceding night. lo consequence of this, a genesal rendezvous of the Christian forces took place in Rama, where they remained during three entire days, regaling therselves upon the abundance the place afforded. During this time, Robert of Normandy was elected bishop of Rama and Lydda, to which bishopric all the revenues of the two cities and their dependencies were annexed; the whole army joining in thanksgiving to St. George, the Martyr and patron Saint of Diospolis and Rama, to whom the auspicious commencement of the enterprise was attributed. Hence probably origiuates the peculiar consideration in which St. George* was held by the in. habitants of England, during the early periods of its history.

A more revolting sight can hardly be imagined iban was presented during all the rest of our journey to Jaffa. The road was entirely strewed with dead bodies. Not a planta. tion was to be seep but traces of the deadly contagion were also visible. In the general mortality, a valuable and much tamented British officer, General Kleber, of the artillery, attach to the suite of the Vizier, together with his wife, bez came its victims. They had visited Jerusalem; and had occupied the apartment afterward allotted to our use, in the conFent of St. Salvador. Upon their return to Jaffa the fatal symptoms were speedily manifested. Other artillery officere, who were also stationed in Jaffa at that time, informed us, that General Kleber soon became delirious, and very ungovernable, insomuch that they were compelled to confive him to his chamber. His lady, from the inevitable consequences of the pious offices she rendered to the general, was seized nearly at the same time ; and, although upable, like another Eleonora, to save the life of her husband, by taking to herself the morbid Fenom, was not less conspicuous as an example of conjugal vir

"Cry-God for Harry! Engla24! and St. George !" Ilen. V. act 3. tedes.

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tue. They expired together, insensible of the horrors of their situation, and were thereby spared the agonizing spectacle of each other's sufferings.

Jaffa appeared to be almost in as forlorn a state as Rama; the air itself was still infected with the smell of unburied bodies. We went to the house of the English Consul, whose gray hairs had not exempted bim from French extortion. He had just ventured to hoist again the British flag upon the roof of his dwellivg; and he told us, with tears in his eyes, that it was the only proof of welcome he could offer to us, as the Freach officers, under Buenaparte, had stripped him of every thing he possessed. However, in the midst of all his complaints agaiost the French, not a single syllable ever escaped his lips respecting the enormities supposed to be committed, by means of Buonaparte's orders or coppivance, in the town and neighbourhood of Jaffa. As there are so many living witnesses to attest the truth of this representation, and the character of po ordinary iodividual is so much implicated in its result, the ut most attention will be here paid to every particular likely to illustrate the fact'; and for this especial reason, because that individual is o

our enemy. At the time we were in Jaffa, so soon after the supposed transactions are said to have oca curred, the indigoation of our coosul, and of the inhabitants in general, against the French, were of so deep a dature, that there is nothing they would not have said, to vilify Buopaparte, or his officers: but this accusation they never even hinted.* Nor is this all. Upon the evening of our arrival at Jaffa, walking with Captain Culverhouse along the shore to the south of the town, in order to join some of our party who

*Some years after. Captain Wright, who is now no more, waited upon the author at Ibbotson's hotel, in Vere street, London, to give an account of what he jocosely termed his scepticism upon this subject; when these and the following particulars were related to him, and ap appeal made to the testimony of Captain Culrerhouse, Mr. Cripps, Mr. Loudon, and others who were with us in Jaffa, as to the fact, Captain Wright still maintained the charge; and the author, finding the testimony af forded by himself and his friends llable to give offence, reserved all he had to say upon the subject until it should appear in its proper place, as connected with the history of bis travels; always, however, urging the same statement, when appealed to for in formation. A few months after Captain Wright's visit, Captain Culverhouse, who bad been employed in a distant part of the kingdom, recruiting for the navy, came to London, and meeting the author in public company at table, asked him, with a smile, what he thought of the reports circulated concerning the massacre, &c. at Jaffa The author answered by saying, that it had long been his intention to write to Captain Culverhouse upon the subject, and that it was very gratifying to him to find the purport of bis letter so satisfactorily anticipated. Captain Culverhouse then, before the whole company present, expressed his astonishment at the Industrious propagation of a story, whereof the inhabitants of Jaffa were ignorant, and of which he had Bever heard a syllable until his arrival in England. The author knows not where this: story originated; nor is it of any conséquence to the testimony be thinks it por, 8. duty to communicate.

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