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XI. Palæ Scepsis is yet recognized in the appellation Esky Skûpshu.

XII. Æné is the Aincïa of Strabo; and Æné Têpe, perhaps, the Tomb of Æneas.

XIII. The extremity of the Adramyttian gulph inclines round the ridge of Gargarus, toward the northeast ; so that the circumstance of Xerxes having this mountain upop his left, in bis march from Antandrus to Abydus, is thereby explained..

XIV. Gargarus affords a view not only of all the plain of Troy, but of all the district of Troas, and a very considerable portion of the rest of Asia Minor.

CHAP. VII.

FROM THE HELLESPONT TO RHODES.

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Transactions at the Dardanelles--Public Sports-Inscriptions

-Voyage down the Hellespont - Tenedos Lectum Promontory- Lesbos-- Erythræan Straits-Chios-Straits of samos-Burning Vapour-View of Patmos and the CycladesPirates--Cos-Plane. Tree--Inscriptions~Fountain fo Hippocrates-Greek Manuscripts-Beautiful piece of Ancient Sculpture-Voyage from Cos to Rhodes-Ruins of Cridus -visited by Morrit-and by Walpole-Carpathian Isles Rhodes.

We were detained some time at the Dardanelles, waiting for the vessel from Constant inople: this came at last, so deeply laden with stores, for the supply of our army in Egypt, that we were alınost afraid to venture on board. She had the pame of The Taurida, and was literally nothing more than a covered boat. Mercantile speculations make bold adventurers. Few persons would have volunteered an expedition across the Me. diterranean in such a bark; but our good captain comforted us with the assurance, that Columbus sailed across an unknown ocean in a skiff of less promise. He had cast anchor higher up the Straits, toward the Sea of Marmora, where vessels from Constantinople lie secure from all winds, and find better ground. There is no good anchorage at the Dardanelles. Captain Castle had fitted up a small apartment in the stern, to serve as a cabin ;

and had placed one enormous gun iò the prow, to intimidate pirates ; observing dryly to us, as we surveyed it, that we should be lucky if it did not carry the gib-boom under water, in rough weather. It was amusing to notice the sort of speculation, which occupied not only the hold but every part of the vessel, where it was possible to cram an article of food or merchandize. Barrels of Adrianople tongues, candles, tea, sugar, cheese ; butter of the Ukraine, already in an oily state, aud oozing through the sides of the casks, wine, onious, cordage, iron, biscuit, cloth, pens, paper, hard-ware, hats, shoes, tobacco, and fruit. A few sheep were, moreover, huddled together close to the gun

in the forecastle. During our stay at the Dardanelles, we had lived in the house of the Neapolitan consul. This respectable old man put in force a stratagem which may serve to show the extraordinary power of imagination over diseases of the body. Being troubled with an iotermitting fever, brought on during our excursion in Troas, I had been observed by him to go frequeotly to a clock, in the anfechamber of our apartment, watchiog for the hour when the paroxysm begao. This used to Occi!r ex. actly at poon. One morning he put back the clock a fali hour. At iwelve, therefore, I had no fear of my fever, for the index pointed to eleven: and at one, although the hour seemed to be present, the paroxysm did not take place. Uofortunately, pleased by the success of his experiment, be told me what had happened; and after the usual interval, the fever again returbed. By the same mapper, all the charms used among the lower order of people in this country, operate in the cure of agues. The tomb of Protes us, as related by Philostratus,* was anciently resorted to in healing a quartan lever

We received great civilities from the pacha. He sent one of his officers with our Greek servant, to collect some marbles we wished to remove from Troas; a work generally attended with difficulty, owing to a notion the Turks have, that Christians can extract gold from such stone. The ceremony of his daughter's marriage with the son of an Asiatic viceroy, called, by way of eminence, The pacha of Asia, and said to be lord over a bundred villages, took place during the time we remained. Upon this occasion, public sports were exhibited, and we had an opportunity of seeing a magnificent celebration of the game of djirit, the tournament of the Turks. This very ancient # Philostrat. in Heroicis. -See also Chandler's Ilium, p. Item

pastime might possibly have given rise to tilts and tournaments. It is disficult to reconcile a passion for this martial exercise with the natural habits and indolence of the Turks. The two old pachas fought against the young bridegroom each party being at the head of a numerous band. The contest was often so severe, that we expected to see their eyes, if not their lives, sacrificed. The manuer of the engagement has been osten de scribed. It consists chiefly in a charge made at full speed, and an attack, by hurling short thick sticks, as javelins. Great dexterity is shown, both in parrying off these darts, and in the display of equestrian skill.' Upon the day following that in which the combat took place, male camels were brought to fight with each other, during a concert of Turkish music. In this exhibition there was nothing curious nor diverting, except the extraordinary strength shown by these animals, when a female camel was brought before them. One of the camels, with half a dozen strong Turks endeavouring to restrain it, set off in full speed, overtook the female, and threw her dowu, notwithstanding all their efforts to the contrary. The festivity of the day ended with a scene of intoxication in the palace of the pacha of the Dardanelles, who is much acidicted to drinking. When commotions arise, or there is reason to fear a visit from the Capudan Pacha, who comes occasionally to levy contribution, he retires to his little villa in the recesses of Mount Ida: here he gives ful! scope to his love of drinking; having conveyed with hin his concubines, musicians, dancers, aud gamekeepers; and being also attached to the sports of the field.

The late Mr. Willis left at the Dardanelles, two marbles, with inscriptions, wbich are now in the possession of the customhouse officer. These were offered for sale to us. Mr. Willis found them in Troas, and, I believe, in Alexandria Troas.One of them had been the capital of a pillar, aud was convert: ed by the Turks into a mortar; the other exhibited only a broken mass of marble, of an irregular form. Upou the krst I read,

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This inscription belongs to the latter end of the third century

Galerius Maximianus having been consul in the year 294.The title of Cæsar was conferred upon him by Diocletian. The letters DN are the usual abbreviation of Dominus. The title Princeps Jubentutis or Juventutis, was used in the time of the republic; and we find it continued through almost all the emperors, until the time of Constantine; “Symbolum futuræ successionis," as it is expressed by Spanheim.*

In what repains of the other inscription, we siod mention made of the Tribunus Militum of the third legion; of the Prefectus Fabrúm st and of the Praefectus Equitum. The latter part relates, perhaps, to the conquest of forty-four states in Af. rica. The following are the only legible characters upon the stone:

TRIB . MILLEGIIIAV
PRAEFFABR . TEST
PRAEF. EQVITVMALA
NVMIDIVIPRONI
CIVITATES XXXXIIII
EXPROVINCAFRICA

were

We saw po other antiquities at the Dardanelles; por we able to procure any ancient medals. If these are found, the coosuls of the different nations réserve them as presents for their respective ambassadors at Constantinople. Captain Castle had, however, obtained several among the ruids of Parium; where he also observed curious mosaic pavements, and other remains of that city,

Having all our things on board, we weighed anchor, and took lease of Monsieur Preaux, who returned to Constantinople.As we sailed down the Straits, a very conspicuous tumulus appeared,,crowning the bills upon the European side. Leaving the Dardanelles, we again coasted the interesting land of Troas, passing the Rhotean promontory, and once more view. ing the tomb of Ajax, the sepulchre of Æsyetes, the Grecian harbour, and the mouth of Xavthus, tinging the dark waters of the Hellespont with its yellow torrent. Our course was along the European side of the chaonel; as in passing round Sigeum there is a shoal, whereon vessels are often stranded. In order

* De Præst. et. Us. Num. Diss. + Vid. Cic. ad Attic. Ep. 1.'

to escape this, ships from the Archipelago avoid bearing up the Straits until they are able to see all the windmills stationed upon the brow of the promontory. Two of the tombs mentioned by Strabo appear very conspicuous in that point of view. The house of a dervish is situated in the side of the one nearest to the wiodmills and to the village of Yeni Cheyr; and this sepulchre was opened by order of Monsieur de Choiseul. Having doubled the cape, two other tumuli appear upon the coast toward the south. These are very large, and stand close to the cliff above the shore. We sailed on toward Tenedos, The soil, as we approached, seemed bleak and barren; but the island produces the finest wine in the Archipelago. The Egypfian expedition had raised its price to eight paras the oke: ordinarily, the demand is only from four to six. This wine will keep fourteep or sixteen years; after that time it loses its red colour, and becomes white, but retajos its strength and flavour to a much longer period. The wind and sea were so turbulent that we could not land: we fired a gun, and laid to near the town; this is situated in a low and sheltered spot. A boat put off to us upon our signal, but found such a sea running, that she was compelled to return, and we continued our course.

Perhaps we surveyed the island better from our deck than me could have done on shore; for we saw the whole extent of the town, with the vessels lying in its port, and the land on either side. There is upon the islaod but one object to attract strapgers, except its wine.

It was anciently famous for its earthen. ware; fragments of which we had seen in Troas. But the soros of Atticus, father of Herodes Atticus, a very interesting relique, is in the market place; and this, with its operculum, is said to be entire. It now stands in the agora of the town, serving as a cistern. The inscription upon it was published by Chandler.* Tournefort, who has anticipated every thing it might have been proper to state concerning the ancient history of Teuedos; and who published, at the same time, a very accurate plan of the island, with a view of the town; was in formed that no remaios of former times existed. The bronze medals of Tenedos are however pot uncommon. If the interest. ing monument I have mentioned be hereafter poticed, its removal will not be difficult. The Jewish consul at the Dar. danelles might at any time effect the undertaking; but this could not be done without considerable expense. * Inscriptiones Antique, No. IV.

Voyage de Lefant, tora. ii. p. 82 Lyont, 1714.

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