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THE NEW TESTAMENT.
The Gospel by Matthew.
The Gospel by Mark.
Map, showing a Comparative View of the Persian and Roman Empires.
The Gospel by John.
The Book of the Revelation.
This Edition of the Scriptures is a FAC-SIMILE REPRINT, WITH LARGER. TYPES, of the ENGLISH VERSION of BAGSTER'S POLYGLOT BIBLE.” It corresponds page for page, and line for line, with the two Pocket Editions.
All who have been accustomed to the regular use of any particular edition of the Scriptures, must be aware how much their ability to refer from one passage to another depends on their remembrance of the position of the passages upon the particular parts of the pages where they occur ; 80 that while they are able to turn with ease to the passage they wish to consult in their own Bibles, they are often quite at a loss in searching for the same truths in a Bible with which they are not familiar. This of course depends upon the local memory induced by the constant recurrence, during the daily reading, of the same passages upon the same pages and parts of the pages.
It is accordingly found by those whose failing sight obliges them to relinquish the use of their smaller Pocket Bible for a larger type, that the different arrangement of the matter in the newly adopted copy produces very considerable inconvenience, and materially hinders their accustomed enjoyment of the Sacred Word.
A Bible, therefore, that might supersede the smaller Pocket Companion, without destroying the valuable assistance of this local memory, and without the inconvenience of a new form and arrangement, has been long a desideratum.
Such a Bible is the present Edition.
It has been prepared more expressly for the readers of the “ENGLISH VERSION of BAGSTER'S POLYGLOT BIBLE,” with both sizes of which it exactly corresponds, as well as with the various other Languages of the Series : and the numerous Bible readers accustomed to the use of either of these editions may now obtain the occasional relief of a larger print, or permanently lay aside their well remembered pages, without the least confusion or inconvenience, or the fear of losing the advantage of their previous research and familiarity with the Text.
The present Volume is, as it were, simply a magnified picture of the smaller editions.
A UNIFORM SERIES of Bibles is thus furnished by the publication of this edition ; and those who have not hitherto become very accustomed to other editions, may with much advantage adopt either of the smaller copies for present use, secure of another similar copy with type of increased size, to suit the varying powers of the sight throughout the whole period of life.
The Contents of this Edition are too well known to require lengthened description.
The REFERENCES are original in plan and arrangement. They have been selected with laborious care,—to exhibit the harmony of the sacred writers on the subjects of which they treat: to show the connection of all the Divine attributes, and the holy uniformity of God in His government, both of His people and the world : to help those who are seeking the way of salvation, by pointing out the repeated invitations of mercy: to exhibit the constant reference of all the sacred writers to our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom give all the prophets witness: to connect the threatenings of God's holy law with sin, and with His infinite mercy in Christ: to demonstrate the concurrence of the Old and New Testaments, and the relation of the types and prophecies with their fulfilment : and to manifest respecting the gracious and indispensable operations of the Holy Ghost, the Sanctifier, that as He PREFACE. gave by inspiration the Scriptures for our use, so to Him are we indebted for all we have learned or may learn of them.
“ It is incredible to any one who has not made the experiment, what a proficiency may be made in that knowledge which maketh wise unto salvation, by studying the Scriptures with reference to the parallel passages without any other Commentary, or Exposition, than what the different parts of the Sacred Volume mutually furnish for each other. Let the most illiterate Christian study them in this manner, and let him never cease to pray for the illumination of that Spirit by whom these books were dictated, and the whole compass of abstruse philosophy and recondite history shall furnish no argument with which the perverse will of man shall be able to shake this learned Christian's faith."Bishop Horsley.
The Chronology, placed at the top of each column of references, applies to the events contained in the text at the beginning of each page.
The Marginal Readings are all those which usually accompany the largest editions of the authorised Version.
The Tables of Weights, Measures, etc., and the account of the Political and other divisions of the Jews, are from the best authorities.
The Comparative Chronological arrangement of the contemporaneous history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel will, it is hoped, materially decrease the difficulty of understanding this portion of the Scriptures.
The HISTORY of the period between the close of the Old Testament Canon and the times of the New Testament, will furnish much desirable information of the political state of Judea during the life of our Lord and his Apostles.
The TABULAR HARMONY of the Four Gospel Narratives, and the Synopsis of the Itinerary of the Israelites according to the latest investigations, etc. will afford some assistance to the student.
The COMPARATIVE VIEW of the QUOTATIONS from the Old Testament by the New Testament writers, is entirely new, and, it is believed, is more complete than any other similar list. It may be remarked, in connection with these quotations, and to illustrate the value of such a help as is here offered, that in every case in which we can establish an undoubted reference of the Spirit of God in the New Testament to previous revelation in the Old Testament, we have, as it were, a nucleus of infallible interpretation around which to accumulate further light, and by which to estimate the soundness of our own understanding of the Scriptures.
The Maps have been prepared with the utmost care, both as regards their geographical accuracy and their artistic execution, and contain the newest information.
THE JEWISH AND OTHER SECTS AND FACTIONS
MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES,
ABRIDGED FROM THE “COMPREHENSIVE BIBLE."
, in the Chaldee dialect פרושים from
THB PAARISBES most probably derived their name they exercised any government over the world ; and held
, , , , that the chief good consisted in the gratification of the perishin, and I'V', perishaya, and in Syriac, le; , appetites. They also denied the resurrection of the
body and the imunortality of the soul. pherishai, which signifies persons who are separated from others; which name they assumed because they pre
OF THE CHIEF POLITICAL FACTIONS tended to a more than ordinary sanctity, and strictness in religious observances. (Acts chap. xxvi.5.) In the time
AMONG THE JEWS. of our Saviour, it would appear that the great mass of The SAMARITANS, so called from the country they inthe common people, attracted by their exterior sanctity, habited, which derived its name from the city of Samaria, their zeal, and their religious mysteries, were Pharisees. were originally heathens, of various nations, to whom The leading distinction of character in this sect, how- the king of Assyria gave the cities and lands of the ever, arose from their holding the traditions of the Israelites after their captivity. When they first settled elders; which they not only set upon an equal footing in the country, they practised only the idolatrous rites with the law of God, but, in many cases, plained away
of the several nations whence they came; but afterwards the latter by the former.
they incorporated the worship of the true God with the The SADDUCERS most probably derive their name from several customs and modes of worship to which they had Sadok, a pupil of Antigonus Bochæus, president of the great been accustomed ; and while Jehovah was feared, because Sanhedrin about 260 years before Christ, who inculcated of his supposed influence in the land, all the other gods upon his scholars the duty of serving God out of pure of the Babylonians, Cuthites, Hamathites, Avites, and love to him, and not in a servile manner, under the fear Sepharvites, were paid divine honours. (2 Ki. xvii. 24, &c.) of punishment, or with the hope of reward. Sadok, mis- This monstrous mixture of idolatry with the worship of understanding this spiritual doctrine, concluded that the true God continued till after the return of the Jews there was no future state of rewards and punishments; from the Babylonian captivity. and accordingly taught and propagated that error after The HEBODIANS, rendered in the Syriac version, his master's death. Hence they held, that “there is no Wioia heb?, devaith herodes, “ those of the house resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit” (Mat. xxi. 23. (i. e. the domestics) of Herod,” most probably derived Ac. xxiii. 8), and that the soul perishes with the body at their name from Herod the Great; and were distinguished death: they rejected all traditions, adhering strictly to from the other Jews by concurring with Herod's scheme the letter of Scripture, but preferring the books of Moses ;
of subjecting himself and his dominions to the Romans ; and they denied the superintending providence of God,
and likewise by complying with him in many heathen and held that man enjoyed the most ample freedom of
practices, such as erecting temples with images for action, having the absolute power of doing either good idolatrous worship, building theatres, and instituting or evil as he thought proper, and having his prosperity
pagan games, and placing a golden eagle over the gate or adversity placed within his own control, being re
of the temple of Jehovah. This symbolising with idolatry, spectively the effects of his wisdom or folly.
upon views of interest and worldly policy, was probably The ESSENES probably derive their name from the the leaven of Herod, against which our Lord cautioned Syriac Lool,
, eso, in Pael cam, asi, to heal or cure ; for his disciples. (Mar. vii. 15.) It is also probable, that PHILO calls those who lived a contemplative life Repa- the Herodians, in their doctrinal tenets, were chiefly of TEUTAL, Physicians, not because they studied physic, but the sect of the Sadducees, who were the most indifferent because they applied themselves to the cure of the to religion of any of the Jews; for that which is called diseases of the soul. These Therapeute were exceedingly | by one evangelist, “ the leaven of Herod,” (Mar. viii. 15,) abstemious in their diet, their food being plain and is by another styled “the leaven of the Sadducees." coarse, and their drink water. Their houses were mean; (Mat. xvi. 6.) their clothes made of undyed wool, which they never The GALILEANS, or Gaulonites, were a faction raised changed till worn out; and they neglected all bodily up and headed by Judas the Galilean, or Gaulonite, ornaments, and would not so much as anoint themselves against the Roman government, on occasion of the tax with oil. They lived in societies, and had all their goods which Augustus levied in Judea, when he reduced it to in common; they were very exemplary in their morals ; the form of a Roman province. He exhorted them to and were most rigid in their observance of the sabbath. shake off this yoke, telling them that tribute was due to They held, among other tenets, the immortality of the God alone, and consequently should not be paid to the soul, (though they denied the resurrection,) the existence Romans; and that religious liberty, and the authority of of angels, and a future state of rewards and punish- the divine laws, were to be defended by force of arms. ments; and believed every thing to be ordered by an The ZEALOTS, of which we read so much in JOSEPHUS'S eternal fatality, or chain of causes.
account of the Jewish war, if not the followers of Judas, The Storcs were the followers of Zeno, and held that closely resembled them in their principles and practices. all human affairs were governed by fate: they denied The SICARII, ELKOOLOL, rendered murderers, in Ac. xi. the resurrection of the body, and the immortality of 38, were properly assassins, who derived their name the soul.
from their using poniards like the Roman sicæ, which The EPICUREAN8 were the followers of Epicurus ;
who they concealed under their garments, and with which acknowledged no gods except in name, and denied that they privately stabbed the objects of their malice.
MEASURES, WEIGHTS, AND COINS,
MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.
1. The names of the smaller Measures of length among 4), was a Roman measure of liquids, equal to about a the Hebrews have been borrowed from some of the pint and a half English. members of the human body, as digit, handbreadth, or 2. The chønix, Xović, rendered a measure (Re. vi. 6), palm, span, foot, cubit. The following are the measures was a Grecian measure of capacity, about a pint and a of length mentioned in Scripture :
half, corn-measure. 1. The digit, or fingerbreadth, y yx, etzba, is said to 3. The metretes, Metents, rendered firkin (Jno. ï. 6), contain the breadth of six barleycorns, where thickest, is supposed to be equal to the Hebrew bath, i, e, about and equal to 0.912 inch, or rather more than three- seven gallons and a half. fourths of an inch. 2. The handbreadth, or palm, nou, tophach, is the
III. As the Hebrew Coins were originally Weights, width of a man's four fingers laid flat, i. e. four digits, or and as it is by their respective weight that their value rather more than 37 inches.
is ascertained, it will be necessary to treat of both at 3. The span, 77, zereth, is the measure from the thumb to the little finger expanded, equal to three 1. The gerah, ya, rendered a piece money, was onepalms, or about 10 inches.
twentieth of a shekel (Ex. IX. 13), weighing nearly 11 4. The cubit, MPX, ammah, is the measure of a man's grains, in value about 14d. arm, from the elbow to the extremity of the middle 2. The beka, yp), was a half shekel (Ge. xxiv. 22. finger, equal to about 1 foot 8 inches; though some Ex. IIIvii. 26), weighing about 4 dwt. 13; grains, in compute it at I foot 9 inches, and others at 1 foot 6
value rather more than ls. 14d. inches, or even less. 5. The futhom, apyruia, is the distance between the
3. The shekel, 5p®, according to which all the other hands stretched out, including the breast, equal to four
weights and coins are computed, has been variously cubits, or about 6 feet 8 inches.
estimated at from 218 grains and four-sevenths to 273 6. The reed, 73p, kaneh, was six cubits and a hand- grains and three-fifths; and consequently in value from breadth, or about 10 feet 10 inches.
28.3d. to 38. Bp. CUMBERLAND states that the weight of
the shekel was half a Roman ounce, or 219 grains, Troy 7. The stadium, otadlov, contained 400 cubits, or about 145 paces, nearly equal to a furlong, or the eighth part
weight ; according to which, supposing the value of
silver to be five shillings an ounce, its value in English of an English mile.
8. A mile, ucdcov, so called from mille, a thousand, money must be 28.3795d., for which fraction, we may, contained in the East 10 stadia, or about one-fifth more for convenience in computation, use , the difference than an English mile.
being only little more than one-fifth of a farthing.
4. The maneh, nip, or mina, in gold was equal in II. Of Measures of capacity, some of which were for weight to 100 shekels (comp. 1 Ki. x. 17 with 2 ch. ix. liquids, and some for things dry, the following are 17), or about 3lb. 9 oz. 1 dwt.
3 grains; and consequently, mentioned in Scripture :
reckoning gold at £4 an ounce, was in value rather 1. The log, a, the smallest measure for liquids, was more than €180. But, in silver, it weighed only 60 one-fourth of a cab, and one-seventy-second of an ephah, shekels (Eze. xlv. 12), or 2lb. 3 oz. 7 dwt. 12 grains; and about three-fourths of a pint.
as a coin it was only equal to 50 shekels, or about 2. The cab, ap, kabos, was one-sixth of a seah, and £5 148. contained 24 eggs, or 3} pints English.
5. The talent, 73, kikkar, weigbed 3000 shekels, or 3. The omer, py, was a measure for things dry (Ex.
114 lb. 15 dwt., and was in value about £342 38. 9d. xvi. 36), about 6 pints English. 4. The hin, 77, was a measure of liquids (Ex. xxix.
BESIDES these coins, proper to the Hebrew nation, 40; XIX. 24, &c.), equal to two Attic choas, i. e. one
the following Greek and Roman coins are mentioned in
the New Testament: gallon and a half English. 5. The seah, 78D, or ratov, was a measure of things peruta,
the eighth, i. e. of an assarium, was equal to half
1. The mite, or dentov, called by the later Jews 101a, dry, containing of an ephah, and equal to about two gallons and a half English.
a quadrans (Mar. xi. 42), or about three-eighths of a 6. The ephah, DX, was a measure of dry things,
farthing. containing three sæta, or seahs, equal to about 7 gallons quatuor, four, was a Roman brass coin, in value about
2. The farthing, koopavons, or quadrans, so called from and a half English. 7. The bath, na, or Batos (Lu. xvi. 6), was a measure
three-fourths of a farthing. of liquids, of the same capacity as the ephah, “the tenth
3. The assarium, aooaplov, or as, rendered a farthing part of an homer" (Ęze. xlv. 14).
(Mat. x. 29), and called by the Rabbing 710'X, isor,
who say that it contained eight mites, was equal to the 8. The lethech, 775, was a measure of dry things, and tenth part of a denarius, about 3 farthings and one-tenth contained fifteen seahs, as EPIPHANIUS states, equal to of our money. 16 pecks English.
4. The penny, or denarius, Envaplov, so called because 9. The homer, or chomer, 70, a measure of dry things, in ancient times it consisted denis assibus, of ten asses, contained ten ephahs (Eze. xlv. 11), equal to 32 pecks, was a Roman silver coin, equal to about 7 d. of our 1 pint, English.
money. 10. The cor, or Kopos, was a measure both for 5. The drachma, &paxun, of Attica, was equal in value liquids and solids, of the same capacity as the homer to the Roman denarius (Lu. xv. 8). (Eze. xlv. 14. Lu. xvi. 7).
6. The didrachma, Scdpaxmov, or double drachm, ren.
dered by our translators tribute money (Mat. xvi. 24), BESIDES these measures, peculiar to the Hebrews, was consequently equal to 18. 31d. there are three others mentioned in the New Testament, 7. The stater, otamp, a Grecian coin, was, as appears belonging to other nations.
from Mat. xvii. 27, equal in value to two didrachmas, or 1. The sextarius, or geomas, rendered a pot (Mar, vii. four Attic drachms, and consequently to 28. 7d.