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THE NEW

AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA:

A

Popular Dictionary

OF

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.

EDITED BY

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA.

VOLUME VIII.

FUGGER-HAYNAU.

D.

NEW YORK :
APPLETON AND COMPANY,

346 & 348 BROADWAY.
BOSTON: ELLIOT & WHITE.

M.DCCC.LX.

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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of

New York,

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CONTENTS OF VOLUME VIII.

Fulton co.,

Fulton co.,

89

PAGE

PAGE

Fugger, Family of......

1

Futtehghur.

82

Fagger, Andreas.

1

Futtehpoor.

82

Fugger, Ulrich.

1

Futtipoor Sikra.

83

Fugger, Georg

1 Fyzabad...

83

Fugger, Jakob

1

Fugger, Raimund

1

Fugger, Anton..

1

G

Fugitive..

1

Fague.

2

Fulda..

2 G..

83

Falgurite..

2 Gabelentz, Hans Konon von dor... 84

Fuller, Andrew

2 Gabelle.

84

Fuller, Margaret, seo Ossoli, Mar- Gaboon River......

84
garet Fuller.

Gabriel.

85

Fuller, Richard..

3 Gachard, Louis Prospor...

85

Fuller, Thomas..

8 Gadara.

85

Fuller's Earth.

4 Gaddi, Gaddo

85

Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Char- Gaddi, Taddeo

85

lotte.

4 Gaddi, Angelo...

85

Falling.

Gade, Niels Wilhelm.

85

Fulminates

5

Gadily.

86

Fulminic acid..

6

Gadsden co...

86

Fulton co., N. Y.

6 Gadsden, Christopher.....

86

Penn..

6 Gadsden, Christopher Edwards, D.D. 87

Fulton CO.,

Ark...

6 Gadsden, James.

87

Fulton co., Ky

6 Gadwall....

88

Fulton co., Ohio...

7 Gael...

83

Ind..

Gaëta..

89

Fulton co., Ill...

7 Gatulia.

Fulton, Ohio...

7 Gage, Thomas..

89

Fulton, Mo.

7 Gagern, Heinrich Wilhelm August. 39

Fulton, Robert

7 Gaines, Edmund Pendleton.. 89

Fulvia...

10 Gainsborough, Thomas..

40

Fumigation..

10 Gaius.

40

Funchal.

10 Gaj, Ljudevit

40

Function..

10 Galactometer

41

Fundy, Bay of..

11 Galam....

41

Fünen..

11

Galapagos Islands...

41

Funeral Rites, see Burial.

Galatia...

42

Funes, Gregorio..

11 Galatians, Epistle to the.

42

Fünfkirchen

11 Galatz..

42

Fungi..

11 Galaxy...

42

Fungible.

16 Galba, Servius Sulpicius.

42

Funnel

16 Galbanum..

43

16 Galen, Claudius..

43

Fur-Dressing.

23 Galena...

43

Fureedpoor.

24 Galena, Ill.

Furetiere, Antoine.

24 Galerius, Caius Valerius Maximia-

Furies, see Eumenides.

44

Furlong...

24 Gales, Joseph (two).

45

Furnace

Galesville...

45

Furness, William Henry, D.D.... 26 Galiani, Ferdinando..

45

Furniture

26 Galiano, Antonio Alcala.

45

Farruckabad.

80 Galicia, Austria....

46

Fürst, Julius.

81 Galicia, Spain...

47

Fürth..

31 Galilee..

47

Fuse, Safety..

81 Galileo Galilei.

47

Fusel Oil.

81 Galiot...

51

Fuseli, Henry..

81 Gall, Franz Joseph..

51

Fusibility

82 Gall Bladder.

Fusible Metals, see Alloy, and Bis- Gall Insects..

52

Inuth.

Gall Nuts, ses Galls.

Fustian..

32 Gall Stones

53

Fustic..

Gallagher, William D..

Gamut......

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118

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PAGB

Ganoids.

74

Gans, Eduard.

77

Gansevoort, Peter

77

Ganymede..

77

Gar Fish..

77

Garat, Dominique Joseph..

79

Garay, János..

79

Garcia, Don Antonio Gutierrez. 79

Garcia, Manuel de Populo Vicento 79

Garcia, Manuel.

79

Garcia, Paulino Viardot.

79

Garcilasso de la Vega (two).. 80

Gard.

81

Gard, Pont du...

Garda, Luke.

Gardaia.

Garden, see Horticulture,

Garden, Alexander..

Garden, Alexander.

Gardiner..

Gardiner, James...

S2

Gardiner, Stephen.....

82

Gardiner, Sylvester..

82

Gardiner, John...

82

Gardiner, John S. J.

83

Garibaldi, Giuseppe.

83

Garland, Hugh A.

84

Garlic

85

Garnet.

85

Garnett, James Mercer..

86

Garnier, Adolphe..

86

Garnier, Charles Georges Thomas. 86

Garnier, Clóment Joseph.

86

Garnier, Germain

86

Garnier- Pagès, Étienne Joseph

Louis.

87

Garnier-Pagès, Louis Antoine.... 87

Garonne.

87

Garrard co.

87

Garrettson, Freeborn...

87

Garrick, David..

87

Garrison, William Lloyd..

89

Garrote..

91

Garter, Order of the.

92

Garth, Sir Samuel.

92

Gärtner, Joseph..

98

Gas.

98

Gas, Portable.

101

Gas as Fuel.

101

Gascoigne, George.

103

Gascoigne, Sir William,

103

Gasconade co.....

103

Gascony..

104

Gascoygne, William..

104

Gaskell, Elizabeth C.

104

Gasparin, Agénor Étienne.. 104

Gaspé..

104

Gassendi, Pierre...

104

Gasteropoda

106

Gaston co

106

Gaston, William...

106

Gaston de Foix...

107

Gastric Juice, see Digestion.

Gataker, Thomas..

107

Gates co..

107

Gates, Horatio

107

Gateshead

Gath..

108

Gauden, John..

108

Gaudentius

103

Gaudichaud-Beaupré, Charles.. 108

Gauging

109

Gaul..

109

Gauss, Karl Friedrich

111

Gantama,

Buddhism and

Buddha

Gautier, Théophilo..

111

Gavarni.

112

Gavazzi, Alessandro.

112

Gavelkind

112

Gavial.

112

Gay, Claude.

113

Gay, Delphine, see Girardin.

Gay, Ebenezer, D.D..

118

Gay, Martin...!

118

Gay, Winck worth Allan.

118

Gay, John

113

Gay, Marie Françoise Bophie.. 114

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis.. 114

Gaya

115

Gayangos, Pascual de.

115

Gayarré, Charles A. Arthur. 115

PAGB

Gaza..

116

Gaza, Theodore..

116

Gazel..

117

Gazelle

117

Gazetteer..

117

Geauga co..

117

Geber, Abou Moussah Djafar Al

Soft.

118

Gecko.

Ged, William

119

Geddes, Alexander.

119

Geefs, Guillaume..

120

Geelong..

120

Geer, Karl de..

120

Geerts, Charles Henri

120

Geflo

120

Gehenna.

120

Geibel, Emanuel.

120

Geiger, Abraham.

120

Geijer, Eric Gustaf.

121

Geine..

121

Gela..

122

Gelatine.

122

Gelatine, Isinglass

123

Gelatine, Glue

124

Gelderland.

125

Gell, Sir William.

125

Gellert, Christian Fürchtegott.. 125

Gellius, Aulus.

125

Gelon..

126

Gem..

126

Gems, Artificial.

129

Gemini...

180

Gemistus, George.

130

Gempak, Sougita..

180

Gemsbok, see Antelope.

Genealogy

180

Genesee, a river.

181

Genesee co., N. Y

191

Genesee co., Mich.

181

Genesee College, see Lima

Genesee Falls.

181

Genesis.

181

Genest, Edmond Charles..

182

Genet.

132

Geneva, N. Y.

193

Geneva, Switzerland.

188

Geneva, Lake of.

134

Geneviève, Saint.

135

Geneviève, Saint, Duchess of Bra-

bant..

185

Genghis Khan.

185

Genii..

186

Genitive...

136

Genlis, Félicité Stéphanie Ducrest

de.

136

Gennesareth, Lake of.

187

Genoa

Genoude..

140

Gens d'Armes...

140

Genseric...

140

Gentian..

141

Gentiles...

141

Gentileschi, Orazio.

141

Gentleman

141

Gentoo..

142

Gentry co..

142

Gentz, Friedrich von..

142

Genus.

142

Geocentric.

143

Geode

143

Geodesy..

Geoffrey of Monmouth.

143

Geoffroy, Julien Louis.

113

Geoffroy Saint Ililnire, Etienne... 143

Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, Isidore.... 144

Geognosy..

145

Geography.

145

Geology

148

Geometry

163

George I..

167

George II.

168

George III.

170

George IV

178

George, Prince of Denmark

174

Georgo of Trebizond.

174

George, Lake..

175

George, Saint.

175

Georgetown disit, S. C..

175

Georgetown, D. C.

178

Georgetown, 8. C.

176

Georgetown, Ky.

176

PAGE

Georgetown, British Guiana. 176

Georgia, U. 8...

176

Georgia, Asia.

162

Georgia, Gulf of.

183

Georgian Language and Literature 183

Georgium Sidus.

184

Gepidæ....

184

Gera..

184

Geranium.

184

Gerando, Joseph Marie de..

187

Gerando, Auguste de..

188

Gérard, Cécile Jules Basile.. 188

Gérard, Étienne Maurice..

188

Gérard, François Pascal Simon.... 189

Gérard, Henri.

189

Gérard de Nerval.

189

Gerasa...

189

Gerhard, Eduard.

189

Gerbardt, Charles Frédéric....... 190

Gerhardt, Paul..

190

Géricault, Jean Louis Théodore

André

190

Gerlach, Eşnst Ludwig von. 190

Gerlache, Etienne Constantin de.. 190

German Catholics.

191

German Ocean, see North Sea.

German Silver.

192

German Theology.

192

Germanicus Cæsar.

198

Germany.

199

Germany, Language and Litera-

ture of

212

Gerona

227

Gerry, Elbridge.

227

Gers

228

Gerson.

228

Gerson, Jean.

228

Gerståcker, Friedrich.

229

Gerund..

229

Gervinus, George Gottfried... 229

Gesenius, Friedrich Heinrich Wil-

helm

229

Gesner, Konrad von..

280

Gessner, Salomon..

230

Geta, P. Septimius, seo Caracalla

Getre..

230

Gethsemane

230

Gettysburg

280

Geulincx, Arnold..

230

Geyer, Henry Sheffie.

231

Geysers..

231

G frörer, August Friedrich. 232

Ghara..

282

Ghauts...

283

Ghazipoor..

234

Ghee.

234

Gheel.

284

Ghega, Carlo do..

284

Ghent.

285

Gherardi del Testa, Tommaso... 286

Gheriah..

236

Ghibellines, sce Guelphs and Ghi-

bellines.

Ghiberti, Lorenzo

286

Ghiha, Helena.

297

Ghilan..

237

Ghirlandaio.

237

Ghizeh..

237

Ghuzneo.

Giannone, Pietro..

237

Giant...

288

Giant's Causeway..

238

Giaour...

289

Gibbes, Robert Wilson..

239

Gibbon, Edward.....

289

Gibbs, George.

Gibbs, Josiah Willard.

242

Gibeon

242

Gibraltar.

242

Gibson co., Tenn.

243

Gibson co., Ind.

244

Gibson, John.

244

Gibson, John Bannister, LL. D.... 244

Gibson, Thornas Milner..

245

Giddings, Joshua Reed..

245

Giddings, Salmon

246

Gideon...

247

Gieseler, Johann Karl Ludwig.... 247

Giessen.

247

Gifford, William

Gilt.....

247

Gignoux, Francisque Régis.. 249

137

PAGE

PAGE

PAGR

Gil y Zarate, Antonio....

249 Gliddon, George Robins.

298 Gombo

860

Gila.

249 Glinka, Family of..

298

Gomer..

860

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey.

249 Glinka, Gregori

293 Gomorrah

Gilbert, William.

250 Glinka, Serghei.

299

Gonçalvez, Joaquim Alfonso.. 360

Gilbert slands.

250 Glinka, Fedor.

299

Gondar.

860

Gildas..

250 Glinka, Mihail

299 Gondola

860

Gilding.

250

Globe, Artificial.

299

Gong..

361

Gilead.

253 Glogau.

801 Gongora, Luis de..

861

Giles co., Va.

253 Glommen.

801 Goniometer

861

Giles co., Tenn.

258 Glonoine.

801 Gonsalvo de Cordova..

861

Giles, Henry.

253 Gloucester co., N. J.

301 Gonzaga, Thomas Antonio Costa de 363

Giles, William Branch.

253 Gloucester co., Va..

301

Gonzales co, .

364

Gilfllan, George.

254 Gloucester co., N. B.

801

Gonzalo de Berceo, Juan..

864

Gill.

254 Gloucester, Mass.

802

Goochland co

864

Gill, John.

254

Gloucester, Eng.

302 Good, John Mason

864

Gillespie co..

254 Gloucestershire

802 Good Friday,

864

Gillespie, Willian Mitchell, LL.D. 254

Glove..

803

Good Hope, Cape of, see Cape of

Gillies, John, LLD..
25+ Glover, Richard..

304

Good Hope.

Gilliflower..

235

Glow-Worm.

804 Good Will...

865

Gillray, James

255 Glucina..

806

Goodall, Edward.

865

Gilman, John Taylor.

256

Gluck, Christoph Wilibald von.... 806

Goodhue co...

865

Gilman, Samuel, D.D..

256 Glückstadt.

312

Goodrich, Elizur, D.D.

865

Gilman, Caroline..

236 Glue, see Gelatine.

Goodrich, Chauncey

866

Gilmanton.

236

Gluten..

818

Goodrich, Elizur..

866

Gilmer co., Va.

256 Glutton.

813 Goodrich, Chauncey Allen.

866

Gilmer co., Ga.

256

Glycerine.

814 Goodrich, Samuel Griswold. 866

Gilolo, see Moluccas.

Glynn co.

815

Goodrich, Frank Boott.

867

Gilpin, Bernard.

257

Glyptodon.

815 Goodwin Sands...

867

Gimbals.

257 Gmelin, Johann Georg

Goodyear, Charles.

867

Gin.

257

Gmelin, Samuel Gottlieb

815 Gookin, Daniel...

868

Ginger.

259 Gmelin, Johann Friedrich

815 Goomty..

868

Ginseng..

255 Gnat.

815 Goorgaon..

868

Globerti, Vincenzo

259

Gneisenau, August.

817 Goosander

868

Gioja, Flavio..

262 Gneiss..

818 Goose..

869

Gioja, Melchiore

262 Gnesen..

818 Goose Fish.

872

Giordano, Luca...

262 Gnieditch, Nicolai.

818 Gooseberry

872

Giorgione, see Barbarelli, Giorgio. Gnome, see Proverb.

Gopher..

873

Giotto.

262

Gnomes..

818 Gordian Knot, see Gordius.

Giovio, Paolo.

263 Gnostics..

318 Gordianus, Marcus Antonius (two) 874

Giraffe, see Camelopard.

Gnu..

822 Gordins..

874

Giraldus Cambrensis, see Barry, Go3..

822

Gordon co...

874

Gerald.

Gua, old.

822 Gordon, George....

375

Girard, Charles..

263

Goa, New

822 Gordon, Sir John Watson.. 876

Girard, Grégoire

264 Goalpara..

823 Gordon, William, D.D..

876

Girard, Stephen..

264

Goascoran.

823

Gore, Catharine Grace.

876

Girardin, Delphine Gay

265

Goat...

823 Gore, Christopher..

876

Girardin, Emile de.

265 Goatsucker

825 Gorée..

876

Girardin, Marc..

266 Göbel, Traugott Friedemann.. 826 Gorges, Sir Ferdinando.

876

Girardon, François.

266

Gobelins, Royal Manufactory of the 826 Görgey, Arthur.

877

Girdle..

266

Gobert, Napoléon

827

Gorglas..

890

Girgenti

267 Gobi..

823 Gorgons..

880

Girodet-Trioson, Anne Louis 267 God save the King.

828 Gorilla.

350

Gironde..

267 Godavery...

828

Goritz..

882

Girondists

267 Goderich, Viscount, see Ripon, Gorkhas....

882

Gisors...

267 Earl of

Gorlitz..

883

Gittith

267 Godfathers and Godmothers... 829 Görres, Jakob Joseph von..

853

Giulio Romano..

263 Godfrey, Thomas.

829 Gorresio, Gasparo....

883

Giurgevo..

263 Godiva, see Coventry.

Gortchakoff, Family of..

864

Gizzard, see Comparative Anato- Godman, John D...

829 Gortchakoff, Petr,.

884

my

Godolphin, Sidney.

8:30 Gortchakoff, Dmitri.

884

Glacier

268 Godoy, Manuel de..

880

Gortchakoff, Alexander..

884

Glacis.

272 Godwin, George.

880 Gortcbakoff, Andrei.

384

Gladiators

272 Godwin, George.

831 Gortchakoff, Petr.

894

Gladstone, William Ewart. 272 Godwin, Parke..

831 Gortchakoff, Mihail.

884
Gladwin co...
278 Godwin, William.
331 Gortchakoff, Alexander.

884

Glagolitic..

273

Godwin, Mary Wollstonecraft. 882

Gorton, Samuel.

884

Glaire, Jean Baptiste.

274 God wit..

832

Gortyna

885

Glamorganshire.

274 Goertz, Georg Henrik

833 Goruckpoor,

885

Gland..

274 Goes, Damião de...

833 Goshawk

855

Glanders..

276 Goes, Hugo van der.

888

Goshen, N. Y

886

Glanvil, Ranulf de..

277 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von... 833 Gosien.

856

Glanvill, Joseph.

277 Gotfe, William.

838

Goslar.

886

Glarus,

277 Goggra..

838 Gosnold, Bartholomew..

896

Glasgow

278 Goitre.

833 Gospel

886

Glass

281 Golconda.

839 Gosse, Philip Henry...

886

Glass, Enamelled..

293 Gold..

839 Goszczynski, Seweryn.

857

Glass, Solable.

294

Gold-Beating ..

851 Gotha

887

Glass Paper.

294

Gold Coast, see Guinea

Gotham.

887

Glass Snake.

294 Gold Fish

852 Gothenburg..

887

Glassbrenner, Adolf.

295 Golden Fleece, see Argonauts.

Gothic Language and Literature.. 887

Glassites.

295 Golden Fleece, Order of the. 858 Goths,

889

Glastonbury...

Golden Number..

358 Göttingen...

891

Glatz.

296

Golden Rod..

858 Gottland

891

Glauber, Johann Rudolf.

296 Goldfinch..

854 Gottschalk, Louis Moreau

892

Glauber's Salt.

296 Goldoni, Carlo..

854 Gottschall, Rudolf.

892

Glee..

296 Goldschmidt, Hermann..

855 Gottsched, Johann Christoph 892

Gleig, George.

296 Goldsmith, Oliver...

855 Gouda..

892

Gleig, George Robert..

296 Golf..

Goudchaux, Michel..

892

Gleim, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig.. 297 Golgotha, see Calvary.

Gouges, Marie Olympe, see Aubry.

Glencoe.

297

Goliad co..

859 Gough, Hugh.

892

Glendower, Owen..

297 Golius, Jacobus.

8.59

Gough, John B..

392

Glentworth, George.

298 Golownin, Vasili...

859 Gough, Richard.

893

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