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3dly. The Sinai covenant gendereth to bondage, inasmuch as all who are under it, are subjected to the tyranny of Satan.

Man for his offence being cast as into prison, is of course in the hands of the jailor. All the children of the broken covenant are the children of the devil, John viii. 44. Acts xiii. 10. 1 John iii. 8, 9, 10, 12. Being of that evil one, in his slavery they toil all the day long. From one piece of it they may go to another, but to sordid slavery they are still subjected, and must, till they change masters. The prodigal may commence a miser, and the base libertine become a boasting legalist, but even in this case, the man becomes twofold more a child of hell than

And it is a dreadful truth, that the longer under the devil's power, the heavier are his chains. He insnares his children more and more, leading them captive at his will, 1 Tim. ii. 26. In his drudgery they are condemned to toil.

They draw iniquity with cords, and sin as with a cart rope, Isa. v. 18. And what though they boast of liberty, while bound with the chains of vice? that is only the rant of a bedlamite. Being entirely under the power of the strong man, there is an infernal peace within, Luke xi. 21. He does with them as the Philistines with Samson: puts out their eyes, and then makes sport with them, Judg. xvi. 21, 25.

4thly. The Sinaitic covenant gendereth to bondage, inasmuch as all who are under it are subject to bondage through fear of death. Death in its utmost ex. tent is the portion of the sinner's cup. It is the threatening of the covenant, and as such it stands ready to take the covenant-breakers by the throat. . In its one hand there is a scythe to mow them down as cumberers of earth and time: in its other, a key to open the doors of eternity, to push them in, and to bolt the gates fast, fast, behind them. To them death, even the first death is a formidable foe, inasmuch as it turns them over to the second. Hence, at sight of it they cry out in anguish of soul, “ Hast thou found me, O mine enemy?” They dare not think of death.

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And no other refuge have they from its fear, while under the old covenant, than to flee the thoughts of it, and to work themselves into a thoughtless humour. The godly, I grant, are sometimes troubled with their doubts and

fears, but still they have something to balance them. In their worst case they have some hair of hope. Having cast anchor within the vail, Heb. vi. 19. they are tossed no other ways than a ship at anchor. They are not in bondage. And generally in their case, at evening time it shall be light, Zech. xiv. 7. They have hope in their death, Prov. xiv. 32. whereas then the hope of the hypocrite shall be cut off like a spider's web, Job viii. 14. Christ came that through death, he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil: and deliver them who through fear of death were all their life. time subject to bondage, Heb. ii. 14, 15. All their lifetime, namely before their deliverance by Christ *.

5thly and Lastly. The Sinai covenant gendereth to bondage, inasmuch as all who die under it, shall suffer the most miserable bondage to eternity. Soon as they close their eyes in death, they shall lift them up in hell, among the spirits in prison, 1 Pet. iii. 19. They shall be bound as with adamantine chains to the bottom of the burning lake. The boiling waves of unrelenting vengeance shall go over them to eternity. While there is justice in heaven, there shall be fire in hell: and while the Creator's arm is unwearied, they shall be unhappy. The sword of justice shall never return to its scabbard, never rest, nor be still. While countless ages roll on, it shall avenge the breach of the covenant.

By the covenant of works there is a twofold connection established; the one betwixt a state of sin and eternal death, the other betwixt acts of sin and eternal death. As to the latter it is dissoluble, and in the case of the believer actually dissolved: inasmuch as his sinful actions do not expose him to eternal death, howey.

Boston on the Marrow, p. (Mihi) 291,

er much they deserve it. As to the former connection, it is absolutely indissoluble, and cannot but eternally remain: so that whosoever are in that state, they must needs be in a state of death, bound over to the wrath of God, by virtue of the threatening of the law *.

Thus the Sinaitic covenant subjecteth all its children to the curse of God, the dominion of sin, the tyranny of Satan, the terrors of death, and the torments of hell. So true is it, that it gendereth to bondage, and is Agar, i. e. signified by Agar, the bond.wo


APPLICATION. Having thus seen how the covenant from Sinai gendereth to bondage, let us conclude the subject with a short improvement.

1st. From what has been said, see the misery of such as are under the covenant from Sinai. They are in a state of bondage, have the spirit of bondage, and there is but a step between them and the place of eternal bondage. God is their enemy, their legal enemy, sin is their work, Satan is their master, death their terror, and hell from beneath is moved for them, as if to meet them at their coming.

2dly. See the folly and the guilt of such as cleave to the Sinaitic covenant, while that of grace is sound.

. ing in their ears. So did many in the churches of Galatia. They sought to be justified by the law, and therefore Christ with all his riches, and his righteousness became of no effect unto them, Gal. v. 4. Infatuated with error, they did not obey the truth, chap. iii. 1. But after having known God, or rather being known of him, they desired again to be in bondage, chap. iv. 9.

When the jubilee of the Lord was announced to them, and when the year of redemption was fully come; when liberty was proclaimed to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that

Boston on the Marrow, p. (Mihi) 148, 149.

were bound, they in effect refused to be free. And O that their error had died with them! But alas! it runs as in the veins of all Adam's posterity. And that corrupt leaven which threatened to leaven the churches of Galatia, has long, long been infecting those which we call Reformed. How dimly now shines the lamp of truth, and how ready to die are the things that reniain among us!

The apostle gives the unbelieving Galatians to un. derstand that they were the children of the bond wo. man, and of the Sinaitic covenant. They were going about to strengthen that yoke which God had broken from off the neck of his church, and to revive that dispensation to which he had put an end by the sending of his Son. Such in our day as establish their own righteousness, refusing to submit to the Surety-right. eousness of Christ, serve themselves heirs to the unbelieving Galatians; and are under the same covenant with them. They are under the covenant which was from Sinai, though not under the Sinaitic dis. pensation thereof: in the same manner as New Tes. tament saints are under the covenant made with A. braham, though not under the Abralıamic dispensation thereof. "The covenants are essentially the same after Christ's coming as before, though accidentally different with respect to the manner of their administration. The covenant of works is the same now, as of old, though its Sinaitic dispensation be no more: just as the covenant of grace is the same in substance now, as under the Old Testament, though its Abrahamic dispensation be no more. As believers are still A. braham's seed, the children of the free woman, Gal. iii. 29. iv. 31. so unbelievers are the sons of the Si. naitic covenant, the children of the bond woman, Gal. iv. 25, 9, 31.i. e. bastards and not sons, Heb. xii. 8.

3dly. See the happiness of such as have got from under the Sinaitic covenant, the covenant of bondage. They are no longer exposed to the wrath and curse of God, not under the dominion of sin, nor the tyranny of Satan. They have not received the spirit of bond.

age again to fear, viz. to fear death or hell. But they have the Spirit of adoption, God's free Spirit, whereby they cry Abba, Father, Psalm li. 12. Rom. viii. 15. In one word, they are already entered into the glorious liberty of the sons of God, and at death and judgment shall fully enjoy it, Rom. viii. 21, 22, 23.

4thly. See how the liberty of the saints is now en. larged under New Testament times. No longer do they bow their neck beneath the yoke of ceremonies: a bloody yoke indeed. So far from that they are called upon by our apostle, to stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ has made them free, and not to be entangled again with the yoke of bondage, Gal. v. 1. After the Sinaitic transaction, though they were not under the curse of the covenant of works, yet they were under its dispensation; as unbelievers among them, though not under the blessing of the covenant of grace, were nevertheless under its gracious dispensation, the gospel being preached unto them, Heb. iv. 2, 6. But the Seed, the personal Seed being come, the law is no longer added to the promise, the bond wò. man is cast out. The children of promise, the saints are no longer under any dispensation of the covenant of works. The covenant confirmed to Abraham and his seed is no more encumbered with a numerous train of ceremonies. It stands alone, and shines forth in its native glory. The weight of the cross has grinded the tables of stone as into powder; and the Mediator who hung upon it, has torn in pieces the hand-writing: so torn it, that he has not left a letter entire. Such, such the grace wherein we stand.

5thly. It is also observable that though the covenant of works gendering to bondage, was given from mount Sinai, yet grace, glorious grace, crowned the solemn transaction there: and therefore though not the whole, yet it was the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last. Of this we have a short but affecting history, Exod. xxiv. throughout. Moses having built an altar under the hill, and reared up twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel, sent young

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