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thought of Ella Venning being called away to meet her God so suddenly
SOMETHING ABOUT KRISHNAGAR. without the slightest preparation was an awful one. “And they say she was picked up for dead,” added Jessie with a sob.
RISHNAGAR is a town and district in Bengal, sixty "I must go down at once to the house to hear if it is all really true,"
miles north of Calcutta. There are two remark. said Sasie, rising quickly as a faint hope crossed her mind that the report
able places in the district: Plassey, where Clive was exaggerated.
won the famous battle from which dates the British The door was opened by the young housemaid, who looked scared and
supremacy in India, on June 23rd, 1757; and rale. "Come in, miss. Oh, yes, it's all true. It's been an awful Nuddea, an old seat of Hindu learning, sometimes called the accident, and Miss Ella is lying between life and death.”
Oxford of Bengal. But its missionary history is more interesting “Still alive ? Thank God," murmured Sasie. “How did it happen?” to the readers of the GLEANER. The C.M.S. planted a Mission
“Miss Venning drove with the master this morning to Little Oaks, and there in 1831, and, two years after, thirty persons were baptized. as they were coming home he went in for a moment to see old Mr. Minton, Although they were much persecuted, many others joined them; who is taken bad again. And Jacobs the butcher boy, who saw it all, says and in 1838 the benevolence of Christian people to the sufferers that one of them steam-roller things was coming slowly up the lane from a famine led to an extensive movement in favour of Chrisbehind. They did not see that master's carriage was so near, or that the tianity. Some 3,000 persons placed themselves under instrucnoise was exciting the horse, but he got restive, and though Miss Ella tion, and when Bishop Daniel Wilson of Calcutta visited the tried to hold him in, off it bolted all the way home, and Miss Ella was district in 1839, no less than 900 converts were baptized on one thrown out just across the road. Poor dear mistress seems as if it had occasion. But these people were mostly poor labourers, and downright stupned her.”
with but little knowledge; and as that generation passed away The servant said truly ; Mrs. Venning not only looked stunned, but felt it was followed by another consisting largely of people who had it, and no one knew what she suffered during the next few days while her been baptized in infancy, and were only Christians in name, pretty Ella lay between life and death. She wandered up and down the just like so many thousands in England. In after years many house with pale lips, and with a look almost of agony in her eyes, for her 'excellent missionaries laboured among them, such as the late child’s broken sentences
, which reached her distinctly in the little dressing- Rev. C. H. Blumhardt, and the Rev. X. P. Neele (now of Liverroom which opened out of Ella's bedroom, almost broke her heart.
pool); but there was little true spiritual life to be seen. When Mrs. Venning was more often in the dressing-room than with Ella, for
the late Rev. J. Vaughan took charge in 1877 he found much in her times of consciousness the girl seemed to cling to her sister rather to sadden him, but he threw himself into the work of revival than to her mother.
with prayerful energy, and God blessed his efforts. The Christian “ Wasted, wasted,” she would hear her murmur. “Oh, Bea, if I die, community, which numbers 6,128 souls, has distinctly improved mind you live ; don't have the agony of a wasted life to think of. How in the last three or four years. can I meet God ?"
Among other difficulties in Mr. Vaughan's path was a sudden Beatrice, hoping to comfort her, reminded her of her Sunday-school aggression by a Roman Catholic Mission, whose agents, instead class. “You were much better than I,” she said with a sob," for you
of going to the heathen, tried to draw away the Christians. yielded at once to mother's wish about it, while I rebelled, and the Bible
Romish chapels and schools sprang up as if by magic close to says, 'God is not unrighteous that He will forget your work, and labour
those of the C.M.S.; little brass crucifixes were distributed that proceedeth of love."" “ Ah! but that is just it. There was no love in the work ; I simply widely among the Christian women to wear as charms, and one
of the priests openly said, “In six months not a vestige of the undertook it to avoid an argument on the subject, and I imagined all the
Protestant Mission will remain.” Another, being asked by a while that I was very good and unselfish. I ought never to have under
Native why he did not seek the perishing heathen, replied, taken the work. Mother should not have asked me; I wasn't fit.”
“Because we think they may possibly be saved by the light of “Dear Ella, don't talk like that.” “Oh, but I must. When one is near eternity everything looks so different.
reason; but we are sure that you Protestants must perish soon, I see now what a hypocrite I have been. I wish I had been told"
so we try and save you." Their success was alarming for a “ Told what, dear ?
time, but the people they drew away soon found out their mis
This year the "Why, that of all things it is important to be true, and that God's take, and have almost all come back again. work cannot be done by just any one. How could I teach when I bad not report is, “In several places the priests have shut up their learnt? But mother-oh, poor mother! she little knows what harm
schools, and withdrawn in despair.” she has done me, and she must never know.”
Since Mr. Vaughan's lamented death, the Rev. A. Clifford has But she did know, for sitting in the dressing-room every word had had the principal charge of Krishnagar ; the Rev. H. Williams reached her, and pierced her heart like an arrow. She saw now how she
is an evangelistic missionary, and itinerates from village to had begun at the wrong end-expecting the fruit before the plant had village all through the cold season ; and the Rev. J. W. Hall even taken root. She felt another word would break her heart, and so
has the Training Institution for Native teachers. was rising to go when once more she heard Ella's restless voice.
Mr. Williams' itinerating work is very interesting and hopeful. “I think, Bea, we should have been taught to love before we were
The district specially allotted to him has an area of 627 square expected to work; but I don't remember mother ever telling us of God's miles, and contains 620 villages, with a population of 335,000, love, only of our duty to Him."
which gives the very high figure of 534 souls per square mile. Mrs. Venning covered her face in her hands and groaned. A moment's For five months last winter he was out in camp, preaching from pause and the faint voice began again.
village to village, and in that time visited 122 villages. Three “What have I done with my life? I can think of nothing but hours months also, in the rainy season, he spent in travelling by boat. spent in mere selfish pleasure. I have not been living, but dreaming. In the winter tour, Mrs. Williams accompanied her husband :Oh, Bea dear, don't dream your life away too. Pray God to teach you to She was able to do much for the women. It was her practice to go live and love."
each evening, with a Bible-woman, into the village near the tent. An The following day Beatrice wrote to Mr. Bennett, saying she intended invitation to sit dowo at one of the houses was, with hardly an exception, to give up her class. “I feel,” she wrote, “that I must learn myself quickly offered, and soon a large congregation of women assembled. before I can teach others."
Indeed, the difficulty she had was the great number of listeners. The women must bring their children with them, and such an audience is difficult to manage. She was much encouraged by their reception of the
truth. WILD FLOWERS FOR C.M.S.-At a recent meeting for C.M.S. at Stanton
A mission to the women is as neces Drew, near Bristol, a poor woman handed in 178. 8id., the proceeds of one
ary as to the men, An anecdote month's sale of wild flowers.
will illustrate this. A boy in one of our schools was explaining the
Parable of the Sower; I asked him to which of the four classes be
ARCHDEACON A. E. MOULE. belonged. His answer was, “ We are the stony-ground hearers; because in the school we learn the truth, and believe it, but when we go home our
HE name of MOULE has been counted worthy of double mother, aunt, and sisters laugh at us, and taunt us for becoming Christians, so we quickly give it up.”
honour in the annals of the Church Missionary
Society. Two members of the missionary-hearted The Mohammedans, who are three-fifths of the population in
family of the late Rev. Henry Moule, Vicar of this part of Bengal, are showing a readiness to hear the Gospel ;
Fordington, Dorchester, are numbered among its and we are thankful to say that it has pleased God to call out missionaries. One of them, George Evans Moule, has been some converts from among them. Mr. Williams writes :
spared to labour in and for China through twenty-six years; the In November, 1881, a very respectable and fairly well-educated other, Arthur Evans Moule, through twenty-two years. Both Mussulman came to us for baptism. He was well spoken of by Nasr-uddin, the man baptized by Mr. Vaughan three years ago, and who has
are still in their original field, Mid China. One is now Bishop ; nobly held his own while living all alone among his Mussulman relations.
the other is now Archdeacon. Of the other brothers one was He had an intelligent knowledge of Cbristianity, and the points of Senior Dean of Trinity, Cambridge, and is now Principal of difference between it and Mohammedanism, and was ready to go back to Ridley Hall; and another is Tutor of Corpus Christi. his own village without throwing himself upon the Mission for support.
Arthur Evans Moule was born in 1836. He and his brothers A fierce persecution ensued, and he yielded and fell. The Mussulmans throughout the district raised a shout of triumph. They confidently
were educated at home. In 1856 he was for a short time at the began to boast that there was
Malta Protestant College. no fear of any others
From 1857 to 1859 he was coming forward for baptism.
at the C.M. College at IslingBut their triumph was shortlived. In July, two men, a
ton ; and at Christmas, woman, and a child were bap
1859, he was ordained by tized. Tbey are all relations of
the Bishop of London the man who had fallen away,
(Tait). On April 22nd, and they had been witnesses of
1861, he sailed for China. the sufferings he underwent. The most determined efforts
Mr. Arthur Moule joined were made to prevent their
the Ningpo Mission in baptism. Two nights before it
troublous times. The great took place, the enraged Mussul
Taiping rebellion was then mans set fire to the house of
at its head, and a large one of the candidates. The inmates were aroused in time
part of Mid China was in the to save the house. Two days
hands of the insurgents. A after, in the presence of a large
few months after his arrival, crowd of Mussulmans, the four
the city of Ningpo itself fell, were baptized. One of the men
and the missionaries were has not yet had his wife restored to him. They, with Nasr-ud
more than once in immidin, now form a litile church
nent peril. Ultimately, in the village of Tertulberia,
however, by God's mercy, and are commending the Gospel to their neighbours and rela
peace was restored; and tions by word and example.
through many years evan
gelistic work was assiduMoslem bitterness is often
ously carried on both within encountered. The Rev.
the walls and in the surJ. W. Hall relates an inci
rounding country, as dedent which illustrates both
scribed in Mr. Moule's this and the meek spirit
own most interesting book, of some of the Christian
The Story of the Chehagents :
Kiang Mission. SubseManick, who was acting as
quently, from 1876 to 1879, our dák (messenger) between
THE VEN. ARCHDEACON ARTHUR E, MOULE, OF MID CHINA. Bollobpore and Tertulberia, had
he was at Hang-Chow; and left us in the morning; but long
it was during his period of ere he reached the Bhairub (a then swollen river, and consequently service there that the remarkable work in Great Valley began, dangerous to cross) pight came on, forcing him to seek shelter until dawn. which has been several times noticed in the GLEANER in recent Going to the house of a Mussulman he asked for a lodging (which, I may say, is never or seldom refused). The Mussulman, however, turned a deaf years. He has also taken an active share in the training ear to his request, on the ground that his masters were up in Tertulberia of Native evangelists and teachers ; and his Chinese lectures making Christians of the people. “You are a low, mean lot, you
to them on the Thirty-nine Articles have been published. Both Christians,” said the man. " Ây," replied Manick," I own we are a in Chinese and in English he has been prolific as a writer; and poor despised people.” When the man found that his thrust had not
the GLEANER has frequently been privileged with his always bright gone home, he said, “Nay, you are a great people.” “ True," replied Manick, we are a great people; we are the sons of the living God;" contributions in both prose and verse. and the angry Musulman turned him out into the dark night.
On Mr. Arthur Moule's return to China last winter, after a Mr. Williams, in addition to his evangelistic work, superintends period of rest at home which had been lengthened against his the village schools of the Krishnagar District as best he can.
ardent wishes by the doubtful state of his health, he was appointed “What,” he asks, " would be thought at home if a mission Archdeacon of Ningpo by his brother the Bishop. He is now at preacher were to become, not only inspector, but sole manager,
the great commercial port of Sbanghai, where the work of the of forty-three schools, scattered over two counties, and numbering C.M.S. is on a small scale, but where the presence of so large 2,177 scholars (500 girls and the rest boys)?” Nothing, surely, and wealthy an English community makes it important that the could better illustrate the burdens of our missionaries, and their Society should be well represented. He is not only missionary need of sympathy and help.
in charge there, but also Secretary of the whole Mission.
THE STORY OF THE NEW ZEALAND MISSION.
for he could not eat, and he was sure he should be starved ; and By the Author of " England's Daybreak," " The Good News in
reproached the missionaries with his sufferings, saying that had Africa,” fc.
it not been for them all would now be well, for he should have
killed and eaten a slave, and his heart would have been at ease ! IX.
Mr. Williams soothed him, and after a while he retired, someHE climate of New Zealand being remarkably what calmed. It was only for a time, however ; the next
favourable to European constitutions, the trial of morning he returned in still greater agitation, brandishing the broken health is one from which our missionary hatchet he held in his hand, with which he observed he had band labouring there has been wonderfully shel already sent sixteen persons out of the world, and declaring he
tered. For twenty-three years, from 1814 to 1837, should otherwise die of hunger, protested that nothing could their numbers were untouched by death; at that date Mrs. satisfy him but killing and eating some one. After pressing him Davis, truly a mother in Israel, mother now of two missionaries' in vain to partake of the breakfast, at which the family were then wives, as well as (spiritually) of many Maori converts, received seated, Mr. Williams insisted on being heard, told him of the the call to “go up higher,” and her loss was keenly felt. wickedness of his devices and purposes, and how the Evil One But God was carrying on His own work, in some cases, inde- was seeking to obtain possession of him, till Tohi-tapu was fairly pendently of human aid. In one of his Sabbath visits to a place overcome. He threw the hatchet from him, promising it should called Mawi, Mr. Davis was asked to go and see a poor sick never again be used for murderous purposes. He kept his word. man. Tupapa was an aged chief, and his locks were grey, his He even went so far as to refuse an offer from the natives of countenance was elaborately tattooed, but the eminently hand- Kororarika to make him their chief; though they offered him some features seemed already fixed in death. Alas ! what could money and muskets, if he would but put himself at their head, the missionary do, summoned thus only at the eleventh hour ? he steadily declined all inducements which would have separated He bent over the sufferer in deep sorrow of heart, and spoke to him from the missionaries. He replied to his Maori tempters him of the Saviour, whose arm is mighty to save even at the that he cared not for muskets, and if they sent any he should solemn moment when life is ebbing away. The dying man tried make them into rafters for his house. Yet those watching to answer, but his pale blue lips refused to utter a single word ; anxiously for the turning of his soul to God could trace no signs again he tried, making a stronger effort, and this time succeeded. of a real change within ; and later on, falling under the influence Intelligence and joy beamed in the features which had seemed of ungodly traders, he turned against the missionaries; they already stiffened in death, as raising his feeble arm, he let it fall visited and pleaded earnestly with him in his last illness, but, upon his breast and exclaimed, “My mind is fixed on Christ as alas ! he died, as he had lived, a heathen.
“ How long have you been seeking Christ ? ” The work at Whangaroa Bay, where the crew of the Boyd had “ Since I first heard of Him," he replied, “ Christ is in my been massacred and devoured, and the Wesleyan settlement heart, and my soul is joyful.” Mr. Davis urged him to keep burnt to ashes, had features of especial interest. Some lads fast hold of Christ, and to beware of the tempter. “I have no from this place went to school at Keri-Keri, and three or four of fear,” he answered, “for Christ is with me." Mr. Davis read the least promising amongst them grew restless after a while, part of John xiv. to him, and prayed with him, after which and returned to their heathen friends and customs. But when, Tupapa told him how he blessed God for sending His messengers after a while, a converted Maori, named Porotene Ripi (whose to teach him what he must do to be saved, and that now he own history is full of interest, did time and space allow of our longed to depart. “Oh," he said, " I shall die to-day; this is going into it), visited these villages, pleading with the people to the sacred day.” The missionary could not adequately describe care for their own souls, the remembrance of former teaching his own feelings. He thought he had come to witness the seemed to revive with these boys, and they began to try and hopeless end of an ignorant savage ; he found he was kneeling teach others. A general desire for instruction was awakened. beside one of God's dear children, who was resting trustfully on A commodious chapel was erected amongst them by Tupe, one His Almighty arm, even in the midst of the river of death. of the leading chieftains, and with a son of Hongi (his pamesake,
At Waimate the work was spreading with such rapidity, that but very different man to his father), he urged the missionaries Mr. Davis could speak of receiving there 90 inquirers on one to come and settle amongst them. His letter ran as follows: day, and on another 161, and Mr. Clarke tells us that his house “ Mr. Kemp, this is my saying to you, I am sick for you to was “beset" with people actually before daybreak, earnestly be a father to me. I am very sick for a white man to preach to inquiring what they must do to be saved. The same thing went I will never cease contending with you. I am very good on at Paihia. Their pastors seemed literally to be able to find for you, Mr. Kemp, to be a father to me, and to Rewa-Rewa, time for nothing but conversation with inquirers, so numerous and to Tupe. This is all my speech. By Hongi.” and so importunato were they. The natives, finding the mis- These entreaties could not be refused, and Mr. Shepherd sionary staff insufficient for their needs, in several places took up his permanent abode at Whangaroa; he found that some established schools of their own; and you might not unfrequently of the chiefs had already been baptized, amongst whom Tupe see a chief sitting under a tree and reading the Word of God, or took a prominent place as a
" Christian indeed.' observe a copy of the New Testament half hidden in his mat. Our readers are familiar with the honoured name of Mr. King,
We must not, indeed, run away with the impression that all among the first missionaries to the island. He had moved his these presented satisfactory cases of heart-conversion, or that the residence about two miles from Rapghi-houa, Ruatara's home, work of God here was free from the hindrances and drawbacks i but continuing his labours for the entire district, saw the blessed which have always accompanied its progress. The case of Tohi- work steadily growing and spreading among the people. Many tapu was one which caused deep sorrow to his Christian friends. of the young men he had baptized, constituting themselves After being among the fiercest enemies of the missionaries at evangelists, went out into the neighbouring heathen districts, to Paihia, he had become their steadfast friend, and laying aside his offer to others the good tidings which had filled their own hearts own love for war, had often acted the part of mediator between with rejoicing, and the chief, who had at one time been a bitter hostile antagonists. Mr. Williams' influence over him was opponent, not only became a friend, but gave abundant evidence unbounded. In the early days of the mission, Tohi-tapu had
of having truly given his heart to God. A translation of some been terribly excited by the misconduct of one of his wives. He writing found in the fly-leaf of a book belonging to a Maori boy talked of killing himself, as one way of shortening his misery, gives an interesting idea of the nature of the work going on in
their hearts. " Oh Jesus," thus it runs, we cannot perfectly and the violence of their disciples; however, I was very thankful the believe in Thee. Bound by the evil spirit, he will not let our
Bishop was not hurt. There were three or four thousand people in the
bazaar, and they rather lost their heads, as they generally do when excited hearts go, lest we believe in Thee, oh Christ! lest we also be
by fanatics. saved by Thee, oh Jesus, Thou Son of God! Oh Jesus, how
To-day, I had rather a quieter day, thanks to two policemen, who great is Thy love to us! Thou camest down from heaven, when kindly prevented my books and person from being seized—which is all Thou didst understand the love of Thy Father to all mankind. one wants. I don't at all mind a row, because I can generally get them They were going to the place of torment, they were not going to
quiet for a few moments, and put in the whole Gospel plan when once I
get their attention ; but when five or six fellows are tugging at one's Him. Thou saidst, I go to the natural world to be slain as a
clothes, and shoving one about like the crush at a football.goal, it payment for their sin. I will purchase them with My blood.” becomes rather difficult to keep one's footing, to say nothing of the
The darkness was passing for New Zealand, the true Light thread of one's discourse. was now shining indeed.
E.D. A few Sundays back, I was preaching on Paul's conversion, when a
mullah, a very old and bitter opponent whom I had once or twice
brought to a standstill in his arguments, again came up and began BELOW AND ABOVE.
cursing me as usual, and bissing out the “Kalima” in my face. [The
Kalima is the Moslem creed, “There is no god but God, and Mohammed HERE'ER a fair and spreading tree is found,
is His prophet.”] I took hold of him by the sleeve and showed him to That is not all its life which meets the eye ;
the people, and said, “Paul was once such an one as our friend here, ever A fibrous network stretching underground
speaking against the way, the Truth, and the Life, but when God Sustains each verdant bough that waves on high.
revealed Jesus Christ to him, he became a changed man, and went Deep down within the soil, unheard, unseen,
about preaching the truths he once destroyed, which God grant you may
do, old man.” It is not a thing one would always do, but I had the The busy roots are working night and day ;
Christians, Benjamin and Masih Dyal, with me, and I invited them to The hard opposing stones they wind between,
pray for him, and taking of my hat before the crowd, simply asked God Through cleft and figure gently force their way.
to change his heart and reveal Jesus to him. He seemed completely With a selecting instinct well they know
dumfoundered, and, repeating the Kalima, at once withdrew, nor have What will afford them fittest nourishment,
we seen him since. Where hidden springs of precious moisture flow,
The illustrated lecture, with the diagrams of the Religious Tract What juices best for each soft filament.
Society on the MSS. of the Holy Scriptures, was a perfect success. And as they work, they grow; by spreading, thrive;
held it in the schoolroom, which was densely crowded, and had powerful Their vital power is by its increase shown.
lamps put behind, which showed up the character to perfection. Several So is it in the souls of all who strive
people were unable to get in, and I trust many have profited by the To make the tidings of salvation known.
instruction given. It gave me an opportunity of preaching the Gospel to
many who would perhaps never hear it in any other way. The officers They work not for reward ; free service theirs;
(Native) of the regiments also attended, which was a great step in the Yet, by a law which through creation reigns,
Who bless are blessed, and every giver gains.
EXAMPLES AND SUGGESTIONS.
Letters to the Editor.
A Girls' Working Party.
EAR SIR,-Perhaps some of your readers would like to know of a plan
the That flow and ebb from each extremity!
in missionary work. O rival powers ! wrestling in friendly strife,
We have a fortnightly working party formed of young girls from nine Which shall do most to vivify the Tree?
years old upwards. We make scrap-books, work-cases, balls, pincushions, &c.,
and dress dolls to send out as prizes to one of the mission schools, from which O busy roots ! slack not your loving toil;
we receive letters saying how glad they are of our gifts. We also prepare Stretch deeper, wider, through your lowly sphere;
work, such as patchwork, wool slippers, mats, &c., for the native women and Still draw nutrition from the darksome soil
girls to finish. This plan utilises the energies of these young people, whose The distant, outmost, topmost boughs to cheer.
work would hardly be good enough for sale, as the members almost exclusively
consist of the working classes in a manufacturing village. We obtain our Spread wider, higher, O ye branches fair!
materials through asking various friends for any odds and ends of wool, Through cold and heat, frowning or favouring skies; canvas, or scraps of silk, print, &c., and the girls often bring these themselves. Your goodly fruits let hungering nations share,
A box is placed on the table for any contributions in money. Occasionally And pluck, while yet on earth, foretastes of Paradise.
tea-party, when the profits go towards buying dolls, &c., and we invite some one interested in missionary work to give us an address. Of Q. course the attendance at the working parties varies greatly, but on the whole the interest keeps up well, and we are constantly adding new members.
M. E. M, ON THE AFGHAN FRONTIER: PREACHING
How to Increase the Society's Income.
QIR,-Lord Cairns in his speech delivered in Exeter Hall, at the Anniversary
. ROM the Rev. T. J. Lee Mayer, our missionary at Bannu, income no doubt ; but what is that for a nation which spends every year on the Afghan frontier, comes the following very interest
£120,000,000 or £200,000,000 in the purchase of those intoxicating drinks ing account of bazaar preaching in the midst of fierce
which no one would consider a necessary of life, and which most of us here
look upon as the pernicious bane of our country?” Weighty and solemn Mohammedan fanatics. The occasion was in February words ! Would it be possible for the friends of the C.M.S., if not prepared last, and the Bishop who was with him was the Bishop of wholly to become teetotallers
, at least to halve their wine and spirit bili
, and Lahore, Dr. French. In the GLEANER of September, 1880, a full
A TOTAL ABSTAINER. account was given of the work at Bannu, written by Mrs. Mayer :
On the Notice Board. , who have
NE of our Hampshire Honorary District Secretaries has fastened on the
Notice Board in his church porch a copy of the coloured Diagram of the but the Bishop gave a most interesting address to a fairly-filled meeting Religions of the World, called " A Plea for Missions,” and thus has aroused | on " Home Influence," and another to the schoolboys, besides confirming
considerable interest in the parish, and it has led many of the people to make the daughter of the Scripture teacher, Masih Dyal, and Abdul Masih's inquiry about it, and to ask for an explanation. Might not this plan be two sons, Ummed and Mirh Masih, who came in from Esa Kbeyl on
adopted in other places ?
J. H. purpose. They both promise, I think, to follow their father, and gave me
A Reason for a Larger Subscription. had our usual stormy meeting in the bazaar--a glorious listening crowd, Sirsocietyolosh ve staire of five shillings a quarter, so i
SIR,-I enclose five the Church Missionary
ink I must try again broken up by the bitter hostility of the mullahs (Moslem priests) and send another shilling than usual.