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to a small open space in the jungle, where we were all glad to take a rest. It was no place or time for pitching tents, so I threw myself on my kitanda [camp bedstead]-Shaw under his-drew down my curtain to keep off the heavy dew, and committing myself and companions to the Heavenly Father's care, slept soundly till 5 A.M. Our tired and thirsty men set down their burdens and were soon fast asleep, dreaming no doubt of the pure waters of Fulladoyo, which they hope to enjoy to-morrow.
Monday, February 27th.-Started at 6 A.M., and after a good march of three hours reached Fulladoyo. We got into a deep wide valley, surrounded by not very high hills, and presenting the appearance of a great amphitheatre, glorying in all kinds of tropical verdure. At the bottom of the valley we came to a river, on reaching which our men fired off their guns to give warning of our approach, which were quickly replied to from the other side. The river is about twenty feet wide at this season, and is covered with a beautiful lily in full blossom. The very sight of the clear, bright liquid was refreshing after our weary march; and more so still the warm reception we met with from the people of Fulladoyo. Several large trees had been felled and laid from bank to bank to form a bridge for us to cross the river; and a wide road had been cleared through the thick wood which leads up thence to their village. So much evidence of energy and public spirit I have seen nowhere else in Africa. A great crowd was collected on the opposite bank, and as we stepped from the bridge on to Fulladoyo ground a shout of joy rang through the forest and echoed among the hills, which produced sensations in me which I shall never forget, but which I cannot describe. Then came the shaking of hands. Men and women crowded upon us, each one eager for a shake, and "yambo, yambo sana" greeted us on all sides.
The Christian Settlement at Fulladoyo.
On emerging from the wood we came at once upon a large village, or rather a small town; the best built and most orderly kept of any I have seen in this country. I had rather expected to find here a large number of half-wild and desperate men-the scum of the population-slaves who having run away from their masters were herded together here in disorder and confusion. On the contrary, I found a comfortably settled and well ordered community, meeting together morning and evening in a place of worship, which they have put up at their own cost, to hear the Word of God, and join in prayer and praise. I saw, too, on all sides the signs of industry and prosperity. There was altogether an air of uncommon respectability about the place. The houses are neatly and strongly built, and the shambas are well cultivated and rich with Indian corn and other grain and fruits. They put us up in a nicely thatched unfinished shed in the centre of the village, which we liked all the more because it was quite open at both ends, thus giving us plenty of air. The only disadvantage of this arrangement was that crowds of Wanika flocked in upon us the day through to feast their eyes on the wondrous" Wazungu," and it was next to impossible to get a few moments of privacy to ourselves. Towards evening the people of the place, one by one, began to come in, bringing us presents of such things as they had. I never saw anything like it before. I counted about thirty fowls, some dozens of eggs, a goat, and enough rice and ground Indian corn to feast our men all the way back. I really felt ashamed to receive these things, and yet they were given evidently with such good will, that one felt it would pain them if one refused their offerings; so I accepted them, mentally resolving to repay them in some way or other without appearing to do so.
Tuesday, February 28th.-Rose early and scrambled into our clothes as best we could under the gaze of the ever curious Wanika, who had already begun to put in an appearance. At 6.30 A.M. the bell rung for prayers, and in a few minutes the large room was full and the verandahs too. I thought it better to let Abi Sidi conduct the service as usual. After a hymn, which was heartily sung, Abi Sidi read, and made remarks upon a few verses from Gen. vi., and in simple and earnest language set forth Jesus Christ as the true ark of refuge, provided by a merciful God for perishing sinners. Then followed the prayers: a selection from the Book of Common Prayer, of which now, thanks to Bishop Steere, we have a fair translation; and very touching and soul-stirring it was to hear them all as with one voice joining in the Confession, Lord's Prayer, and General Thanksgiving. I wish my congregation at Wingfield could have heard them. The usual morning prayer ended, I gave a short address, and was followed by Shaw, after which G. David concluded with a suitable extempore prayer. I never witnessed greater decorum and attention in any congregation, which is much to say when we consider who and what those poor people lately were-and what in fact they still are-runaway slaves.
I turned my back on Fulladoyo with a feeling of intense thankfulness to God for all I have seen and heard. I cannot help feeling that here we have the beginning af a great movement, and one that bids fair to do more to give a death-blow to the wretched slave system of this country than all your treaties and men-of-war. May God in His good Providence overrule it, so that multitudes of these poor people who have thrown off the yoke of their oppressors may be brought to the knowledge of Jesus Christ and be made "free indeed."
THE STORY OF THE LIFE OF DR. KRAPF,
VI. LABOURS AND TRIALS AMONG THE WANIKA, UGUST 25th, 1847.-It is a year to-day since we arrived here. How much grace and mercy has the Lord shown to his servants during this year! How mightily has He preserved us within and without! By His aid we have had access to this people; have built a habitation to dwell in, and above all, have raised a humble fane, though but a poor hut, for worship; have laid out a small garden, and opened a school. We have made tolerable proficiency in the language, prepared books for the people, preached the Gospel to many Wanika, Wakamba, and Suahili, and become acquainted with the manner and customs, the prejudices, and, in short, with the good and evil qualities, as well as the geographical relations of these tribes, by which means our allotted task in Eastern Africa has become clearer to us.
October 14th.-This evening Rebmann set forth on his journey to Kadiaro. We read Isaiah xlix., and prayed together, asking a blessing upon our work, and beseeching that this journey might be made effectual towards the extension of the Gospel in the interior.
October 25th. I had the pleasure of welcoming the return of my beloved fellow-labourer Rebmann from Kadiaro in good health. He was the bearer of much valuable information, and stated that the Teita people had given him a friendly reception, with permission to dwell among them, and preach the Gospel. This so powerfully raised my spirits to-day, that I thought earnestly and deeply upon the extension of our missionary labours. Oh, that we had men and means enough for the noble field which is opening upon us! A missionary often shares in common the desires and aspirations of a great conqueror.
November 14th.-At the commencement of public worship to-day, there were some twenty persons present, who left us, however, as soon as we had finished the singing, which Rebmann accompanied on the flageolet. The harvest is small, yet we will not despond, but trust to Him who can animate the dead and awaken them to a new and better life! Rebmann had also composed a hymn in the Kinika language, which we sang during the service. The following is one of the verses:—
January 11th, 1818.-To-day the completion of my English-Sushili and Kinika Dictionary closes a long and troublesome labour. My task will now be, (1) to make a copy of this dictionary; (2) to continue my translation of the New Testament, and of Dr. Barth's "Bible Stories"; (3) to make, daily, an excursion to the plantations of the Wanika, and preach to them; (4) to instruct such Wanika children as wish for instruction; (5) to address the Wanika of the district, and to devote myself to those who visit us at our home from far and near; and (6) from time to time to make journeys into the interior, in order to become acquainted with its geographical and ethnological peculiarities and languages, preaching the Gospel as far as can be done on these journeys, and thus pave the way for the mission in the interior, when we shall have received more fellowlabourers from Europe.
March 9th. This morning, two old Wanika women, as self-righteous as any persons in Europe can be, paid me a visit. When I spoke of the evil heart of man one of the women said: "Who has been slandering me to you? I have a good heart, and know of no sin." The old woman said: "I came to you to ask for a garment, and not to listen to your manens (discourse)." A Wanika said: "If I am to be always praying to your Lord, how can I look after my plantation ?
March 17th. It was inwardly made manifest to me to-day, that for superstitions of the Wanika, the sight of the abominations moving me to some time past I have attacked too fiercely the heathen customs and indignation; and that I ought to preach more the love of the Redeemer for His sheep lost, and gone astray, or taken captive by Satan. I must bring them closer to the cross of Christ; show more compassion, and let
my words be full of commiseration and pity; looking forward earnestly and prayerfully for the conversion of this hard people more from God's blessing upon the work than from my own activity. It is neither the gifts nor the works, neither the words nor the prayers and feelings of the missionary, but the Lord Jesus alone who can convert a human being. It is He who must say: "Lazarus, come forth," and though bound hand and foot, the dead man will come forth from the grave of sin and death, and live!
April 19th to 21st.—I went to Mombaz to forward Rebmann's journey to Jagga, and to purchase necessaries for it. The governor of the fortress was somewhat dubious on the subject, and was unwilling that Rebmann should undertake the journey, on the ground that it was exposed to many dangers from Galla, Wakuafi, Masai, as well as wild beasts. In any case, said he, he must not ascend the mountain Kilimanjaro, because it is full of evil spirits (Jins). For, said he, people who have ascended the mountain have been slain by the spirits, their feet and hands have been stiffened, their powder has hung fire, and all kinds of disasters have befallen them. I did not then know that there was snow upon the mountain, and therefore merely said that Rebmann would not go too near the fine sand, which, as I then supposed, must have caused the destruction of the people.
April 27th.-To-day, my dear brother Rebmann began his journey to Jagga, and I accompanied him a short way, and committed him to the protection of Almighty God.
May 11th.--I came upon some ten persons, to whom I discoursed upon John iii. A cripple named Mringe wondered, like Nicodemus, when I said, that man must be born again. He asked, how that could be?
May 31st.—The cripple Mringe called upon me to-day in Rabbai-Mpia for the first time. I told him that we must acknowledge and worship God, as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. These were memorable words to him, and made an extraordinary impression.
Africa; and Rebmann resolved to enter on the long, difficult, and dangerous journey.
April 5th.-Rebmann entered on the journey to Uniamesi.
April 28th.-Spoke seriously with the chief respecting the indifference of the Wanika, who will not learn even now, after we have procured them books at a great cost; for some time ago we received 500 printed copies each of my Kinika version of the Gospel of Luke, of the Heidelberg Catechism, and of a primer from Bombay, where they had been printed at the expense of the Church Missionary Society.*
June 10th.-Arrival of our brothers Erhardt and Wagner in Mombaz. June 15th.-Poor Erhardt came to Rabbai in quite an exhausted state, and I feared that the fever would terminate fatally; for he was in a much worse plight than Rebmann and myself in 1846.
June 20th.-Erhardt still very ill. Wagner also attacked by fever. June 27th.-To-day Rebmann came back from Jagga. The Lord has preserved him from many and great dangers.
July 1st.—The crisis of Erhardt's fever is over, and he is progressing towards convalescence; Wagner, on the contrary, is worse.
July 3rd.-It seems to me necessary, for the sake of future missionaries, that I must learn the Kikamba, Kiteita, Jagga, and Kisambara languages.
August 1st.-Our dear brother Johannes Wagner ended his sufferings yesterday, and was summoned into a better world by the Lord and Giver of life, who in the midst of life hath placed us in death! Incomprehensible at first appeared to us this guidance which so quickly took from us our newly-arrived fellow-labourer; but bis very death has brought a blessing to the Wanika, and although dead, he still speaks to them; for they have now, for the first time, seen the death and burial of a Christian, whose joyful hope is in Christ, the life and the resurrection. After I had read the funeral service of the English liturgy, translating it into the
June 6th.—The cripple Mringe called again upon me, and I explained Kinika language, I spoke to those present and those who had dug the to him a portion of the history of the passion of Christ.
June 12th.-I went to Mombaz, to greet my dear fellow-labourer upon his return from Jagga, and to hear the details of his journey.*
September 2nd.-I began my translation of the Gospel of St. John into the Kinika language.
September 21st.—I completed the translation of the Gospel of St. John into the Kinika language.
November 19th.-Mringe said he wished to buy a hut, in which he might be alone and gather people round him; so I gave him half a dollar, and with this he got a hut built, in which I visited him. It was impossible for this sick and suffering, but God-seeking man longer to remain in the confined hut of his mother, who had begun to hate him as soon as he commenced to love the Word. His relations, too, despise him, and yet
this poor man cannot work and earn his bread.
November 29th.-Mringe was with me during the night. coursed towards midnight about the world to come and the City of God; about the occupations of the blessed, and the incorruptible body of our future state, and many other things. My poor cripple devoured the words as they fell from my lips; and I saw that they made an impression on him, and felt happy indeed, for it is at moments like these that one feels the importance of a missionary's calling. A missionary who feels the working of the Spirit within him, and is upheld in its manifestation to others, is the happiest being upon earth. In his sight what are royal and imperial honours compared with the office of a preacher in the bush or lonely hut?
December 15th.-In great Rabbai there is said to be a kisuka, a little devil, i.e., an image probably of a saint which the Portuguese left behind them after their expulsion from Mombaz, which is now reverenced by the Wanika as a kind of war-god, and is borne round in procession before the outbreak of a war to rouse the warriors to heroic deeds. This is the only idol I have heard of in Eastern Africa, and it remarkably enough comes from an idolatrous Christian church.
February 16th, 1849.-Rebmann returned to-day from his second journey to Jagga. It appears desirable to extend our journeys of exploration by way of Jagga to Uniamesi, and thence to the western coast of
* It was on this journey that Rebmann discovered the snow-clad mountain Kilimanjaro, which is 3,000 feet higher than Mont Blanc.
grave, on 1 Thessalonians iv. 13, and finally we sang some verses of a bymn. From all this the natives were enabled to recognise the marked distinction between Christianity and the horrible wailing and other dark practices of heathenism; and so in this way our departed friend did not come in vain into this benighted land.
THE CRY OF THE HEATHEN.
HE Rev. Ruttonji Nowroji, of Aurungabad, in the dominions of the Nizam of Hydrabad, Central India, was preaching with his Christian helpers last year at a town called Paitan, on the River Godavery. There was a great Hindu fair going on, which was attended by thousands of people. He writes:
In the great gathering of this celebrated town we have managed to keep our preaching for twelve hours daily, for nearly a week. I calculated that at least 10,000 or 12,000 people heard the Gospel message, and never did they hear us with greater attention and pleasure. I have noticed a strange desire on their part to know our religion. There is a restlessness, an increasing restlessness, on the part of the masses, and often have I heard them exclaim, "Oh, do show us the way of salvation! Show us the inner mysteries of your religion. We are far from being happy. We want peace. Our religions do not satisfy us. religion give what ours cannot ?"
I will mention one instance. A Brahmin, employed as schoolmaster, visited us daily. He had several questions to propose, and he was so earnest that it was a pleasure to converse with him. At the time of parting he put up both his hands-joining them together (which Brahmins never do, except only to Brahmins)-and with moistened eyes he told me, in the presence of a large audience
"Oh, sir, how grateful I am for the trouble you have taken in solving my difficulties, and how much I feel refreshed and comforted. I will remember your kindness to my dying day. I know not when God will permit us to meet each other. But, oh, sir, let me make one request. In all your preaching, and at the conclusion of every religious discourse, call upon my countrymen to learn to read. When they read your Scriptures they will be convinced that Christianity is divine, revealing to sinners God's plan of salvation. I feel so sorry to part with you, but my leave is up, and I must be at my post. But from the bottom of my heart I thank you."
It was a copy of this Kinika St. Luke that Abe Ngoa took with him to the Giriama country, and which was the origin of the Christian community there. See GLEANER, Jan., 1878.
IN days of old, from England's shore,
Went forth full many a martial band;
By the fierce Moslem captive held
ENGLAND AND PALESTINE.
The Moslem still rules Palestine,
But travellers from each hemisphere Are free to visit bill and shrine, To countless hearts so strangely dear. There is a small and peaceful band (O might their number sevenfold be!) Who journey to the Holy Land, Intent to make her truly free.
They go not forth with trump and shout,
They wear no badge to win the eye, No crowds applaud as they pass out With calm resolve to serve and die.
Crucified to each earthly aim,
Their Saviour's sign they bear within, Their joy, their glory to proclaim The one true Sacrifice for sin.
England! wilt thou stand careless by,
Thy fathers worshipped sticks and stones; They gave their children to the flame; Thy land was full of tears and groans
Before Christ's faithful preachers came. The light of truth has made thee shine, Has spread thy name from sea to sea, Oh! give again to Palestine
The wondrous gift she gave to thee.
Education in the East, relieves us of the care of most of the
SKETCHES OF MISSIONARY WORK IN PALESTINE. Nazareth girls. Under Miss Dickson's admirable and loving
BY LOUISA H. H. TRISTRAM.
E had had a week of very unsettled-looking weather since we left Jerusalem, the only fine days being those spent at Nablous, and on the Friday morning we rose from our beds at the foot of Mount Carmel to find it pouring as if it had never rained there before. As it had been raining all through the night, our rather low camping ground on the banks of the Kishon speedily became a swamp, and it was with feelings of great relief that we set off for Nazareth on Saturday, under a clear sky.
We forded the Kishon with more ease than had been anticipated; and soon found ourselves in a lovely park-like country, till we again emerged on the swampy plain of Esdraelon, where we could well imagine the heavy work that Sisera's chariot wheels must have had. Then after ascending a rocky valley, and rounding the brow of a bare hill, we found ourselves close to the town of Nazareth. Through its narrow streets we rode, attracted almost immediately by the sight of an open carpenter's shop, whence came the busy sound of the hammer, a sight the deep interest of which you can easily understand.
We chose our camping ground, high and dry, on a charming sward overlooking the whole town, and close to the fountain, which has every right to the name it bears of the Virgin's Well. It is the one well of the place, and here, without the least doubt, must Mary have come day after day, as we now saw the Nazareth maidens coming with their pitchers for water.
Nazareth is built in an amphitheatre of hills, nestling against the southern slopes, but the old village was much lower down in the hollow. It has been so much the custom in the east to build on the rubbish heaps and debris of former dwellings, that it is impossible to say how many Nazareths have been piled one upon another, gradually creeping up hill on the slopes of the true Mount of Precipitation.
As one of the oldest and most important of our Mission Stations in the Holy Land, Nazareth now presents the feature of the second generation of Protestant Christians, and this, as is always the case, is a time of special difficulty and danger, from the admixture that there must be of mere nominal professors without the zeal of first love. "Grace does not run in the blood," as a wise man once said. However, there is true love and zeal to be found in the greater number of the Mission congregation, and some of the very difficulties felt are just the outcome of a grasping after more subtle teaching and the danger of losing hold of first principles, a peril to which the Oriental mind is peculiarly susceptible.
So many English travellers were spending Sunday at Nazareth that Mr. Bellamy and Mr. Huber kindly arranged for an English service at eleven, therefore we did not go to the Arabic service, which is early and very well attended. The church is a very fine building, accomplished a good many years ago at very moderate cost, under the superintendence of Mr. Zeller, who lived here for many years, and was the father of the Nazareth Mission. We could feel that our church there was thoroughly worthy of its central position in the now thriving and prosperous town. There is a second Arabic service in the afternoon, and Sunday-schools besides, all admirably managed, as was seen by those of our party who went out in the heat of that Sunday
The boys' school numbers 130 scholars, in a capital schoolroom, the enlargement of which was not quite completed when we were there. There is also a good school for girls and infants, who are day scholars, but the beautiful orphanage on the side of the hill above the town, maintained by the Society for Female
care fifty girls are boarded, clothed, and taught here; and there is now accommodation for fifty more, who I have no doubt will be forthcoming as soon as funds for their support are supplied. Every kind of Mission agency is at work here. The evangelistic work of our missionaries, church services, schools, meetings, and a mothers' meeting and sewing class, conducted by Mrs. Huber and her daughter,--the Scotch Medical Mission has a small hospital (though the absence for health's sake of the doctor prevented our seeing this at work), and Miss Dickson's orphanage ;-everything, in fact, but the one thing that might naturally occur to us as being the most essentially in sympathy with the place and its holy associations. This is a higher grade boarding school for boys of the same class as the Diocesan School at Jerusalem. School at Jerusalem. In the girls' orphanage they have not only the advantages of a Christian education, but they are trained in habits of cleanliness and order, and taught to make their homes of the future what a Christian home ought to be. Now when these girls marry, if their husbands have not had a similar training, what chance is there for them? They will in most cases gradually sink back disheartened to the old filthy ways that the influence of generations will easily bring back to them. I must here say that in matters of food, style of dress, and expenditure, no change is made in the custom of the country, which is usually that best adapted for it. The C.M.S. hope much to be able to plant such an institution here, in the heart of Galilee, and I would earnestly hope that a special effort may be begun for this work so urgently needed. There are orphan boys drifting into misery and vice because there is no such home open for them; and this is on the spot hallowed to us as the scene of our Lord's boyhood and early manhood. On those flower-clad hills He wandered as a little lad, and no more certain track have we anywhere of those holy footsteps than on the slopes of the hills
I think if the boys of England, those at our public schools, as well as those toiling in the humbler walks of life, would make the effort, a sufficient sum would then be raised, and our dear Society be spared the pang of looking at an open door they cannot enter. What more blessed or interesting work can be imagined than a Boys' Industrial School and Orphanage at Nazareth? Geographically a better spot could not be chosen. Nazareth is the centre of northern Palestine, and easily reached from all parts. It is a thriving town, and the easy access to the sea coast gives it special advantages and openings for labour and trade.
Nazareth is lengthening her cords in the surrounding country as a centre of C.M.S. work. At Shefamar we have a church and
school, with a catechist and schoolmaster, and the services and week-day meetings are well attended. At this village there are twenty-six communicants. Reineh also is a very hopeful and vigorous out-station, ministered to by an able and devoted schoolmaster, and there are schools open and a good beginning made in many a Galilean village. Kefr Kenna, or Cana of Galilee, is about an hour's ride from Nazareth; and here we have a good school as far as master and boys are concerned, and it is hoped that a good schoolroom will soon be built. The master here is catechist also, and conducts services on Sunday. All these outstations are visited from Nazareth by the Native Pastor there, who works under the supervision of Mr. Huber.
The Mission at Nazareth is a most flourishing and important one, and much good has come out of some of the difficulties of former years. The congregations have increased, and the church is full every Sunday, while the meetings on week-days are very largely attended. Now, when once the Boys' Industrial School is begun, we shall have a model Mission, thanks to the help from those who work so heartily by our side on this holy ground.