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ADVANCE ALONG THE WHOLE LINE."
TEN WEEKS IN INDIA. (Suggested by some words in Canon Tristram's Speech at Exeter Ilall, Extracts from Letters to my Children during a Winter Tour. May 2nd, 1882.)
BY THE REV. E. H. BICKERSTETI, M.A.,
Vicar of Christ Church, Hampstead.
CALCUTTA, January 17, 1881.
Y last letter closed with our departure from Benares
for Calcutta. At 10 o'clock on the night of Monday, Ye shall be knighted on the battle-field.
January 10, we got into a carriage rough as the And straight from thence, from conflict nobly fought,
Adriatic, which made us all sickly; so after four While in your ears the shouts of triumph ring,
hours we discreetly changed into one equally good, With everlasting joy, ye shall be brought
where there was only one clergyman, who kindly welcomed us. Into the presence-chamber of the King.
We passed Patna and Dinapore, and through vegetation which ALICE J. JANVRIN. became more and more tropical (palms, &c.) we slid into the
night and slept as well as our jolted heads would allow us, and
next morning reached Calcutta just at 6 o'clock. The kind AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF ANOTHER MISSIONARY BOX. Bisbop (Dr. Johnson) had sent his carriage to meet us (the To the Editor of the GLEANER.
same carriage that Bishop Wilson had), and met us on the stair1 AVING understood that you want to glean more facts about boxes, though at 7 o'clock in the morning.
case, and his sister soon came and gave us the kindest welcome, I venture to send some picked up out of my own history. You will see it is very different, not only from that of my relative,
On Thursday morning the Bishop of Calcutta gave his charge whose account of himself or herself has been given in your columns, but to some sixty-five clergy in the Cathedral. On Wednesday and I fancy from all otber boxes that you ever heard of.
Thursday there was the Diocesan Conference.
Edward was In the first place, you must know that I am an Indian-I think I may
asked to speak on Education, and spoke admirably. On Friday now say, judging according to the natural life of a box, an old Indian. I came into being at a place which curiously enough is called Salem, though
and Saturday there was the retreat. I took the mid-day the only connection between it and the holy rity of peace was that it was
address on Friday, and the Bishop on Saturday. The only thing blessed by a missi n of peace. My c'mplexion is, of course, dark, I may I did not like was the unbroken silence. It is not natural, to alm st say black, as I was made of black wood, though, as I have heard, my thinking. I cannot imagine our blessed Lord enjoining European boxwoot is white. The hand that fashioned we were also black, but it was under the superintendence of a white German missionary with
silence on His Apostles, when He called them to come apart into an English wife.
a desert place and rest awhile. However, many men, many I was made to order, and intended as an accurate model of an Idol minds—but I love liberty. Temple to the village Mother Goddess. My mouth is large enough to On Friday evening I spoke at the C.M.S. quarterly meeting to admit a rupee or florin, but not a half-crown, though a penny will just a full room, and walked home alone, by moonlight, some 21 go in. On the ba-ement or walls are four texts, as follows :
miles. On Saturday afternoon M- and I made an expedi“ The silver is mine, and the gold is mine.”
tion by ourselves to the Botanical Gardens, which lie across “ To communicate forget not." “ Frerly ye have received, freely give."
the Hooghly river, beyond what was the Bishop's College. “Let nothing be lost."
We got into a most quaint boat, the rowers sitting sideThese are all very good and suitahle, but, judging from my experience, a
ways to pull.
There was a wonderful banyan tree in the still better might be found. It is "Give and it shall be given unto you, gardens, under which I should think a thousand people could good measure, pressed down and shaken toge' her and running over shall stand, and lovely palms and orchid houses. We got back by men give into your bosom ”; for I am convinced, from my own experi- moonlight. Yesterday I preached in the cathedral in the ence, that the more that is entrusted to my care the more is left in my morning, and at the great church of St. John's in the evening; patron's keeping. Though I am bound to secrecy, and can neith' r speak nor writa except by a machine, I may, without any breach of confidence, and to-day have had long conversations with Mr. Parker, the tell some facts which may be useful to other bixes. As a rule they are C.M.S. Secretary, and others, at his house. Ope young Brahmin mostly placed in the hands of poor children, or in poor cottages, or on the of the highest caste came, the son of a rich Brahmin, who used counters of shops to receive the offerings not of the owner, but of others who are asked to put in. On the contrary, I have passed nearly all my
to allow him large moneys, but has now cut off every shilling, life on a table in the hall, and have never asked any one to put in even a
because his son attends Mr. Parker's Bible Class. It is hard to Jenny. I could never understand why rich reople should be anxi us to realise what genuine enquirers have to suffer. get rence or farthings from the poor, and not put their own pounds and This afternoon M-, and Edward, the Bishop of Colombo, shillings into their own box. By doing so they can comply with other and I called on Keshub Chunder Sen, to whom I had sent Protexts beside those that I show them. For in-tince, they could “Do their fessor Monier Williams' note of introduction. He was most alms in seer t, not lettin: the left hand knw what the right hand dorth." They could also very conveniently “ On the first day of the week lay by courteous and interesting, and showed us his little prayer-meeting in store as God has prospered them”; or they could acknowledge special room in his house. answers to special prayers or other special mercies by a special offering dropped into the box.
CALCUTTA, January 23, 1881. Let me conclude with a few pieces of advice, the result of twenty-five We had the most charming “outing” from Tuesday noon to years' experience:
Saturday noon last week. It was a great matter to travel nearly 1. Let all who want to do good and prosper, whether rich or poor, 800 miles to see mountains which might be wrapped in mist have a missionary box. 2. Let the owner first take heed to feed it himself or herself.
and cloud--but God was most gracious to us, and we have seen 3. Open it quarterly.
scenery we can never, never forget. We travelled all Tuesday 4. Gather up the fragments, such as books and papers no longer wanted, afternoon and night, and woke up at Siliguri, some 330 miles discount on ready money payments, and unexpected gains of all kinds, from Calcutta, to get into a quaint steam tram-car, which, with and give them or their tithe to me. 5. Instly, remember that a free heart is the essence of acceptableness Himalayan range to Kurseong.
the most enterprising little engine, was to mount 30 miles of the in offering, and therefore never impose your own rules on your neighbour's
The foliage was luxuriant; box.
AMMAN KOYIL. ancient forests, gigantic reeds, tree ferns, tea-gardens, and then
precipices on either side, our little railroad taking the sharpest
curves with the most perfect adroitness, and once making the I was out by 6. The moon was up, and not a single cloud figure 8, immense precipices on either side. So we got to between us and the whole range of mountains. Edward and Kurseong, and then got into a tonga for the last 18 miles to soon came, and we can never forget the sight—it was a Darjeeling. Alas ! that night the distant hills were all veiled in pearl-like transparency, something so ethereal and tender it did cloud. I got up at 3 A.M. It was piercing cold, moonlight on not seem of the world—but it might be the steps of heaven let near hills, but the snows all hidden. But at 6 we got up,
down to earth. The mountains are so much higher than and the glorious view was stamped into us as in a moment. those in Switzerland, that you have to raise your eyes, and The sun rose on the snowy ranges from 40 to 45 miles distant, find them where you do not expect to find anything but air and though a belt of cloud, perhaps 20 miles broad, lay betwixt us clouds. Cowper's lines came continually to my mindand them, and quite veiled the lower snow ranges. But there
“His are the mountains and the valleys his, arose Chinchingunga, 27,000 feet high, and all her sister moun
And the resplendent rivers—his to enjoy tains, in unutterable glory. M— Edward, and I walked to
With a propriety that none can feel the Observatory hill, a mile away, first lost in wonder and
But who, with filial confidence inspired,
Can lift to Heaven an unpresumptuous eye, delight, and there we had our morning prayer, and I read Rev.
And smiling say—'My Father made them all!' xxi. from my Greek Testament. More clouds came up, but the
Are they not bis by a peculiar right, snow hills were in sight, sometimes more, sometimes less, all
And by an emphasis of interest bis, day. We got three ponies, and rode up the Senchall mountains
Whose eye they fill with tears of holy joy, about ten miles ride, and had a wonderful view of the nearer
Whose heart with praise ? " Himalayas; and the evening roseate lights upon the most distant We left Darjeeling most reluctantly at 10 A.M., Friday; had another snows glowed into fire after the sun was set. On Friday morning delightful day through the gorges and down the lower ranges by
He says :
and it is considered a mark of politeness and hospitality. Nor
MR. DARWIN ON MISSIONS. are the females exempt from the debasing and pernicious habit,
R. CHARLES DARWIN, the great paturalist, recently deceased, although it is less common amongst them. In point of fact,
in his “Journal of Researches," describes some of the C.M.S. opium-smoking is a fearful, desolating pestilence, pervading all
Mission stations at which he sojourned when in New Zealand. classes of people, wasting their property, enfeebling their mental
At length we reached Waimate. After having passed over so many miles faculties, ruining their bodies, and shortening their lives." of an uninhabited useless country, the sudden appearance of an English farm. Nor is the habit confined to the heathen of the community. Again house and its well-dressed fields, placed there as if by an enchanter's wand,
was exceedingly pleasant. Mr. Williams not being at home, I received in and again are the hearts of the missionaries saddened by their Mr. Davies' house a cordial welcome. We took a stroll about the farm ; but being compelled to suspend those of their flock who have given I cannot attempt to describe all I saw. There were large gardens, with every way under the temptation to indulge. And in the annual letters
fruit and vegetable which England produces, and many belonging to a warmer
clime. Around the farmyard there were stables, a thrashing barn, with its received from China this very year allusion is made to the falls winnowing machine, a blacksmith's forge, and on the ground ploughshares and and failures of Native agents whose powers of resistance have
other tools; in the middle was that happy mixture of pigs and poultry, lying been unequal to the allurements of the drug. Any case of the
comfortably together as in every English farmyard ; and at a little distance
a large and substantial water-mill. All this is very surprising when it is conkind is a pathetic one, and calls for the prayers of God's people siderered that five years ago nothing but the fern flourished here. Moreover, that those who have once abandoned the habit may be kept native workmanship, taughtly the missimaries, has effected this change. The
lesson of the missionary the enchanter's wand. The house had been built, steadfast.
the windows framed, the fields ploughed, and even th: trees grafted by the To put a case which has actually occurred. An opium-smoker New Zealander. When I looked at the whole scene I thought it admirable. hears the Gospel and believes. Conscious that he “cannot
Several young men, redeemed by the missionaries from slavery, were employed on the farm; they had a respectable appearance.
Late in the evening I serve God and opium,” he throws away his pipe, and is baptized. went to Mr. Williams' house, where I passed the night. I found there a large He is brought to the training college, and afterwards sent forth party of children, collected together for Christmas Day, and all sitting round & as an evangelist to his countrymen. The opium cravings come
table at tea. I never saw a nicer or more merry group; and to think that this
was the centre of the land of cannibalism, murder, and all atrocious crimes ! on again, but he resolutely and prayerfully resists them. At
I took leave of the missionaries with thankfulness for their kind welcome, and with last in a moment of weakness, he yields. It is the first step in feelings of high respect for their gentlemanlike, useful, and upright characters. a rapid downward course, which ends in expulsion from the
I think it would be difficult to find a body of men, betier adapted for the high
office which they fulfil. Mission ranks.
Mr. B. mentioned one pleasing anecdote as a proof of the sincerity of some, at On the other hand it is good to read accounts of the conversion
least, of those who profess Christianity. One of his young men left him who of opium-smokers. Such a case is related by the Rev. Ll. Lloyd, afterwards, happenirg to pass late in the evening by an outhouse, he saw and
had been accustomed to read prayers to the rest of the servants. Some weeks of Fuh-chow:
heard one of his men reading the Bible with difficulty by the light of the fire I may re'ate the history of one of the men baptized here in October. It
to the others. After this the party knelt and prayed ; in their prayers they
mentioned Mr. B. and his family, and the missionaries. seems that towards the end of 1880, a man in a deplorable state of poverty, New Zealand is not a pleasant place. The greater part of the English [i.e., and clothed in a filthy sackcloth garment, came into our chapel and was the colonists in those early days) are the very refuse of society, neither is the remonstrated with by the catechist, to whom he was known as an opium- country itself attractive. I look back but to one bright spot, and that is Waimate, smoker and idle, dissolute fellow, who had been cast out of his father's with its (Native) Christian inhabitants. house in consequence of his evil doings. Much to the catechist's surprise, instead of speaking rudely on being reproved, he exclaimed, “Sing sang, I really do want to live a better life; will you teach me your doctrine,
THE STORY OF THE LIFE OF DR. KRAPF, that I may be enabled to do so ?” The catechist seems to have been
The Pioneer-Missionary of East Africa. convinced that he was in earnest, and promised to let him have a room in
TOLD BY HIMSELF. the house he occupied if his father was willing to clothe and support him, pointing out to bim that God alone could give him strength to overcome
IV.-ON THE EAST COAST OF AFRICA. his sins, and that he must pray to Him for help. The catechist then
AVING sought preparation for the long sez-voyage by prayer consulted one or two of the leading Christians on the subject, and they agreed to go with him to the young man's father, who is a respectable,
and meditation, I set sail with my wife from Aden on the well-to-do farmer. This they did, and made themselves answerable for
11th of November, 1843, our destination being Zanzibar. his son's good behaviour. On these conditions the father advanced money
From the first the sea was very rough, and on the 13th and provided clothing for his son, and from that time till the present he
of November the wind blew violently directly contrary to has lived a changed life, and, best of all, has, we have every reason to believe, our destined course, and we advanced but little, never losing sight of the laid hold of the great truths of redemption and renovation by the death
moun'ains of Aden. But the 14th was a day of great distress, but also, of Christ. He answered the questions I put to him before baptizing him very clearly, and we trust he may be a means of blessing to his, as yet,
thank God, a day of Divine deliverance to us, which we should keep in heathen family. Quite a crowd was present at the baptismal service, and
remembrance as long as we live in this woful world. The wind bad been before the service one of the members of the Chüng family gave a very adverse all the preceding night. The moon arose at midnight; but no good address from the latter part of the first chapter of Romans, a pas-age abatement of the wind attended her apperance. At the break of day, Irequenily chosen when speaking to the beathen, and containing allusions to sins with which, alas! they are only too familiar.
for which we ardently waited, the gale blew with fury. A formidable
wave struck our bark, which forthwith sprang a leak. The only way of In conclusion, it need only be added that the missionaries of saving the boat and ourselves was now speedily to turn the vessel t ward the various societies labouring in China are doing their utmost Aden. After the helm had been put about, the whole crew engaged in to alleviate the suffering which comes under their notice every baling the water which forced its way through the leak. We were about day. The Church Missionary Society, for instance, has an opium sixty miles from Aden when the bark sprang the leak. My dear wife and refuge at Hang-Chow and a dispensary at Fuh-Chow, where clever myself repaired to our cabin, to unite ourselves in prayer. We recommedical men are devoting their best energies not only to restore mended our bodies and souls, our dear friends at home, the whole Mission to health the victims of the vice who apply to them, but also to cause, and especially our Galla Mission, to the gracious protection of the warn others against the temptation.
Lord. Having committed ourselves to the care of our invisible Friend
and Saviour, we took our Bible, and a few other things, and made them EXAMPLES WORTH IMITATING.
up into a small packet, that we might save our greatest treasures in case AT T a recent missionary meeting, a box was handed in by a groom, with a we should be obliged to lower the li tle boat. paper stating that the amount was "collected by him in the harness At five o'clock we could see Aden distinctly. But the wind, which The collection was 5s, 11 d.
had abated in the afternoon, died entirely away, and was soon succeeded 'HE following has been received by one of the Secretaries of the C.M.S. by the land-wind, which seemed to drive us again toward the open sea. from a Harrow boy
Night came on, and the land-wind prevented our muskets from being "Dear Sir;-I enclose £1 108. 6d., won in Athletic Sports last term, for the C.M.S. With best wishes for your Anniversary,—Believe me, yours sincerely,
heard on shore. However, in the very nick of time a boat came close HERGA.” up to us. Soon after we had left our leaky vessel she overturned, the
mast lying in the water and the whole bark floating on the sea like a piece him in Arabic, his native language, my Abyssinian adventures, and plans of wood.
for converting the Gallas. He-listened with attention and promised every I could not but see that the disaster of the first voyage was under assistance, at the same time pointing out the dangers to which I might be Providence made serviceable to me; for had I made the voyage with the exposed. Although advanced in years he looked very well, and was most Arab captain of this first ship, he would have sailed direct from Arabia to friendly and communicative. Sultan Said-Said ascended the throne in Zanzibar, after the manner of his countrymen, without running into any 1807, and lived at Muscat up to the year 1810, when he removed the seat port, and I should have lost the opportunity of personally exploring the of government to Zanzibar, chiefly on account of its trade. places on the coast.
I remained in Zanzibar from the 7th of January to the beginning of On the 28th of December we landed at Takaungu, as our captain had March, 1844, hearing, secing, and learning much. On Sundays I preached to return home with the ship in which we bad come, and we were to pro- to the English and American residents, and during the whole period of ceed in a smaller one to Zanzibar. Accordingly we remained at Takaungu my stay cultivated the acquaintance of Arabs, Banians, and Suahilis, until the 3rd of January, 1841. The inhabitants were most hospitable to gathering from them information respecting the coast and the interior. my wife and myself, giving us the only stone house in the village to At the period named I resolved to leave my dear wife at Zanzibar, and to lodge in. Here I met with the first mention of the country Jagga in the proceed to the island of Lamu, and thence to penetrate among the Gallas interior, to the south-west of Mombaz, as well as of the country of and found a missionary station. I took with me a letter of recomUsambara, and the inner African tribes of Uniamesi, in whose territory
mendation from Sultan Said-Said addressed to the governors of the coast, there is a great lake.*
and couched in the following terms :-“This comes from Said-Said, On the 3rd of January, 1844, I left the hospitable village of Takaungu Sultan ; greeting all our subjects, friends, and governors. This letter is in a small boa*, called a “daw” [dhow] by the Suahilis, which is the written in behalf of Dr. Krapf, a German, a good man who wishes to smallest sea-going vessel. In it you are but a few feet above the water; convert the world to God. Beliave well to him, and be everywhere servicebut have the advantage of being able to sail over rocks and sand-banks, able to him.” and always close to the shore.
On the 13th of March I arrived at Mombaz, where I was hospitably From Takaungu we reached the isle of Mombaz,f which has a harbour received by the governor of the city, Ali Ben Nasser, who had been twice capable of containing ships of a tolerably large size. This i-land is several in London as representative of the Sultan of Zanzibar, on a political leagues in circumference, but is only very partially cultivated; yet
mission to the English Government. In the streets of Mombaz I saw some mangoes and cocoa-nuts, oranges and limes, and in parts, the cinnamon- heathen Wanika, who had come from the neighbouring mountains. The tree, are indigenous, whilst wild swipe, introduced by the Portuguese, inbabitants of Mombaz, too, visited me in great numbers and were very abound. The people here were well acquainted with the English. friendly. Then, all at once, the thought came upon me that for many At two in the afternoon of the 7th of January we dropped anchor in
reasons Mombaz would be best suited for the establishment of a misthe safe and spacious harbour of the capital of the island of Zanzibar, sionary station. I was strengthened in my growing conviction by the where we were to repose for a time, after our long and fatiguing voyage,
friendliness of the people and officials of Mombaz towards Europeans, while I deliberated on my further plans and consulted my friends respect- especially the English; by the proximity of this place to the neighbouring ing them. We were hospitably received by Major Hamerton, the English pagan tribes, a proximity so close that a missionary can visit their villages consul, and until we could erect a dwelling we lived in the house of during the day and return to Mombaz at night; and by its healthiness Mr. Waters, the American consul, who was a zealous friend to the Mission. and the conveniences which it offered in the way of living and residence. He wished me to remain in Zanzibar, preaching on Sundays to its few I resolved, therefore, to return to Zanzibar for my dear wife, and then to Europeans; working amongst the Banians from India, of whom there take up my abode in Mombaz, studying the Suahili language, making are seven hundred in Zanzibar; founding schools for the instruction of excursions among the pagan Wanika, and becoming acquainted with the the native Suahilis and Arabs; and preparing books in the languages of condition of the interior, where I intended to preach the Gospel as soon the mainland for future missionaries; but I could not abandon my as I was master of the language. original design of founding a Mission in the Galla land, which, so far as I After I had engaged a teacher of the Suahili and Kinika languages I know at present, extends to the fourth degree of south latitude.
quitted Mombaz on the 18th of March, some of my fellow-passengers On the second day after my arrival in Zanzibar I was presented by the being natives of Arabia and India, and among them a llindu of the English consul to the Sultan Said-Said, commonly called by Europeans Rajpoot caste, who had attended a missionary school at Bombay. The by his other title, the Imam of Muscat. His palace lies outside the city. acquaintance of this person convinced me that a great influence is exerted When the consul appeared with me at the entrance of the palace, the on the characters of heathens by attendance at our schools, even although Sultan, accompanied by one of his sons and several grandees, came forth to it may last but a short time and they do not at once become Christian. meet us, displaying a condescension and courtesy which I had not before When I spoke to him about the idol-worship of the Indians he said : met with at the hands of any oriental ruler. He conducted us into the “There is only one Creator of heaven and earth, who is everywhere audience-chamber, which is pretty large and paved with marble slabs ; present, and sees and knows everything, even the thoughts of the human American chairs lined the walls, and a stately chandelier hung in the heart." middle of the room. The Sultan bade us be seated, and I described to I reached Zanzibar on the 21th of March, and returned to Mombaz * This was the first allusion by any traveller to the great lake now known
with my wife at the beginning of May, where I had to put up with as the Victoria Nyanza.
several personal annoyances more or less trying. My greatest difficulty, † Mombasa (the Portuguese form ; Krapf calls it Mombaz) was, in the 17th however, lay in my want of a knowledge of the Suahili language, and in century, one of the chain of settle'uents linking Africa, Arabia, Persia, and
the absence of any help in the study, neither a grammar nor a dictionary Iridia, which were established by the Portuguese traders. The fortress bears an inscription, put up by Xeixas de Cabreira, the governor, in 1639, giving
of it having yet been compiled by any European,
With the aid of 1635 as the date of its erection. In the middle of the 18th century many of Arabic, I surmounted this hindrance by degrees; but found in it, howthese settlements came under the dominion of the Arabs of Oman. The chief Arab ruler was known to Europeans as the Imam of Muscat, and one of these
ever, peculiarities which at first gave me immense trouble, but which also Imams, Suid-Said, who reigned fifty-two years (1804-1856), established his were converted into a source of delight, when I was at length able to cry power over large portions of the East African coast and of the shores of the “ Eureka!” Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. Mombasa, to prevent its falling into his hands, was in 1823 offered by its inhabitants to England. A surveying squadron
On the 8th of June, 1844, I began the translation of the First Book of under Captain Owen was then on the coast, and to him the application was
Moses with the aid of Sheikh Aji Ben, Mueddin of Barava, who was the made. He eagerly accepted the offer, and a conventiou was signed accord- Kadi (Judge) of Mombaz. I always considered this day as one of the ingly; but in 1826, on Said-Said putting in his claim, the Government at home di: avowed the annexation and withdrew the agents in charge, and the place
most important of my life ; but scarcely had I commenced this then fell into the Imam's hands. At his death, his dominions were divided important work, and began to congratulate myself on the progress between his three sons, one of whom took Zanzibar and its dependencies. of my missionary labours, when myself and family were subjected to Tl is son was succeeded by another son of Said-Said, the present Sultan. When Krapf arrived on the coast, Said-Said was at the height of his power,
a very severe trial. On the 1st of July I was attacked by the fever ; and had lately transferred his cap.tal from Muscat to Zanzibar.
on the 4th I was somewhat better again, but the next day my wife