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refreshing to hear strains of Christian music coming from one of the those masses. It may possibly have been only momentary and transient. houses. The Japanese girls of Miss Oxlad's school were singing very

It certainly was grossly superstitious. But, unquestionably, it was there. sweetly their hymn before going to bed—a marked contrast to the noisy impressions ; and if they can be guided and disciplined to use these

The Japanese are, most undoubtedly, therefore, susceptible of religious row going on all around outside.

After reading a little and writing a letter, the noise outside seeming to emotions and instincts in the only way worthy of their employment, viz., increase, I went out in time to see the beginning of the procession. A in spiritual, rather than material, worship; and if they can be taught to monster bonfire came first and settled itself down just at a corner where

exercise them towards the one object alone worthy of their venerationthe procession had to turn, and by its light we could see everything well. viz., the only true Kami—there is most certainly a most glorious prospect, There was no moon, so we were entirely dependent for light on the fires with the Lord's blessing, for Christianity in Japan. and lanterns. Then came a number of boats, each with a small fire in

Osaka, 28th July, 1881. front, hung with lanterns in very artistic manners, and occupied by people apparently of very various classes. On a good many there were fires, with naked men and boys posturing and jumping about in wild, barbarian

NEW YEAR'S THOUGHTS. style. In others, families were quietly sitting, singing or playing music.

HE Old Year is passing away, On all, drums and gongs were being beaten furiously.

The future before is unknown, Then there came a lull, and I thought it must surely now be all over (a little after eleven o'clock). So I returned home, disappointed and rather

But, through sunshine or cloud be my way,

I shall not have to tread it alone. disgusted. Was this a religious festival ? What was there religious about it? The people seemed out merely for amusement's sake. How

On the verge of the New Year I stand, any sensible people could come and sit out on a bridge, or on the river's

And I know not what trials may come, bank, or in a boat, for four or five hours, merely to look at such ridiculous

But my Father has hold of my hand, nonsense as I had seen, was past my comprehension. I made up my mind

And I know He will lead me safe home. that those people must surely be right who said (like Miss Bird) that the Japanese had no real religious instincts, and that they were merely a gay,

As I pass through the New Year's gateway frivolous, pleasure-seeking nation who got up these "matsuri" (festivals)

I lift my eyes above, for the sake of amusement alone.

And in letters of light on its portals While, however, I was thus musing, I heard strains of a very different

I read that'God is love.' character. There came a solemn lull in the drum-beating and goog-ring

I know not how far I may travel, ing, and above them rose the sound of slow, sustained notes of music

Nor whence I must hence remove, from the sacred flutes, or bagpipes, of the priests. A hush seemed to

But the whole of the path shall be lighted come over the crowds too, and I heard the noise of those frequent and

By the shining of 'God is love.' regular claps of the hands which always accompany Japanese prayers. I rushed out, as quickly as possible, to the river bank, and there saw a

What shall this year betide ? What shall this year betide ? sight which I shall never forget. It was the conclusion of the procession : Christ the Lord knoweth :

Christ the Lord chooseth: it was the sight these thousands of people had been so patiently and Follow thy faithful Guide,

Who would his lot decide, deliberately awaiting since six o'clock. I had gone away without seeing Go where He goeth :

Peace he refuseth; the one thing of importance.

Thus if thou closely cling,

Who unto Christ doth cling, There were three long boats, each lit up and ornamented with fires and

To thee the year shall bring Safe 'neath that shelt'ring wing, lanterns. The first one was filled with priests dressed in blue garments, What He bestoweth.

Nothing he loseth ! with the musical instruments. There were probably as many as thirty or

SARAH GERALDINA STOCK. forty of them. They kept up a soft, slow, subdued, solemn, sustained hum, for it can scarcely be called music, being for the most part on one note, though with occasional variation. The second boat contained a number of priests dressed in gorgeous and

GOSPEL TROPHIES. quaint garments, with very fine banners, lanterns, and fans, surrounding a sacred ark, or shrine, called Mikoshi, said to contain the Gohei or emblem

“Out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation."-Rev. v. 9. of a spirit (Kami). This little sbrine, standing about 8 feet high, was a blaze of gold and colour, and with the dim light of the lanterns and

VIII.-Ganga Bai, a “Mother in Israel.” torches, and the priestly accompaniments and music, produced a remark

HE degraded condition of the Eastern woman has ably “religious ” effect.

long been a subject of deep sorrow to such of their But it was far more affecting to me to notice how all the crowds around were awestruck with superstitious reverence-how suddenly this gay and

Western sisters as possess sufficient mind and frivolous multitude was transferred into a most solemn worshipping

heart to feel for any woes but their own. It has assembly. Each person around me (and the same seemed to be done

also long been plain to every reflecting mind that it everywhere) clapped hands together and bowed down head as this gilt box is idle to expect even the nominal conversion of a nation, with passed, and the look of real seriousness and devotion on the majority of full half the population unreached by the Gospel. their faces was quite a picture. But you will like to know who this Kami is, who has the power to

Many a devoted Zenana worker brings back tales which would make such an impression and call forth such earnest devotion.

be amusing, were they not pathetic, of the childish ignorance Well, he is no supreme or important divinity. He is only a cele- of the poor women amongst whom she labours—of their readibrated saint. He is merely a human being, like ourselves, who, in his ness to be diverted by trifles, and the difficulty she experiences lifetime, never pretended to be anything more, but who, since his death, has been deified by later generations. He was “a polished courtier, the

in keeping their minds to any serious thought. At the same Beauclerc of his age”—a man of great learning and high scholarship. He

time she rarely fails to bear her testimony to their affectionate had great influence at court in his day, but through the wicked intrigue gratitude for pains bestowed upon them, and great anxiety to of his enemies he was banished to Kiushiu and there died of starvation improve. It is not often (nor is it likely, say these same workers) in 903. The posthumous name by which he is now_worshipped is Ten that they meet with much force or decision of character amongst Man Gu, or TENJIN. He is regarded as the patron Kami of letters and literature. All students, whether Buddhist or Shinto, worship his spirit

their grateful, affectionate pupils. Men do not gather grapes of on commencing their studies, and even the children in the schools are

thorns ; nor are they much more likely to meet with wisdom and taught to pray to him.

firmness in a woman who inherits all the evil consequences of The spirit of this man, then, was the object of all this enthusiasm, ex- centuries of oppression and neglect. Occasionally, however, a citement, and devotion. It is very sad to think that the religious emotions

woman of great force and singleness of nature, a woman clearly of the poor people here should be so stirred up and aroused in honour of one who has no true claim whatever on their worship. He may have been,

fitted to rule and instruct, may be found amongst them.

Such a and no doubt was, a benefactor to his country, but he has certainly no

woman was the subject of this paper. right to honours which belong only to God. He who is the True Ganga was very early deprived of her mother, and deserted Wisdom is ignored, while the wisest of their own fellow-creatures and by her father. The latter quitted the country, leaving his countrymen is put into His place ! Let no one say again, however, that the Japanese are incapable of any

helpless child (but then, to be sure, she was only a girl) in the true religious emotions. I have no hesitation saying that an exceed

hands of people who had no claim on her. Her circumstances ingly strong spirit of earnest devotion was plainly manifest, moving among

must have called loudly for sympathy, since Mr. Appaji Bapuji


(one of the pupils of the Rev. J. S. S. Robertson) brought her by their contact with European science and civilisation, formed to Mrs. Robertson, and entreated her to give the desolate child themselves into a sort of brotherhood, and examined the Bible a home amongst some orphan girls whom she had adopted. and the principal Christian doctrines, with a view to furnishing

These girls were in all respects educated and treated as if themselves with arguments against both. But the preaching of they had been the children of their kind protectors, saving only a Native Christian touched their hearts, and Ruttonji in parthat they did not eat at their table, and did not relinquish the ticular became an earnest and courageous servant and soldier of becoming Native dress. They were carefully instructed in their Christ.

Christ. He had to relinquish his prospects of worldly advancenative tongue (the Marathi) during the morning, and this instruc-ment, which seem to have been good, and worst of all

, his home tion was given by one of the Mission schoolmasters. In the and the loving companionship of his family and friends. He afternoon they used to practise needlework under the supervision became a catechist, and ultimately a clergyman, but this was not of Mrs. Robertson and her tailor. They were also taught the till some years later. Meantime the promise to those who have household duties usually performed by Native women.

forsaken friends, lands, and homes for Christ's sake was abunIt was the hope of Mr. and Mrs. Robertson that these girls dantly fulfilled in his case. " Who can find a virtuous woman?" might grow up to be the wives of Native pastors and catechists, said the Royal Preacher ; "her price is far above rubies,” and that they might become intelligent companions to their so thought the young Native catechist when he succeeded in husbands, and responsible Christian mistresses of Christian winning Ganga to be his wife. homes. This hope was not disappointed-in one instance, at High festival was held on the day of their marriage, and the least, it was abundantly fulfilled.

church was crowded by friends who came to witness the ceremony. Ganga was possessed of a clear mind, and she learnt well For the day which joined together two devoted servants of God, and rapidly. She early showed serious attention while being the day which laid the foundation of the Temple of a Christian taught the truths of the Christian religion. At her own earnest Home, was also the birthday of the Christian village of Sharanrequest, she was baptized, and Mrs. Robertson was fully con- pur. When Mrs. Robertson apologised to the bridegroom for vinced, both by her words and her conduct, of her fitness to what she considered the smallness of her wedding gift, he make this solemn promise and profession. She always showed answered with the ready politeness of the Oriental, and with the deepest attention to the Word of God, and (unlike many of truth as well, “ The best gift I have received to-day is from you, the young) her thoughts were never easily diverted to other and that is my wife.” pursuits and other things. In a quiet, earnest manner she It was only natural that Mrs. Robertson should deeply miss would try and impress this Word on her young companions. the loving companion who was truly her daughter in Christ

Her missionary zeal gradually gained force, as was right, Jesus, but she also rejoiced greatly in watching her consistent and she began to speak earnestly to those of her country men Christian course. The earnest, energetic girl became in due and women who came to the house. Gradually she came to time the prudent wife, in whom the heart of her husband might be treated as an elder daughter might have been by Mrs. (and did) most safely trust; the wise and tender mother; the Robertson. One day when that lady was unwell, and unable to accurate, methodical mistress, whose house preached as well as appear at morning prayers, Ganga, as usual, took her place. On her lips. And she was her husband's valuable helper in all his coming down Mrs. Robertson was much pleased to find them missionary labours. all seated quietly at their work listening to Ganga, who was When Mr. Ruttonji entered the ministry, he was appointed to speaking to them about one of the Collects in the Marathi | the station of Aurangabad, about a hundred miles east of Nasik. Prayer-book. Evidently the truths of eternal life were supremely There they laboured for some years, while a large and interesting interesting to her, and therefore she succeeded in making them family grew up around them. Mr. and Mrs. Robertson had the interesting to others. This is a sure recipe for securing an satisfaction of visiting them there, and seeing how actively good attentive audience.

works went on under their supervision. While sitting at work with the tailor she would read and Four more years, happy and busy years, were spent by Mrs. converse with him on scriptural subjects. In the evening she Ruttonji in the happy home of which she was the centre; and would sit near the watchman, and speak and read, by the light then the Father of the fatherless called her to her eternal home of a lantern, of Him who is the Light of the world.

many mansions.” Cholera broke out at AurangaWhen the whole family removed to the hills near Nasik, as bad ; one of Mrs. Ruttonji's servants was stricken; she hastened they usually did in the hot season, she managed to collect a to attend upon the invalid ; waited on her assiduously, and— school of the girls at the station, and, what was more remarkable took the disease herself. still, contrived to get together a meeting of mothers. This was Her sufferings were sharp but short ; her mind and heart held on a Sunday at 3 P.M., and was entirely the result of her stood fast and believed in the Lord. She took a tender fareown thought and energy. Mrs. Robertson only became aware

well of her desolate husband and children, and then passed of the fact when Ganga came to her a little before the appointed gently away to that rest which remaineth for the people of God. hour, and asked to be excused from reading with her then, as She "being dead yet speaketh " by her bereaved husband, had been their usual custom. On going into the room about who now goes forth to his labour from a darkened and lonely half an hour afterwards, Mrs. Robertson was surprised and pleased | home; by the children whom she trained in the fear and love of to find it filled to the door with men, women, and children. the Lord ; by her untiring labours for the souls of her poor

On their return to Nasik she began to teach in a girls' school countrywomen. Oh, that many such might arise among the in that city; and, with the assistance of Mrs. Frost, the wife of a daughters of India !--wise, true, pious, and firm of heart. The missionary, and head of the establishment, it rapidly became a nation has need of such. If Napoleon needed mothers to estavery efficient one.

blish his empire, much more does Christ. As to this motherOn the west side of Nasik stands Sharanpur, a Christian mother in the flesh and in the spirit too-we think we may village ; and in this village lived a Parsee gentleman named safely pronounce on her the emphatic testimony of the Hebrew Ruttonji Nowroji, who had for some time been a silent but most teacher" Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her own observant witness of the young teacher's love and zeal for her works praise her in the gates."

ELIZABETH SUTTON. Lord. He had been educated in a Government school, had lost

The above sketch is based on an interesting book entitled “Life of his faith in the Parsee religion, and had become a mere Deist.

Ganga Bai.” By Mrs. J. S. S. Robertson. Published by Seton and He and some other young men, who had been similarly affected Mackenzie, Edinburgh. Bai " is a term of respect, like our “Mrs.”

among the “


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researches of Krapf and his

companion Rebmann, the expeVERY one will re

ditions of Burton, Speke, and member how touched

Grant were projected. To comall England

plete their explorations, Living. when the accounts

stone came up from the south. home of

In the wake of Livingstone went Livingstone's death. On his

Cameron and Stanley. And in knees, by his bedside, he was

the last six years, some forty or found by his faithful followers.

fifty missionaries have penetrated In the act of prayer he was trans

into the regions whose blank lated into the Land of Praise.

spaces fired the youthful imagiSo was it with John Ludwig

nation of John Ludwig Krapf. Krapf, the Pioneer-Missionary of

We must not judge a missionEast and Central Africa, who on

ary by the number of his conNov. 26th, the eve of Advent

verts. Krapf only knew of one Sunday, was called home to the

from all his African labours. presence of his Lord. “In the

Henry Martyn only knew of one afternoon," writes his friend,

or two. Yet what a mighty work Mr. Flad, who, like him, was a

has been done by their example ! missionary in Abyssinia, “I

Dr. Krapf's later years were spent an hour with him in his

spent at Kornthal, in South study, talking of the approach

Germany, where he was diliing Second Advent of Christ.

gently employed in preparing He went to his bedroom quite

dictionaries, &c., of several East well, as usual, and was found in

African languages, and translathe morning kneeling at his bed,

tions of the Scriptures. On undressed." A blessed end to

Nov. 30th his body was solemnly a consecrated life!

committed to the earth, in the Dr. Krapf was born in Wur

presence of three thousand temburg in 1810. While yet a

people who had assembled from child, poring over maps, the

all parts of the country, by the longing came over him to explore

side of John Rebmann, the comthose great regions of Africa

panion of his travels and trials, that were so blank and destitute

who followed him to Africa but of names—a desire stimulated

preceded him to heaven. by the perusal of Bruce's Travels,

(From a Daguerreotype by Beard taken in 1850.) which he stumbled upon at an old book shop. Afterwards, when his heart was given to God,

TEN WEEKS IN INDIA. this geographical curiosity developed into missionary ardour, and Extracts from Letters to my Children during a Winter Tour. he entered the Basle Seminary, which in those days gave so many devoted missionaries to the C.M.S. By one of these, Fjellstad


Vicar of Christ Church, Hampstead. of Smyrna, Krapf also was introduced to the Society, and he joined its Abyssinia Mission in 1897. Expelled thence through [Press of work prevented my acceding to the Editor's urgent request the hostile influence of the Jesuits, he tried the adjoining kingdom that I would write some account of the few

weeks I spent in India last

winter for the GLEANER. But as my children preserved the letters I of Shoa, where he remained three years. Various journeys wrote them, I have placed them in his hands to make any extracts which followed, during which he and his wife suffered great privations. he thought might interest others. This must be my apology for the very On one occasion a child was born to them under the most trying negligent and fragmentary nature of the following papers.-E. H. B.] circumstances, was significantly named Eneba, “a Tear,” and

I. lived only for an hour.

BOMBAY, Friday Evening, Norember 19, 1880. At length, when every door in that part

AST night, as a number of us of Africa seemed closed, he went down

were watching from the forethe coast to Zanzibar, visiting on his way

castle deck, the Bombay Mombasa, where he landed on Jan. 3rd,

Harbour Lighthouse flashed 1844. There, six months afterwards, on

its electric light (20 miles July 13th, his wife was taken from him ;

distant) upon us.

We raised such a cheer. but his brave spirit quailed not, and he

There it was, right in front of our prow. wrote home to the Committee that they

How marvellous the skill that guided us must see in her lonely grave the pledge

from Aden Cape straight to that one light ! and token of the possession of East Africa

It was terribly hot and still.

At 12 we for Christ. Close to that grave may now

turned into our hot cabin. We rose this be seen the flourishing settlement at Frere

morning at 5, and at 8, Edward accomTown. Out of that first visit to Mombasa

panied by the Rev. H. C. Squires, the sprang all the C.M.S. work on the coast;

Church Missionary Society's Secretary at and, in its results, the whole of the vast

Bombay, came on board. Mr. Squires discoveries of the last twenty-five years

took us at once to his hospitable home ;

THE LATE DR. KRAPF. in Central Africa. In consequence of the

(From a Photograph taken recently.

and nothing could exceed his thoughtful




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kindness and that of his wife. He is indeed the Gaius of 3.30, and had the kindest welcome from the Rev. W. A. and the Church here.

Mrs. Roberts, Mr. Roberts drove me and Edward into Nasik. BOMBAY, Tuesday, November 23, 1880. It is a most picturesque native town, somewhat dirty after the We had a most happy Sunday. I went to the early vernacular heavy rain. We were taken to several of their temples, where we service, where the Rev. Appaji Bapuji was preaching to about saw them offering their rice and flowers. To watch them made seventy-five earnest Christian converts. At breakfast the vesti- one long more than ever for the time when all shall know the bule was occupied by a class of twenty Christian children, who only Name. We came back to dinner, prayers, and bed. Such sang sweetly. The first was a hymn on Peace, to a lovely native a refreshing night !--no mosquitoes, no noise-far the best night

— tune. At il we had morning service, and Edward * preached we have had since we left England, though we were told to be an excellent sermon on “By grace are ye saved through faith.” very careful of scorpions and snakes, which abound here. HowIn the afternoon I addressed the English-speaking children (some ever, thank God, none troubled us. eighty) of well-to-do residents and others in a Sunday-school This morning I rose at 6, and Mr. Roberts took mo and held in Major Oldham's house, and in the evening preached to a Edward all over the Mission farm, which is entirely worked by very full church on “Love is strong as death,” and helped to the Christians of the village. It costs the Society nothing, as it administer the Lord's Supper afterwards to seventy-five com- more than pays its way, and it affords work for th converts and municants.

inquirers. He took us to the corn-fields and millet-fields, and On Monday. morning we went and saw the Robert Money sugar-cane bamboo grove, and vineyards and orange yards, and Schoolt of 250 pupils, and I addressed some sixty of them on mango orchard, with its grand old well (to obtain which they at Christian ambition. We then went to the Scotch Presbyterian first rented the land, though they have digged three more since), College, where Edward wanted to see their plans. It is a most and other grain fields and pepper (Chili) ground. We then saw active, energetic work which is being carried on there.

the ingenious process of drawing water by four oxen from the This morning we started before 7, and hoped to get off before last noble well. I suppose the shaft was 20 or 24 feet across. the heat of the day in kind Captain Verrell's steam launch to Two large water buckets, made of leather, were let down into the the Elephanta Caves. But we were delayed till 10—very hot-well, and then the oxen, by stepping down an incline, dragged when the captain took us off. But when we had steamed about them up full, and as they reached the brim of the well, by six out of the eight miles, part of the machinery broke. We had touching a circular roller it opened a neck at the bottom of the no sail, no oar, and drifted helplessly with the tide for more buckets, and the water was emptied into a trough and conveyed than an hour, when the captain happily was able to patch up in small courses to the field. By watering and working they the breakage, and we soon landed and climbed to those remark- have made a most fruitful out of a barren ground :—which able Brahmin caves, situate in that beautiful wooded island, the thing is a parable. We then saw the Christian girls, thirty in grand relics of ancient idol-worship. We got home by 2.30, and number, make and have their breakfast- --a flat millet cake and found the Bishop of Bombay awaiting us at lunch. We visited curry soup. They were happy, but very quiet. Altogether this the girls' school with him, and then called on a wealthy and is a most delightful Mission station, and seems a centre of learned Hindu, Sir Mungeldas Nathabhoy, to whom Professor labour for which we cannot be sufficiently thankful. We are Monier Williams had given me a letter. Though ill, he was so here 1,900 feet above the sea level, and with a west wind they kind—would insist on receiving us on his swinging sofa, sent get the full benefit of the sea breezes, though the sea is 60 miles his son with us over his magnificent house, and then for a drive distant. round Malabar Hill. We were just admitted within the gates of In the afternoon Mr. Roberts drove Edward and me some six the enclosure of the Towers of Silence, where the Parsees bury, miles along the old Bombay road, down which our armies, before or rather expose their dead, and then visited the approaches to the railroad days, had so often marched to battle and to victory, several Hindu temples, and back in our friend's magnificent to the foot of the hill on which the celebrated Nasik caves are carriage (which he told me cost Rs. 5,000) to Mr. Squires'. I situate. They are Buddhist caves, with many inscriptions, and told our friend's son how, as a Christian, I longed for the time several were probably excavated some centuries before the Chriswhen we should all worship in one Christian temple, but that I

They command a magnificent view of the country, and was sure it was good for us to get to know one another, as we as we drove rapidly back heavy storms of rain were falling to the should respect each other more. I gave him a copy of my poem, f right and left, but none fell on us, and the strange fantastic hills which he graciously accepted.

-evidently of volcanic origin—were lighted up with lurid sunset Nasik, Thursday, November 25.

flames. Mr. Roberts asked me to preach to his Christian conWe started at 6.15 yesterday morning, and came 117 miles over

verts at his evening service, saying he would interpret for me. the Ghauts (some 2,000 feet high) hither. As we neared Nasik

It was a sudden invitation, but I could not refuse, so took Jude Road Station a heavy rain came on, and we got from the train 20, 21. It was such a hearty service; they sang sweetly, and I through drenching rain into the queerest little carriages, called got on better than I expected, if I may judge from the eager tongas, drawn by two ponies, one for our luggage, two for our

faces of the Native Christians. selves-i.e., M- and myself, Edward, and a Christian manservant, whom we have engaged for two months. A would have liked these tongas amazingly-two ponies

CORRESPONDENCE. with a pole and cross-yoke over their neck, no traces, driven at

Missionary Boxes. full canter for five and a-half miles to the Christian station of Sharanpur , which is a village a mile and a-half of the town DEAR diferent have been Hon. Sec. to C. M.S. Associations for many years

in different parishes, and have found missionary boxes, judicionsly given of Nasik, a large town of nearly 30,000 people, on the banks of out, and well looked after, the most fruitful source of income, particularly in

poor parishes. the Godavery, which rises 17 miles from here. § We got in at In giving out I am always careful to enter in my book the name and

address of the box-receiver, also to write his or her name and mine in the The Rev. E. Bickersteth, of the Cambridge Delhi Mission, son of the proper places at the bottom of the box, I keep quarterly accounts, and the writer.-ED.

boxes are collected and opened quarterly, half-yearly, or annually, as is most † The Church Missionary Society's principal educational institution in agreeable to the holders. But I see that each box is regular as to its time of Bombay. See GLEANER of July, 1876.-En.

opening, and I never allow a box to be kept back at the end of the year when | Yesterday, To-day, and For Ever. (London : Rivingtons.)–ED. See a picture of Nasik in the GLEANER of January, 1876 ; also pictures

our annual accounts for printing are made up. I am most careful that every

box-holder should have regularly the publications of the Society to which he and accounts of Sharanpur in that and succeeding numbers.-ED.

is entitled. Our Sunday-school box is opened quarterly, and the amount

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