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become acquainted with regions partly unknown, and mainly to promul- it is maintained by many that she died for the sins of the world and saved gate the Gospel among the thousands of soldiers whom the king takes with 144,000 souls ! In the Abyssinian point of view the means to expiate sin him in these expeditions, which he is in the habit of undertaking in are almsgiving, fasting, monastic vows, and reading, or rather gabbling, January, June, and October, to lovy the tribute due by the Gallas, and to the Psalms, &c. make further conquests.

No Christian people upon earth are so rigid in their fasting as the The mass of the population of Shoa is Christian after the form of the Abyssinians. They fast, in all, nine months out of the twelve; every Coptic Church in Egypt, on which, as is well known, the Abyssinian Friday and Wednesday throughout the year, then again forty days Church is dependent. In the east, however, there are many Moham- before Easter, twenty-five days after Trinity, fourteen days in August, medans, and in the south, tribes of hoathen Gallas, subject to the ruler of twenty-five days before Advent, and on other occasions. Yet, in spite of Shoa. The Coptic patriarch

this, and of a close conin Egypt has been since about

formity to the outward A.D. 1280 in the habit of

observances of nominating the chief bishop

ritual, the woeful departure of Abyssinia, who is styled

from the pure teaching of Abuna, “Our father.” This

the Gospel and a complete prelate ordains all priests

absence of culture and knowand deacons; he also conse

ledge have produced, genecrates the king and governs

rally and individually, a sad the church by the aid of the

social condition in AbysEchege, the supreme head

sinia. Immorality is the of the monks, who are very

order of the day, the king numerous and influential.

and his five hundred wives Those who wished to be or

leading the way with dained must be able to read

bad example. He actually and to repeat the Nicene

wished for English Creed, whereupon the

princess to consolidate his Abuna breathes on the can

alliance with Great Britain ! didate, laying on hands,

Slavery, too, has done much blesses him, and bestows on

to demoralise the Christians him the sign of the cross,

of Shoa. Christians, indeed, receiving then two pieces of

are not allowed to export salt as ordination fees. The

slaves, but they may import duties of the priest are to

them for their own use. baptize, to adminster the

By the beginning of 1842 Eucharist, and on Sundays

I found that my missionary to read and sing the long

residence in Ankober had litanies for three or four

been far from unfruitful ; hours. They must also

for I had distributed 1,000 know by rote all the psalms

copies of the Scriptures, and and the book of hymns—a

many of the priests of Shoa task which occupies many

had been awakened to a years. Preaching is not

knowledge of the truth, and commanded and is seldom

to a consciousness of the heard in Abyssinia.

corrupt state of their church. The Abyssinians possess

My little school of ten boys, the Old and New Testament

whom I fed, clothed, and in the old Æthiopic, and in

educated at home, was prosthe Amharic or popular

pering. The king had beidiom as well; the former

stowed on me a silver sword, version being ascribed to

which gave me the rank of a Frumentius, who was or


At the period dained Bishop of Æthiopia

mentioned I had thoughts by St. Athanasius in 331,

of no longer confining my and is said to have first

activity to the Christians of preached the Gospel in the

Shoa, but of establishing city of Axum. In a gene

several missions among the ral way, they are acquainted

heathen Gallas, but the rewith the chief truths of the

ceipt of intelligence that my Bible, with the Trinity, and PRIEST AND MONK OF ABYSSINIA,

new fellow-labourers, Mühthe nature and the attri

leisen-Arnold and Müller, butes of God; with the creation, the fall of man and his redemption by had arrived at Tajurra, and found great difficulties thrown by the Adals in Christ; with the Holy Ghost, the angels, the Church, the sacraments, the the way of their further progress to Shoa, induced me to proceed to the resurrection and the last judgment; with rewards and punishments, and coast rather than to the interior, in order to facilitate the journey of everlasting life and torment; but all these articles are so blended with, my friends. I had besides a personal interest which impelled me to this and obscured by merely human notions that they exert little influence on journey, the intention of marrying Rosine Dietrich, a maiden lady of the heart and life. The mediatorial function of Christ, for instance, is Basel, who had been betrothed to missionary Kühnlein, who died. In darkened and limited by a belief in the many saints who, as in the leaving Europe I had no idea of marriage, but experience in Abyssinia conRomish and Greek churches, must mediate between the Mediator and vinced me that an unmarried missionary could not eventually prosper. man. Especially a great office is assigned to the Virgin Mary, of whom

(To be continued.)

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It seems from the recent

GLEANER Examination

that some of our friends, who show a wonderful amount of knowledge of the Missions, are familiar with the Fort Simpson near Metlakahtla, but do not know «the other Fort Simpson” on the Mackenzie River, Diocese of Athabasca. So we reproduce a picture of the place which appeared in the GLEANER some years ago.

Fort Simpson is an important post of the Hudson's Bay Company, and was first visited by a missionary when Archdeacon Hunter made his first great northern journey in 1858. Mr. Kirkby was the first to reside there, and he built the church, school, and mission-house. Afterwards Fort Simpson became the head-quarters of Bishop Bompas, and from thence he made his long journeys, both before and after his consecration, to Great Slave Lake, Great Bear Lake, the Youcon River, Peace River, &c. The Revs. W. D. Reeve and W. Spendlove have also laboured at this Station. The Indians are of the Chipewyan nation.

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SIN AND ITS REMEDY. 1 W All have sinned, Ro. 3. 23.

[their charge, Acts 7. 60. 2 T Völkner killed by N. Zealanders, 1865. Lord, lay not this sin to 3 F If we say that we have no sin we deceive ourselves, 1 John 1.8. 4 S Sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death, Jas. 1. 15. 5 S 2nd in Lent. Be sure your sin will find you out, Nu. 32. 23.

M. Ge. 27.1-41. Mk. 6. 30. E. Ge. 28 or 32. Ro. 14, to 15. 8. 6 MSin lieth at the door, Gen. 4. 7. [and forgive, 2 Chr. 6. 24, 25. 7 T New C.M, House op. 1862. If they pray in this house, hear Thou, 8 W 1st Miss. sailed for Africa, 1804. Commandeth all men everywhere 9 T Not willing that any should perish, 2 Pe. 3.9. [to repent, Ac. 17.30. 10 F The Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all, Is. 53. 6. 11 S Bp. Sargent consec., 1877. Testifying repentance toward God,

[and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 20. 21. 12 S 3rd in Lent. How can I do this, and sin against God? Ge. 39. 9.

M. Ge. 37. Mk. 10.32. E. Ge. 39 or 40. 1 Co. 4. 18.& 5. 13 M Let not sin reign in your mortal body, Ro. 6. 12. 14 T Fox and Noble sailed for India, 1841. Then hath God also to the

[Gentiles granted repentance unto life, Acts 11. 18. 15 W Bp. Burdon consec., 1874. Preached that men sh, repent, Mk.6.12. 16 T Dahomian attack on Abeokuta, 1861. There are the workers of 17 F In Him is no sin, 1 John 3. 5. siniquity fallen, Ps. 36. 12. 18 S He hath made Him to be sin for us, 2 Co. 5. 21.

[Gen, 44, 16. 19S 4th in Lent. God hath found out the iniquity of thy servants,

J. Ge. 42. Mk. 14. 27-53. E. Ge. 43 or 45. 1 Co. 11. 2-17. 20 M Bp. Moule's 1st Confirmatim, 1881. Joy in the presence of the

[angels of God over one sinner that repenteth, Lu. 15. 10. 21 T Father, I have sinned, Lu. 15. 18. 22 W The Lord also hath put away thy sin, 2 Sa. 12. 13. 23 T Ye were the servants of sin, Ro. 6. 17. [righteousness, Rom. 6, 19. 24 F Slave Trade abol., 1807. Now yield your members servants to 25 S Annunc. V. M. Thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He shall

[save His people from their sins, Mat. 1. 21. 26 S 5th in Lent. He is the propitiation for our sins, 1 John 2. 2.

M. Ex. 3. Lu.2.1-21. E. Ex. 5, or 6.1-14. 1 Co. 15. 35. 27 M And not for ours only, but also for the whole world, 1 Jo. 2. 2. 28 T J. Thomas d., 1870. The sting of death is sin, but God giveth us the 29 W He bare our sins, 1 Pe. 2. 24. (victory thro'Jesus Christ, 1 Co.15.56. 30 T That He might redeem us from all iniquity, Tit. 2. 14. 31 F 1st bapt. Fuh-Chow, 1861, Repent and be baptized, every one of

[you, Acts 2. 38.

EPITOME OF MISSIONARY NEWS. The C.M.S. Committee have received with much thankfulness seven offers of missionary service from men ready to go out at once or very shortly. (1) The Rev. W. Latham and (2) Dr. H. M. Clark, whose offers have been already mentioned. (3) The Rev. Robert P. Ashe, B.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge, Curate of St. Michael's, Liverpool. _(4) The Rev. David J. S. Hunt, of Merton College, Oxford, Curate of West Ham, and son of the Rev. R. Aunt, formerly C.M.S. missionary in N.W. America. (5) Mr. Arthur J. Shields, B.A., of Jesus College, Cambridge, son of John Shields, Esq., of Durham, an old and valued friend of the Society. (6) Dr. George Chalmers, a graduate of Edin. burgh University, and a medical man at Monkwearmouth. (7) Mr. Bernhard Maimon, a converted Jew of Dalmatia, afterwards Hebrew Tutor in Hellmuth College, Canada, and now a student at St. John's Divinity College, Highbury. Mr. Maimon's offer is a result of an appeal for Bagdad by the Rev. R. Bruce. Mr. Latham has been appointed to Calcutta; Mr. Ashe to the Nyanza Mission; and Dr. Chalmers to the Gaza Medical Mission.

The Rev. W. Walsh, Vicar of St. Matthew's, Old Kent Road, had been suggested for the Bishopric of Sierra Leone ; but to the great disappointment of all who are interested in West Africa, the C.M.S. Medical Board have for. bidden his going to that climate.

The Society has lost an old and valued friend by the death of Colonel Caldwell, formerly Governor of Rapert's Land, and for many years a member of the Committee. He took a deep interest in the N.W. America Mission, which grew up under his own eye. The late Rev. Luke Caldwell, a Native clergyman, was named after him.

On December 21st the Bishop of Calcutta held an ordination at Benares, when Mr. J. Treusch, C.M.S. İraining Master at that station, was ordained deacon, and also Mr. William Seetal and Mr. Nathaniel Rahim Baksh, Natives, for pastorates at Lucknow and Allahabad respectively. At the same time the Revs. D. Jeremy and Aman Masih Levi received priest's orders. The sermon was preached by the Rev. H. M. M. Hackett, Vice-Principal of the C.M.S. Divinity College, Allahabad.

In October last, Bishop Stuart of Waiapu admitted to deacon's orders two Maori lay readers, Manahi Te Aro and Nirai Runga, who had been in Archdeacon W. L. Williams' Theological Class. At a meeting held afterwards, a sum of £600 was handed over by the Native Christians towards an endowment for their support.

Bishop Crowther held an ordination at Bonny on December 18th, when Mr. J. Boyle and Mr. J. D. Garrick, Native lay agents in the Niger Mission were admitted to deacon's orders, and the Rev. J. Buck, Native deacon, to priest's orders. Mr. Boyle was the schoolmaster at Bonny who attended the Madeira Conference last year. He read the Gospel on the occasion ; and Archdeacon D. C. Crowther preached the sermon, on the words of Luke xxiv. 48, “Ye are witnesses."

Bishop Moule visited Ningpo and its out-stations in October, and held confirmations at several places, sixty-seven Chinese candidates being presented, thirty-three of whom were at Kwun-he-we, where the Rev. Sing Eng-teh is pastor. Bishop Scott of North China was present at some of the services. On October 13th and 14th a conference of the C.M.S. missionaries in CheKiang was beld.

On Dec. 18th, the Bishop of Lahore ordained Munshi Dina Nath as assistant teacher in the Labore Divinity College. At the same time the Rev. A. Ball, of Karachi, received priest's orders.

Bishop Speechly held his first ordination in the Diocese of Travancore and Cochin, on Dec. 18th, at Cottayam. The Rev. C. A. Neve and the Rer. E. Varkki John (Native) were admitted to priest's orders. The sermon was preached by the Rev. Oomen Mamen, on John xiii. 5, “I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you."

On the 21st of December, the Rev. T. Ephraim, of the Society's Tamil Mission in the Mauritius, was admitted to priest's orders by Bishop Royston.

We are truly sorry that the Rev. T. Cameron Wilson, who went to Lagos a year ago on the special fund raised at Hampstead and elsewhere in memory

of the Rev. H, Wright, has returned home under medical orders.

The Rev. S. Coles has come home on sick leave from Ceylon; and the Revs, R. T. Dowbiggin, J. T. Simmonds, and D. Wood, are also on the point of returning from that Mission on furlough.

We much regret to hear that the Rev. J. R. Wolfe has met with a serious accident on board the steamer which took him from Hong-Kong to Fuh-Chow. He had an awkward fall, and injured his leg; and on reaching Fuh-Chow, on December 15th, the doctor ordered him to remain in bed.

The Diocesan Gazette of Travancore and Cochin records in very warm terms the services of the Rev. W. J. Richards, who has just come home after ten years in the field. He has latterly been Principal of the Cambridge Nicholson Divinity Institution, and Chairman of the Cottayam Press Committee, in which office the Rev. A. F. Painter succeeds him; also Bishop's Chaplain. On his leaving, an address was presented to him by the teachers and students of the Institution, in which they “bestowed praise upon his Malayalam pronunciation."

The Santâl Mission has been suffering through the illness of missionaries. The Rev. J. Tunbridge was sent away for some months invalided to Ootacamund, and just as he was returning to his work his wife was taken ill, and died. He has since been again ill, and been ordered home. The Rev. F. T. and Mrs. Cole are also coming home on furlough. The Rev. A. Stark and his family were obliged, by repeated attacks of fever, to go to the hills for some months, but are now at work again, taking the Godda station, instead of Taljhari, where the Revs. J. Brown and R. Elliott are labouring. The Rev. E. Drose and family were obliged by sickness to be absent from Bhagalpur for some months, and the Rev. A. W. Baumann has been in charge there.

The Editor of the Girls' Own Paper has presented to the Church Missionary Society a large parcel of housewives, gc., for the use of missionaries, made by the readers of that periodical for one of its prize competitions.

THREE JUVENILE ASSOCIATIONS. T is wonderful what a Juvenile Association can do for the Church

Missionary Society when it is worked by loving and zealous hearts.

Let us give three instances. 1. A few years ago, the Rev. A. Baring.Gould moved from Torquay to Winchester. He at once started a Juvenile Association for the city, and year by year it has been growing ever since. In 1877, it raised £62; in 1878, £87; in 1879, £100; in 1880, £126.

2. Two years ago, a lady moved from Brighton to Bournemouth, and at once, with the concurrence of the Rev. P. F. Eliot, started a Juvenile Association in connection with Trinity Church. The first year it raised £60, and last year £162, besides various sums for the Henry Wright steamer.

3. Two years ago, a lady at Eastbourne, whose late husband, the Rev. J. G. Faithfull, was in former years the ardent supporter of the Society at Cheshunt and in East Herts generally, started a Juvenile Association. The first year it raised £107, and last year £171. It is right to say that about £20 used to be contributed by children before, mainly from Trinity Sunday. schools; but almost all the rest is new. We have just received last year's account, of which the following is a summary :

d. Collection after Sermon at St. Paul's

3 15 8 Do. three meetings

13 5 1 Holy Trinity Schools-Girls.....

£9 15 Infants

1 14 3 Boys

5 7 11

16 17 10 Forty-four Missionary Boxes......

70 18 2 Collected by Miss O'Malley

32 18 3 Sale of Work.....

42 0 0

£ s.



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APRIL, 1882.


gain of 107. About two-thirds of the whole number are more or

less regularly organised as Associations, with Treasurer, Sec-
N the 1st of January, 1874, appeared the first number retary, &c. Of these Associations there are 3,663; and of this

of the present Church MISSIONARY GLEANER. There number, 2,669 are afliliated as branches of larger Auxiliaries,
had been a Gleaner before, indeed; but it was a

and remit their contributions through them, while the remainder,
small magazine, and it had been dropped for three 994, remit direct to Salisbury Square. Of the larger aggregate

or four years. Eight years and four months have Associations—more often called Auxiliaries -- there are 286. since been counted, making one hundred months; in which time, Some of these comprise the area of an old parish with its district by the good hand of our God upon us, we have issued a thousand parishes, as Islington and Paddington; some are Town Assopictures and some fourteen hundred columns of letterpress for ciations, as Birmingham and Sheffield ; a few are much larger, the sum of eight shillings and fourpence. The whole number as “Norfolk and Norwich ” and “East Kent." of copies printed has exceeded three millions; and nearly £10,000

The total number of sermons known to have been preached has been paid in cash by the public for numbers purchased. The for the Society in 1881 was 7,366 ; and of meetings held, 2,775. Society's agencies are so numerous and varied that it is not These figures, however, are rather short, owing to the returns from possible to trace out the results of this particular agency; but two districts being imperfect; besides which it is certain that we do know that there are missionaries now in the field who many parochial meetings take place without being officially owed their missionary impulse, under God, to the GLEANER ; and noted. We may therefore safely say that the sermons exceeded when we find that the average income of the Society is now 7,500 and the meetings 3,000. Of the sermons, about 2,300 £40,000 a year more than it was in 1873, we cannot doubt that were preached by regular agents of the Society, i.e., Missionaries the GLEANER has worked hand-in-hand with other instrumentalities at home and Association Secretaries, leaving more than 5,000 in so extending and deepening interest in missionary work as to which were preached by volunteers, the clerical friends of the produce a result like that.

Society generally. To signalise the appearance of the Hundredth Number, we The counties of England differ very much in the interest their devote this month to sketches and illustrations of the Society clergy and people take in the Society's work, as judged by the itself, its history and its work; and we trust that both pictures number of sermons and meetings. Of the sermons, 901 belong and letterpress will prove interesting and helpful. It will be to Yorkshire, 566 to Lancashire, 343 to Kent, 278 to Norfolk, seen that we give four extra pages, sixteen inside the wrapper

266 to Surrey, 265 to Middlesex, 258 to Hants, 250 to Durham, instead of twelve; and as we are printing an edition many

231 to Somerset, 225 to Lincolnshire, and so on down to 27 for thousand copies larger than usual, we hope our friends will make Monmouthshire and 23 for Rutland. Of the meetings, 255 some little effort to push the sale, and in this way obtain regular belong to Yorkshire, 160 to Middlesex, 157 to Kent, 130 to subscribers for the periodical.

Surrey, 128 to Norfolk, 126 to Lancashire, 116 to Hants, 109 to But let us all remember that these agencies are but means to Somerset, 99 to Durham, and so on to 8 for Monmouth and 6 for an end. Not for its own sake do we wish the GLEANER to flourish, Rutland. Taking the whole number of churches in a county, and nor even the Church Missionary Society ; but that they may be comparing with it the number supporting the Society, the proused of God to help forward the accomplishment of His own portions are different. Only in Lancashire, Cheshire, and Durgracious purposes to a lost world. May editor, and writers, and ham do more than one-half the churches send contributions : readers, and circulators, never aim at anything lower than that! viz., in Lancashire, 370 out of 706; in Cheshire, 112 out of

216 ; in Durham, 162 out of 269—or sixty per cent., the high

est of all. Yorkshire is very near the balf, 571 out of 1,161 ; HOW THE MONEY IS RAISED.

and so is Northumberland, 90 out of 184. OT redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and

With regard to the average amount per sermon, Middlesex

stands alone, its returns per sermon averaging £17 3s. Od. gold. No, certainly not; and we all feel how

Sussex stands next, though with only £8 5s. Tid. Then Surrey, helpless money is to work any spiritual result

with £7 10s. 311. ; Westmoreland, £7 ; Channel Islands, £6 10s.; whatever. And yet, in the providence of God, the Bristol (which is always reckoned as a separate county in

course of this world is so ordered that the good C.M.S. accounts), L6 98. 11d.; Kent, £5 17s. 5d.; Lancashire, news of the redemption cannot be proclaimed to every creature

£5 10s. 4d.; Warwick, £5 5s. 6:1. The average for the whole under heaven without money. It is one of the happy features of of England and Wales is only £1 12s. the Church Missionary Society that its organisation gives all above the average are Cheshire, Devon, and Stafford.

The only other counties ranks and classes, and ages, in every corner of the land, the

An analysis has been made of the sources of the Society's inopportunity of joining in the work by providing some little fragment of the great sum needed. Let us see how this is done, Legacies, Benefactions, Subscriptions, &c., paid direct to Salis

come, so far as it comes through Associations—.c., excluding and the result in the year 1881. The number of parishes in England and Wales may be taken

bury Square. The result is as follows :—Sermons, £34,430;

Meetings, £9,261; Donations, £9,844; Annual Subscriptions, as a little over 15,000. Froin just one-third of these the Society £35,237; Missionary Boxes, £18,184. The remainder, about received support, in one form or another, in the year 1881.

£32,000, is made up of " collections” (i.e., by individuals, not Thus

in churches and not by boxes), sales of work, &c., and also a 2,010 parishes had sermons and meetings for the Society. 2,210 sermons, but no meetings.

considerable amount not properly specified in the accounts meetings, but no sermons.

received from the Associations, part of which ought no doubt to

neither sermons nor meetings, but remitted belong to the five heads above mentioned. Roughly speaking,
contributions from other sources.

it may be said that one-fourth of the Association funds come Total 5,375

from sermons. Now this proportion ought to be a great deal During the year, 150 new parishes were gained, and 43 which had less. In a parish well worked for the Society, with its quarterly previously supported the Society failed to do so, making a nett meetings, boxes, cards, juvenile and Sunday-school organisations,

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