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S Mr. Bickersteth's letters take us in this number to Cawnpore, Lucknow, and Agra, we present three or four pictures illustrative of these cities, so prominent in the history of British India. Those of us who cannot look back to the terrible year of the Mutiny, 1857, can form but a faint idea of the thrilling memories these names bring back to the minds of the older among us. It was at Cawnpore that the cruel rebel chief, Nana Sahib, massacred more than two hundred English ladies and children, and threw the dead and dying into a well. Over that well was afterwards erected the beautiful monument shown on the opposite page. At Lucknow, a small British force, also with women and children, stood a siege of nearly six months, from May 30th to November 19th. They were shut up in the Residency, a range of buildings which had been occupied by the British Resident at the court of the King of Oudh. There they suffered terrible privations, as day by day the mutineers, who filled the whole city, poured in shot and shell, killing and wounding large numbers of the brave defenders. There Sir Henry Lawrence fell, on July 4th. Thither came to the rescue Outram and Havelock, on September 25th, but with so small a band of men that although they got in they could not get out again, and the siege went on; thither at last came Sir Colin Campbell on November 16th, and brought the whole beleaguered party safely away. And thither again came Campbell in the following March,
(See page 17.) when the city was finally re-conquered. On this occasion, Lieutenant George Hutchinson, of the Bengal Engineers, now the Lay Secretary of the Church Missionary Society, and Lieutenant Brownlow, of the same corps, whose gallant career was but a few days afterwards cut short by an explosion of gunpowder, were the first Engineer officers who, with "Brazier's Sikhs," mounted on to the roof of the great Imambara, the famous Mohammedan shrine of which we give a picture on page 18. This magnificent building is the scene of the great Moslem religious festivals in Lucknow. The other Lucknow building shown in our pictures is the Martinière, a large school built by a Frenchman named Claude Martin, who went to India a private soldier, and died a millionaire. This place also is promi nent in the history of the siege.
Lucknow has been a station of the Church Missionary Society ever since the suppression of the Mutiny, when Sir Robert Montgomery, the Chief Commissioner, invited the Society to occupy the city. A most excellent work is carried on by our missionary the Rev. G. B. Durrant, Mrs. Durrant, the ladies of the Zenana Mission, and the Native pastor and head schoolmaster, Rev. Dari Solomon and Mr. W. Seetal.
The Taj Mahal at Agra, represented in the picture on page 19, is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. It is a tomb built by the Mogul Emperor, Shah Jehan, for his favourite wife, whose name was Mahal, and whom he called "Taj," as a name of endearment. One of the latest visitors, the Rev. W. Urwick, in his Indian Pictures, writes thus :"About two miles from the town you pass under a colossal gateway, and before you is a lovely garden, green and shaded with beautiful trees, and
MONUMENT OVER THE WELL AT CAWNPORE, INTO WHICH NANA SAHIB CAST THE DEAD AND DYING ENGLISH WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN 1857.
in the centre an avenue of tall cypress-trees, separated by a line of fountains, and leading the eye to the foot of the building, which rises from a double platform, the first of red sandstone 20 feet high and 1,000 feet broad, the second of marble 15 feet high and 300 feet square, on the corners of which stand four marble minarets. In the centre of all, thus reared in air, stands the Taj, with giant arches and clustering domes. As you walk towards it, the building grows to its real size, a marble shrine of great magnitude inlaid with precious stones, graceful in its outlines, costly in its gems, and perfect in its details."
Agra is an important centre of C.M.S. work. There is St. John's College, founded by French and E. C. Stuart; and other im
THE RESIDENCY, LUCKNOW, WHERE HENRY LAWRENCE, OUTRAM, AND HAVELOCK WERE BESIEGED.
MAORI PARISHES IN NEW ZEALAND. KCHDEACON E. B. CLARKE, the C.M.S. Missionary at Waimate, New Zealand, writes: "I trust that because little is written from this district, you will not think that little is going on. The work has assumed an uneventful character, though not the less real; the leaven is influencing all quarters, and has its effect even upon the scattered European population. The archdeaconry is divided into parochial districts, each under its own minister; and to a clergyman at home the charge of 800 or 1,000 souls may not seem a very heavy burden, but it must be remembered that here this population is scattered over an area of sixty or more miles square. These are living in parties of from 150 to 25, several miles apart, so that to visit them every two months entails any amount of travelling. It is in no boastful spirit that I state that, as a rule, neither I nor the two Native clergy near me (by near I mean eleven and fifteen miles) sleep more than one Sunday night in a month at home, and on those days we usually ride from twelve to sixteen miles."
1 WI am the Light of the world, John 8. 12. [the Gentiles, Lu. 2. 32. 2T Purif. V. M. 4 Natives ord. by Bp. Colombo, 1881. A light to lighten 3 F The way of the wicked is as darkness, Prov. 4. 19.
4 S The darkness hideth not from Thee, Ps. 139. 12.
[light; and there was light, Gen. 1. 3. 5 S Septuagesima. 1st bapt. Abeokuta, 1848. Gol said, Let there be
M. Ge. 1 & 2 to v. 4. Rev. 21. 1-9. E. Ge. 2. 4. or Job 38. Rev. 21. 9 to 22. 6.
6 M God saw the light, that it was good, Gen. 1. 4.
7 T 1st Telugu clergy ord., 1864. Let your light shine, Mat. 5. 16. 8 W C. Simeon's paper before Eclectic Soc. originated idea of C.M.S., [1796. Light is sprung up, Mat. 4. 16. 9 T Bp. Williams d., 1878. The path of the just is as the shining light, 10 F The light shall shine upon thy ways, Job 22. 28. [Prov. 4. 18. 11 S All the night with a light of fire, Ps. 78. 14. [children of light, Eph. 5. 8. 12 S Sexagesima. 1st Tinnevelly Native Ch. Council, 1869. Walk as M. Ge. 3. Mat. 24. 1-29. E. Ge. 6 or 8. Ac. 27. 1-18. 13 M Schwartz d., 1798. Made meet to be partakers of the inheritance [of the saints in light, Col. 1. 12. 14 T Nile party reached Uganda, 1879. A land of darkness, as darkness 15 W O send out Thy light! Ps. 43. 3. [itself, Job. 10. 22. 16 T The darkness is past, and the true light now shineth, 1 Jo. 2. 8. 17 F Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you, John 18 S Thy darkness shall be as the noonday, Is. 58. 10. [12. 35. [1 Jo. 2. 10. 19 S Quinquagesima. He that loveth his brother abideth in the light,
M. Ge. 9. 1-20. Mat. 27. 1-27. E. Ge. 12 or 13. Ro. 3. 20 M But he that hateth his brother is in darkness, 1 Jo. 2. 11. [light before them, Isa. 42. 16. 21 T 1st C.M.S. Miss, sailed for India, 1814. I will make darkness 22 W Ash Wednesday. Cast off the works of darkness, Ro. 13. 12. M. Is. 58. 1-13, Mk. 2. 13-23. E. Jonah 3. Heb, 12, 3-18.
23 T Henry Wright appointed Hon. Sec., 1872. Put on the armour of [light, Ro. 13. 12. 24 F St. Matthias. Ye are the light of the world, Mat. 5. 14. 25 S Let us walk in the light of the Lord, Is. 2. 5.
[works of darkness, Eph. 5. 11. 26 S 1st in Lent. Ember Wk. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful
M. Ge. 19. 12-30. Mk. 2. 23 to 3. 13. E. Ge. 22. 1-22, or 23. Ro. 9. 1-19. 27 M The Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, Is. 60. 19. 28 T There shall be no night there, Rev. 21. 25.
"Such as I have give I thee."
AM anxious to dispose of a number of good old-fashioned flower roots which I have cultivated for the benefit of the C.M.S. Address," B. M., The Library, Addiscombe, Croydon." The following are some of the perennials for sale:-Pinks, Carnations, Daisies, New Pyrethrums, Choice Columbines, Phloxes, Good Pansies, Old Cabbage Roses, &c., &c. If any readers of the GLEANER are real lovers of their garden, and thus are tempted to spend more time and money on plants than they feel justified in doing, they will find their pleasure doubled if they consecrate these talents to the Lord by following some plan like the above. Further, if any one has to throw away their garden surplus of hardy perennials they would be helping me very considerably if they just packed the so-called rubbish into a rush basket or hamper, and sent them to me carriage paid; of course, writing previously for my correct address, and nearest station, &c. This would be a very practical way of fulfilling our Lord's command to "gather up the fragments that remain that nothing be lost." B. M. (A Local Hon. Sec.)
[Since sending the above, B. M. has written :-"I have had such a large sale for my plants that I have realised over £7, and sold 521 plants. My stock is therefore almost exhausted, and I should be most grateful to any one who would help to replenish it, so that I could have a variety of hardy flower-roots, ready to sell in the spring, for planting in February and March."]
Another "Fifty Years Ago."
HILST reading Mr. Poole's interesting little note in the GLEANER for
WHNOT last, I was reminded of an amusing incident which occurred
some fifty years ago in a remote little village in Wiltshire. A large bill was posted on the school wall in the village announcing that a missionary of the C.M.S. would give a lecture there in the course of a few days. Now it appears that one of the villagers had a doubt as to what a missionary meeting really was, and in order to satisfy her curiosity, applied to a friend of mine, adding, 66 I suppose it's a kind of gipsy party." Need I say that darkness has given way before light, and that there are earnest workers for the C.M.S. in the village W. H. SWIFT.
EPITOME OF MISSIONARY NEWS.
The Bishop of Ossory and Ferns (Ireland), Dr. W. Pakenham Walsh, has consented to preach the Annual Sermon before the Society, at St. Bride's, on May 1st. Dr. Walsh was formerly Association Secretary of the Society in Ireland, and has always been a warm and able advocate of its principles and work.
Bishop Cheetham has signified his intention to resign the Bishopric of Sierra Leone, and has accepted the Vicarage of Rotherham. He was consecrated in 1870, and has therefore held the see longer than any of his predecessors, three of whom died at their post within a year or two of their appointment. The Society is deeply indebted to Dr. Cheetham for his able and devoted services in the cause both of its Missions and of the Native Church.
Bishop Ridley of Caledonia arrived in England on January 2nd on important business connected with difficulties which have arisen at Metlakahtla. We earnestly ask the prayers of all our readers in behalf of the Mission there. On the Epiphany, January 6th, a Special Communion Service was held at St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, in connection with the Society, which was attended by the members of the Committee and their friends. The Rev. W. Martin, the Rector, officiated, and the sermon was preached by the Rev. C. C. Fenn, one of the clerical secretaries, on 1 Cor. x. 16.
The venerable Rev. Gerard Smith, formerly Vicar of Ock brook, who died lately at a great age, was a long-tried friend of the C.M.S., and contributed valuable articles to the GLEANER in 1874 and 1875.
We much regret to say that the Rev. A. E. Moule is forbidden by the Society's medical advisers to return to China at present. All who are interested in that Mission will pray that his health may soon be restored, and he be enabled to go out again.
The Rev. W. T. Pilter has lately returned home from the Palestine Mission; Mr. A. H. Wright from Agra; and Mr. W. Briggs from the Punjab. We ought before to have mentioned the return of the Rev. F. F. Gough from Ningpo.
Dr. Henry Martyn Clark, of Edinburgh University, an Afghan by birth, but an adopted son of the Rev. R. Clark, has been accepted by the Society as a medical missionary for the Punjab.
On January 9th, the Committee took leave of the Rev. F. Gmelin, returning to Bengal; the Rev. W. Jukes, to Peshawar; and the Rev. J. Caley, to Travancore; and of Mr. J. W. Strickson, who is going out to the Shanghai Anglo-Chinese School as assistant-master.
Bagdad, the famous capital of Mesopotamia, is to be occupied by the Church Missionary Society in connection with the Persia Mission. The chief sacred shrines visited by Mohammedans of the Shiah sect are in its immediate neighbourhood; and as the Persians are Shiahs, thousands of them pass through Bagdad during the year. From it, as a base, it is hoped that missionary work may extend into south-western Persia.
Further grants have been made from the Frances Ridley Havergal Memorial Fund for the translation and publication of one or more of Miss Havergal's works in the Bengali and Telugu languages.
Miss Maria V. G. Havergal has presented to the Society, for the use of its missionaries, Native clergy acquainted with English, &c., 500 copies of a little book lately published, entitled "Starlight through the Shadows," containing miscellaneous papers by the late Miss F. R. Havergal. Among them are the articles entitled "Marching Orders," which were contributed to the GLEANER in 1879.
Letters were received on December 19th from Mr. O'Flaherty and Mr. Mackay in Uganda, of various dates down to August 1st. They were well, and the Mission apparently well established, Mtesa being again favourably disposed, and having restored the liberty to teach and preach.
The Bishop of Calcutta, as Metropolitan of India, paid his first visit to Peshawar in October, and in a memorandum written by him in the recordbook of the C.M.S. Mission, expressed in strong terms his sense of the importance and success of the missionary work carried on there.
The grants from the William Charles Jones Fund to Native Church Councils in India, to meet equal sums raised by themselves for the support of evangelistic agents, amount to Rs. 8,595, about £750. This shows a growth of energy and liberality on the part of the Native Christians. The North-West Provinces and the Punjab claim the grant for the first time; and the South India Councils are increasing their requirements.
Bishop Bompas writes, on Aug. 4th, from Mackenzie River, that he had just returned from a long journey into the remotest corner of his vast diocese to visit the Tukudh Mission. He was delighted with the progress made there. The wandering people can now generally read the Scriptures in their own language, and are teaching one another instead of being wholly dependent on Archdeacon McDonald's visits. The Bishop begs for two more missionaries, one for the Esquimaux, and one for the tribes on the Lower Youcon in the United States Territory of Alaska. The former has been already provided by the despatch of the Rev. T. H. Canham last July.
We wish heartily to recommend one of Miss Skinner's "Friendly Letters" which has been sent to us, addressed to "Young Ladies, especially those who have just left school." One of the recommendations in it is to devote an evening in the week in working for the Church Missionary Society.
The Gleaner Examination was duly held on Jan. 10th. The resu't will be announced in our next.
Received with Thanks:-The proceeds of a Dressmaker's Missionary Box, by Mrs. C. Hillyer, 3s. 3d.; " A Nurse's Thank-Offering," £1; W. A. Bryan, for the School Children's Christmas Treat at Gaza, 28. 6d. ; E. G. W., for the same, 18.; a packet, sent anonymously, containing 4s. and some small articles of jewellery.
THE CHURCH MISSIONARY GLEANER.
THE WORKING TOGETHER
OF GOD THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH IN THE EXTENSION OF CHRIST'S KINGDOM.
BY THE REV. J. B. WHITING, M.A., Vicar of St. Luke's, Ramsgate.
In this one story the full details are given, but the fact underlies all the incidents of the Acts of the Apostles. Thus of Lydia we read, "whose heart the Lord opened.' "the Lord is the Spirit." The Lord the Spirit is the agent referred to in Acts ii. 47, iii. 26. "That their eyes may be opened" (so we read in xxvi. 18). There is but "one" true "faith," and " one Lord," whose office it is to reveal the whole scheme of salvation to the sinner's view, and no less to open the sinner's heart to the cordial reception of it. This is His work, and not man's, whether the poor sinner be a Hindu or an Englishman.
But the case of Philip and the eunuch teaches another lesson equally important. The salvation of every single soul is an object worthy of the glorious love and infinite power of the Holy Spirit; but to carry it out it has pleased Him to associate with Himself the Church and all its members.
Philip is the medium through whom the Spirit works upon the eunuch; Peter is prepared and forced to go from Joppa, to speak to Cornelius; Ananias must go to the street called Straight, in Damascus, that the scales may fall from the eyes of Saul of Tarsus; and Paul is the chosen vessel to carry the Gospel to Lydia and the Philippian jailor, and to win to Christ the worshippers of the great goddess Diana of the Ephesians.
Paul could throw a flood of light on the Word. What consolation Barnabas could bring out of Scripture! But there is work to be done. Antioch must lose some of their most valued men. Barnabas and Saul must go. "A Church must not monopolise its pastors," for the Spirit hath need of the best men.
It was said to Carey, when he first sought to stir the churches to missionary enterprise, "Young man, sit down: if God intends to convert the world, He will do so without your help or mine." But the aged minister of Christ who spoke so rashly, had not well understood the scenes in the Acts of the Apostles. Is the Gospel to be preached to Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites ? Peter and John and the other Apostles are filled with the Holy Ghost, to speak the Word with necessary power. Are the Samaritan villages to be converted? A persecution shall scatter A persecution shall scatter the Christians, that they may proclaim, in all the villages, the name of Jesus. Is Saul to be brought out of darkness into light? Stephen shall fix the first prick in his conscience. Could not the Holy Spirit have taught the rude barbarians of Galatia, or the wise men of Greece, without the human teacher ? We read that there came a voice, “Come over into Macedonia"; and we gather that the Holy Spirit required the agency of Paul. If it is true that the Holy Spirit is the sole sovereign agent in converting the heart, it is not less true that He summons man to His aid. Where are the men? And of what sort are they?
TEN WEEKS IN INDIA.
Extracts from Letters to my Children during a Winter Tour.
AJMERE, December 13, 1880. ROM Bandikui to Ajmere we threaded our way among the Rajpootana Hills, which rise abruptly from the plains to which our railway religiously kept. There was not the ghost of a cutting the whole way. It was not at all an unpleasant day's journey, though And then the thought of meeting R- and M
so slow. at the end! And when our train crept up to the Ajmere platform there, sure enough, they both were and seemed really overjoyed to see us. Leaving our man "John" to bring up the luggage in a bullock cart, M- drove us with dashing speed in one of the Rajah's carriages (he has always two at his command) to their palace home. We had late dinner, and the young king and one of his nobles were present, though, of course, tasting nothing which would have broken their caste. Early next morning we walked out before breakfast among the palaces, which are ten in number, and scattered over the noble college ground. For the present they use a bungalow for the college instructions and lectures, but a splendid building of white marble is in course of erection near this house, and is two-thirds built. I had no conception that Ajmere would be so beautiful. It is far the loveliest place we have yet seen in India; a wide fertile valley, with the hills rising precipitously on three sides of it.
On the Tuesday we had a most beautiful ride through woods, stretching far away and lying under the shadow of hills. We drove at 7.30 to the Lake and had a pleasant row in the Rajah's boat, and got home before a thunderstorm, which lowered and broke for two or three hours. But it passed off at two o'clock, and we went a delightful expedition up the Taraghore hill, on the top of which is situate the Ajmere Sanatorium. It is a steep ascent with many rock steps. Edward and I rode on horseback, each with a watchful syce by our side. The views were charming; flights of green parrots, troops of monkeys, a stone trap to catch a panther close by our path, and Ajmere glittering below. It was a gorgeous sunset; the morning's thunderclouds still hanging round, but bathed in crimson hues till the sun set and the moon rose, when the sky became rosecoloured and the clouds silver. Then we made our way through the quaint old city, M-- driving the Rajah's spirited horses very fast, the syces running before and clearing the way. the evening of the 16th there was a total eclipse of the moon for nearly two hours. I never saw one so distinctly as in these crystal skies. But it was so strange and sad to see the nervous
alarm of The Hindus say a dragon is devouring the moon (hence its red colour) and they appoint a fast, and the household astrologer played upon his fears and kept repeating "Rām, Rām for hours. After dinner we drew into the drawing-room and explained to him what caused the eclipse, with the lamp and an orange casting its shadow on our hand. And I think by degrees his fears subsided, but he was restless and disquieted. The next morning when I met him, I said, "Well, the moon is none the worse for her eclipse" (for she was shining over our heads on one side and the sun on the other). He laughed; the danger was over. How I long that that boy-a fine, open-hearted fellow-may find Christ.
DELHI, 22nd December, 1880. On the railway journey hither we mercifully escaped an accident, they having stupidly forgotten to put in the coupling-bolt.
The shaking was terrible. However, after about an hour or so they remembered it, stopped the train, and had one put in; but our night was very broken. Still we got on very well to Bandikui, where we had tiffin, and then got into another train for Delhi, where we arrived at 9 A.M.
We have had two or three days full of interest. On Monday we went over the Fort, which was the palace of the old Kings of Delhi and the
centre of the great Mogul Empire. The marble hall of audience richly gilded and inlaid, with its Zenana Palace on one side and its magnificent baths on the other, scented with countless roses, was magnificent; and then we went over the Jumma Musjid, the largest Mohammedan mosque in India, and Edward and I climbed the minaret, from which we had a
wonderfully fine view of this great thriving city. That night I went out with them to their bazaar preaching.* Such
church on 2 Cor. ix. 15-" Thanks be to God for His unspeakable gift "-to a full church, many officers and soldiers being present; and in the afternoon, after attending a feast given to the Christian converts (130 in number) by the excellent commissioner, Mr. Young, in W-'s compound, M, R Edward and I drove off to the Fort, Jumma Musjid, and other parts of the town. Home at 7.30 for our Christmas dinner, a
December 26, 1880.
We had a delightful Christmas Day yesterday. I walked with M-up to the Ridge before breakfast, preached in the English
*Delhi is occupied by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Mr. Bickersteth's son belongs to the "Cambridge Mission," which is associated with that Society.-ED.
name their church bears.
bright fire of wood logs, and we as snug as possible, all the missionary brothers expressing their joy in having such a Christmas party. We began the day with singing "Christians,awake, salute the happy morn," in their little chapel at 8, and closed with prayers and the hymn "Songs of praise the angels sang." Altogether our Christmas Day was just brim-full mercy and overflowing. I forgot to say while I was preaching at St. James' (the English Church) the brothers were all
at St. Stephen's, where they had 170 communicants. This morning I have been preaching by interpretation in St. Stephen's. I stood on the chancel steps, and Tara Chand, the Native pastor, stood by my side, and interpreted my address sentence by sentence. I took as my text "So great salvation," Heb. ii. 3, alluding to Christmas and the last Sunday in the year, and also to St. Stephen, whose day it is and whose January 4, 1881.
We left Delhi on Monday morning, Dec. 27, with hearts full of gratitude and love. We had a noble view of the city as we crossed the vast railway bridge over the Jumna. We passed through the immense military cantonment at Meerut, where the Mutiny first broke out. At 8 o'clock we settled ourselves to sleep for the night, and M- and I got up at 2.30, for we were to leave the train at Amritsar at 3.