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which was held with such Spartan courage by our soldiers in the Mutiny.* We saw the room where Sir Henry Lawrence was struck by the shell, and the house where he died, and the grave where he was buried at night in silence in the graveyard lest any voices should attract the enemy's fire. The tombstone bears these words, at his own dying request : “Here lies Henry Lawrence, who tried to do his duty." I read Dr. Gubbins' account of the Mutiny all day, and felt how God must have great purposes of mercy for our Empire so marvellously preserved. It is quite solemnizing and subduing to tread ground hallowed by deeds of such heroic courage,

On Friday we saw the schools in the Zahar Baksh, the old Palace where the missionaries live,t and in the afternoon rode on an elephant, which the colonel kindly sent us, into the town, and to the Old Fort where the powder magazine was blown up during the siege. On Saturday we saw the vigorous Boys' School, I three hundred boys, the busiest hive of industry under its Christian headmaster, Mr. Seetal, such an intelligent man, and the second master was baptized at Christmas, 1879. It would be indeed cruel to give up a work like this. We left on Monday morning, after the most enjoyable visit. We feel our hearts quite knit to those dear single-hearted labourers for Christ who are left to hold the fort till more prosperous days shall enable us at Salisbury Square to send them reinforcements.

From Lucknow we came back to Cawnpore, and from Cawnpore to Agra. Here we have been simply entranced by the Taj : its severe simplicity and purity of taste, and at the same time its majesty of outline, just make you feel you can never tire of it. We have been to the Fort this morning, which would hold a vast army, and is in perfect preservation.

AJMERE, Dec. 13. At Agra, Edward was ill with Indian fever, but on Thursday last he felt strong enough to attempt the long, slow journey here—21 hours for 232

THE TAJ MAHAL, AGRA, BY MOONLIGHT. miles. Before leaving Agra, we went to the Taj again on Thursday afternoon, and stayed there till the started for the train, which was to leave at 11.30. It is always evening light bathed the peerless marble in rose and ruby.! We a lengthy business getting off in India, and the Mission house is had a Bible reading with the Zenana ladies, &c., at 8, and at 10 three miles off, and twice our horse mutinied. However, coaxSee the picture and explanation on pages 22, 23.-ED.

ing and flogging prevailed, and we got into a very comfortable + See the pictures in the GLEANER of July, 1877, and November, 1880.

little carriage, and our train started on its snail-like progress of The missionaries are the Rev. G. B. and Mrs. Durrant (Mr.

D. is a stepson of scarcely more than ten miles an hour. At 6.30 next morning Mr. Bickersteth's sister), and the ladies of the Zenana Mission.-ED.

we had an excellent breakfast of tea and eggs for eight annas 1 See the picture in the GLEANER of December, 1877.—ED. Ś A young missionary, the Rev. W. Windsor, has since been gent out.-ED.

(less than a shilling) each at Bandikui, the junction for Delhi. See page 23.

However, we were bound for Jeypore and Ajmere.


THE STORY OF THE LIFE OF DR. KRAPF, farmer ; let me see your brother and talk to him myself.” Full of the

bright prospect which she saw opening for her young brother, my sister The Pioneer-Missionary of East Africa.

returned home, and after awhile the consent of the whole family was TOLD BY HIMSELF.

obtained to the proposition ; whilst in the joy of the moment I promised [In our last number we mentioned the death of Dr. J. L. Krapf, the to labour night and day with zeal and industry, and prove to them all that first Christian missionary in East Africa, from whose travels and researches have followed all the explorations and discoveries of the last few years.

I was not unworthy so much love and affection. His own journals, and an autobiograpbical sketch published with his

Accordingly, a day or two afterwards, I accompanied my sister to the Travels in 1860, will enable us to present the story of his remarkable life

house of the clergyman's widow, who, pleased with my boyish answers to in his own words; and this we propose to do from month to month her questions, urged again strongly the importance of my being sent at through this year. ]

once to the grammar-school. My father, involved in some law proceedI.--CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH.

ings, saw, as it were in his mind's eye, in his son a rising lawyer capable of E trace, it is said, the impressions, views, and teachings of the bringing these suits to successful issue. With that ambition he took me

child in the after-career of the man, influencing his pursuits with bim to Tübingen to the rector of the Anatolian School.
and giving them a fixed direction. In my case, at least, I was placed by the under-master on the lowest form, along with boys
this was no paradox, and by way of illustration I would but nine years old, which to a great boy of thirteen, as I then was, could

place before the reader a short sketch of my early life before not fail to make me feel a little abashed and to experience a morbid I became attached to the East African Mission.

shame at my ignorance. But this very shame stood me in good stead by My father, whose circumstances were easy, followed farming, and lived making me the more desirous to learn, to be placed in the class above me in the village of Derendingen, near Tübingen, where I was born on the with boys of my own age. The early morning always found me on my 11th of January, 1810, and baptized by the name of Ludwig, the wrestler, road to Tübingen with satchel on my back, in which besides my books no inapt appellation for one who was destined to become a soldier of the were a bottle of sweet must and a great hunch of bread, which were to Cross. Many were my providential escapes in childhood from dangers constitute my simple mid-day's meal, and which I quickly consumed which beset my path, from falling into the mill-stream which flowed between twelve and one o'clock, under the willows on the banks of the through the village, from accidents with fire-arms, or falls from trees in Neckar, in order more leisurely to devour my Litin grammar and Scheller's the eager pursuit of birds' nests. The inborn evil nature of the child was

vocabulary, which I soon learnt by heart. somewhat held in check by a nervous susceptibility, and the consequent My diligence met its reward, and at the end of six months I was at the dread I experienced in witnessing the contest of the elements in storms, head of my class ; and before the close of the year was placed on the third or which shook my frame at the sight of the dead and the grave, or even form, the rector not considering it necessary that I should remain longer when reading or listening to the narratives of the torments of the wicked in the lower school. I was becoming a good Latin scholar, and speedily in bell. On these occasions I secretly vowed to lead a pious life for the removed to the fourth form, where I became a Grecian, and rose to be top future ; though, childlike, I soon forgot the promise when the exciting boy of the class, my teachers expressing themselves well pleased with my cause had passed away, as is ever the case throughout life with the natural, general conduct and progress. unregenerated heart of man. Thus, but for an apparently trivial event in Whilst I was still on the lowest form, my father bought me an atlas of my boyhood, though in it I gratefully recognise the chastening Hand of the world, and well do I recollect wondering why there should be so few the great Teacher, the evil of my nature might have choked the good names of places put down in the districts of Adal and Somali in the map seed with its tares, or destroyed it altogether.

of Eastern Africa, and I said to myself, “ Is there then so great a desert When eleven years old I was so severely beaten by a neighbour for a yonder, still untrodden by the foot of any European ? What, too, if it fault wbich I had not committed, that it brought on a serious illoess of is full of hyænas ? " for of these I had just been reading in an odd volume six months' duration. Left to myself my thoughts dwelt much upon of Bruce's Travels, which had been lent me by a bookseller in the town. eternity; and the reading of the Bible and devotional books became my How curious that such a thought should have been instilled into the mind delight, particularly such portions of the Old Testament as recorded the of a child, who in manhood was to be the means of expanding the knowhistory of the patriarchs and their intercourse with the Creator ; and when ledge of those very regions, of which then so little was known! My I read of Abraham conversing with the Almighty, an earnest desire arose desire for travel was greatly fostered by the study of geography, and by in my breast that I too might be permitted to listen to the voice of the reading voyages and travels, and when in my fourteenth year my future Most High, even as did the prophets and apostles of old. If this reading course of life was discussed in the family circle, I expressed an ardent resulted in nothing better, at all events it made me desirous to master the desire to become “the captain of a ship, and to visit foreign lands.” My historical portions of the Bible. Nor was this knowledge thrown away ; father would have preferred my being either a lawyer, or a doctor, or a for in the autumn of 1822, during the period of my convalescence, I was clergyman. Neither law nor physic were to my mind; divinity was less in the habit of repeating to the reapers many of the stories of the Bible, objectionable ; but I dreaded the learning of Hebrew with its repulsiveso earnestly and vividly, that more than one of them would say to my looking characters and unfamiliar sounds. I still continued zealously the parents, “Mark my words, Ludwig will some day be a parson."

study of Greek and Latin and of general knowledge, adding to these also In my career, providential guidance is the more evident, because just the commencement of French and Italian. such trisling and seemingly unimportant circumstances have governed its Whilst so engaged, again a seemingly unimportant circumstance helped whole course. In the early part of the year 1823, on going to Tübingen to fix my future career. When I was in my fifteenth year the rector read to buy a new almanack, my sister, mistaking the house, instead of that to an essay to the whole school on the spread of Christianity amongst the which she had been directed for the purpose, called at the dwelling of the heathen, in which it was explained what Missions were, how they were widow of a former vicar, whose son attended the grammar-school of the conducted, and what great good they had achieved in various parts of the city. Of kindly disposition, and having no false pride, the lady entered world since the beginning of the present century. It was the first time I into conversation with her lowly visitor, and amongst other things inquired had heard of Missions amongst the heathen, and the idea assumed a if she had any brothers and sisters ; and learning that besides two elder definite form in my mind, so that, boy-like, I asked myself, " Why not brothers she had one younger, then in his thirteenth year, she asked if he become a missionary, and go and convert the heathen ?But then had any knowledge of arithmetic. To this my sister could reply with a quickly arose the inquiry, “How can he preach the Gospel to the heathen, safe conscience in the affirmative ; upon which the widow said at once, "I upon whose heart its seeds have fallen as upon stony places ? Oft and should very much like to see the lad; he may be able to teach my son oft would the words of the Parable of the Sower pass through my mind, arithmetic, go to the grammar-school, and perhaps in time study for the impelling me to read the Bible with greater earnestness, and to pray for a Church.” My sister replied that she would bring me to see the lady, but quickening knowledge of it. It was the earnest prayer of one who know added, “We are only simple farmers; so as to grammar-school, and not yet how to pray, but it was not uttered in vain. studying for the Church, I think there will be but little chance of that.” The Easter holidays of 1825 were at hand, and as I walked homewards “Never mind,” said the lady, "farmer or no farmer, Adam himself was a from Tübingen the thought arose in my mind with the force of a command, "to go to Basel and announce myself willing to devote my life to the

HINDU SCHOOL RHYMES. labours of a missionary." The matter was discussed at home, and met with

HE accompanying rhymes are an attempt to give to English readers the ready approval of my mother and sister, and, furnished by the former

some idea of what a Hindu school-book is. These moral maxims, with a letter of introduction to Missionary Inspector Blumhardt, I made

108 in number, were written by a female, reputed to be the sister the journey to Basel by way of Schaffhausen on foot. The Inspector

of the famous author of the Kural, Tiruvalluvar. Her name was Avviar, kindly recognised my zeal; but pointed out to me the first requisite for

or the mother. It is a curious thing that both these authors were Pariars, the calling of an evangelist, the renewal of the heart, as still wanting ; | and yet their books are universally read, Avviar's in every school, and the yet added, by way of encouragement, that as I was as yet too young to be

Kural by every one who claims to be a Tamil scholar. received into the Missionary College, I should return home for the The maxims are many of them good, and inculcate sound morality. present, continue my studies, and cultivate the acquaintance of Christian

Unfortunately for the boys they are written in a high dialect, wholly friends in Tübingen and its neighbourhood; and above all, let the search

unintelligible to them, and the masters never think of enlightening them. after gospel truth and a knowledge of my own heart be my chief care,

They are learnt off, parrot-like, by the lads. waiting patiently till I should receive a call to enter the Missionary

Give charity willingly;

Test, ere thou make a friend; Institute as a labourer in the Lord's vineyard. I resolved to be guided by

Give, then dine heartily.

Made, hold on to the end. this sage counsel ; but previous to my return home I obtained permission Keep down an angry thought; Sleep on silk-cotton bed ; to spend a week at the Institute, and here it was that for the first time in Impatiently say not aught.

Rest not too long thy head. my life I became acquainted with true Christians, who upon their knees The giver thou hinder not.

Do well wbate'er you do; prayed beside me, and some of whom became my special friends, in whose

Thine own wealth trumpet not. Enterd on, carry through.

Say not, “ 'Tis impossible”; Speak not deceitfully, subsequent correspondence with me after my return to Tübingen I found

Stout-hearted, thou art able.

Hard words, nor angrily. the greatest solace and blessing.

Walk thou most orderly;

Speak not the marvellous ; In 1826 I entered the fifth and highest form in the Anatolian School, Study thou steadily.

Eschew the gambling-house. and privately devoted myself to the study of Hebrew with such diligence Learning do not despise ;

Waste not thy property ; that before long I had read the greater portion of the Old Testament in

And in youth become wise.

Spoil not thou greedily.
In season sow and toil;

Stand in the royal way, the original. During that period I made the acquaintance of several

Live not on wrested soil.

And with the learned stay. thorough Christians, and by their intercourse I was in a manner better Speak thou to edify;

Cleave to thy kith and kin; qualified to accept the summons to the Missionary College at Basel, which Do what will dignify.

A house tbat's large, live not in. when it reached me in 1827 filled me with inexpressible joy.

Mother and father feed.

What you see, that only say ; I remained at Basel two years, during which I made a stealthy

Remember a kindly deed.

With a serpent do not play. acquaintance with the forbidden writings of such mystics as Madame

R. R. MEADOWS. Guion and Jacob Behmen, which took such a hold upon my excited imagination and so imbued me with their fanatic enthusiasm, that I

OUR PORTFOLIO. abandoned the idea of becoming a missionary and returned home, intending to give up study, and to labour with my hands as more conducive LE every mean do according as he is disposed in his heart, and accord

he is by to happiness and a truly religious life, according to the pernicious C.M.S. Sermon, 1825. doctrines which I had imbibed. My parents and family combated the notion, not on religious grounds, of which they were incapable of judging, IN 1872cP in Lizingstone, when in the heart of Africa, wrote thus to his but on account of the cost of my education and the disgrace it would be me to put a stop to the enormous evils of the inlaud slave trade, I shall to the whole family, if, having been brought up with reference to a learned not grudge my hunger and toils. I shall bless His name with all my profession, I were to sink again to the level of a mere tiller of the soil. heart. The Nile sources are valuable to me only as a means of enabling Much against my will I returned to college, completed my studies, and

me to open my mouth with power among men. It is this power I hope was ordained ; then entered upon the curacy of Wolfenhausen, but which,

to apply to remedy an enormous evil, and join my poor little helping

hand in the enormous revolution that in His all-embracing Providence in consequence of a sermon, in which I had represented the world to be He has been carrying on for ages, and is now actually helping forward.” in the last quarter of its twelfth and final hour, giving umbrage to the -Blaikie's Life of Livingstone(p. 441). Consistory, I resigned for a private tutorship. So it is, gold is purified by fire; and those were years of severe and painful struggle; but they

Quaint Prayers of the South Sea Islanders. brought with them at its close the restoration of my former healthy tone Aabouto te lys to our respectiva Homes. Let not the good words we of mind, and the dismissal from it of the doubts which had so long have this day heard be like the fine clothes we have been wearing, soon to threatened its peace.

be taken off, folded up, and hidden in a box, until another Sabbath comes About this period I met the missionary Fjelstedt, of Smyrna, who urged round. Rather let Thy truth be like the tattoo on our bodies, ineffaceme to enter again upon the course of life which I had abandoned in 1829.

able till death!” I took time to reflect, calling prayer to my aid, and arrived at the joyful cold it was all last night. We could hardly endure it. Do Thou change

On a Bitterly Cold Morning.-"O Lord, Thou knowest how terribly conviction that I ought again to dedicate myself to the service of Missions.

the wind so that it may be warm. And, Lord, let not our souls shiver Fjelstedt was delighted with my decision, and brought me into communi- with our bodies. Let them glow with love to Thee." cation with the English Church Missionary Society, with which he was In Sickness.-" Lord, why hast Thou thus laid Thy hand upon us ? himself connected. The wish of the Society was that I should remain for

Perhaps we have wandered from Thee. May this sickness teach us to a time in the Missionary College, and await the further orders of the

cling to Thee with hooks and claws, like bats clinging to the branch of a

tree.” Committee. In the autumn of 1836 Mr. Coates, the secretary, came to For their Missionary.—“Let his hair grow perfectly white here; his Basel, and during his stay at the Mission-house tidings were received that back be curved with age, and leaning for support upon a staff, may he Missionary Knoth, who was to have accompanied Blumhardt to Abyssinia, mount the pulpit." had died suddenly at Cairo. The vacant post was offered to me, and

Against Sin.-“Lord, we may have long been slaves to sin. Do Thou having accepted it, I gave up the study of Turkish and modern Greek,

blind its eyes, so that it may not be able to find us. Let Thy word be as which I had commenced during my second residence in Basel with a view

a club, to break its arms and its legs, so that it may be powerless. Break

Thou its neck, that it may die!” to Smyrna, which Fjelstedt had originally indicated as my destination, On Entering Church.-"O Lord, do Thou chain up the devil outside, and applied myself to Æthiopic and Amharic. In February, 1837, I set and then do Thou enter with me.” out on my long and difficult journey to Abyssinia, the land of my youthful dreams and aspirations; yet it was not without tears at parting, and

A Pathway in Nights of Trouble. with fear and trembling, that I took up my pilgrim's staff, and bid adieu

N patience, then, the path of duty run; to many and dear friends and to the home of my childhood,

But that which thou wouldst do if thou couldst see
The end of all events as well as He.


, ,



when the city was finally re-conquered. On this occasion, Lieutenant

George Hutchinson, of the Bengal Engineers, now the Lay Secretary of LUCKNOW-CAWNPORE-AGRA.

the Church Missionary Society, and Lieutenant Brownlow, of the same S Mr. Bickersteth's letters take us in this number to Cawn- corps, whose gallant career was but a few days afterwards cut short by an

pore, Lucknow, and Agra, we present three or four pictures explosion of gunpowder, were the first Engineer officers who, with “ Brazier's illustrative of these cities, so prominent in the history Sikhs,” mounted on to the roof of the great Imambara, the famous Mohamof British India. Those of us who cannot look back to medan shrine of which we give a picture on page 18. This magnificent

the terrible year of the Mutiny, 1857, can form but a faint building is the scene of the great Moslem religious festivals in Lucknow. idea of the thrilling memories these names bring back to the minds of the The other Lucknow building shown in our pictures is the Martinière, older among us.

It was at Cawnpore that the cruel rebel chief, Nana a large school built by a Frenchman named Claude Martin, who went to Sahib, massacred more than two hundred English ladies and children, India a private soldier, and died a millionaire. This place also is promi. and threw the dead and dying into a well. Over that well was after- nent in the history of the siege. wards erected the beautiful monument shown on the opposite page. At Lucknow has been a station of the Church Missionary Society ever since Lucknow, a small British force, also with women and children, stood a the suppression of the Mutiny, when Sir Robert Montgomery, the Chief siege of rearly six months, from May 30th to November 19th. They Commissioner, invited the Society to occupy the city. A most excellent were shut up in the Residency, a range of buildings which had been occupied work is carried on by our missionary the Rev. G. B. Durrant, Mrs. Durrant, by the British Resident at the court of the King of Oudh. There they the ladies of the Zenana Mission, and the Native pastor and head schoolsuffered terrible privations, as day by day the mutineers, who filled the master, Rev. Dari Solomon and Mr. W. Seetal. whole city, poured in shot and shell, killing and wounding large numbers The Taj Mahal at Agra, represented in the picture on page 19, is one of the brave defenders. There Sir Henry Lawrence fell, on July 4th. of the most beautiful buildings in the world. It is a tomb built by the Thither came to the rescue Outram and Havelock, on September 25th, Mogul Emperor, Shah Jehan, for his favourite wife, whose name was but with so small a band of men that although they got in they could not Mahal, and whom he called “ Taj," as a name of endearment. One of the get out again, and the siege went on; thither at last came Sir Colin latest visitors, the Rev. W. Urwick, in his Indian Pictures, writes thus :Campbell on November 16th, and brought the whole beleaguered party “About two miles from the town you pass under a colossal gateway, and safely away. And thither again came Campbell in the following March, before you is a lovely garden, green and shaded with beautiful trees, and

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in the centre an avenue of tall cypress-trees, separated by a line of

MAORI PARISHES IN NEW ZEALAND. fountains, and leading the eye to the foot of the building, which rises A Zealand,

writes : 8. I trust that because little is written from this district,

B. , from a double platform, the first of red sandstone 20 feet high and 1,000

you will not think that little is going on. The work has assumed an uneventfeet broad, the second

ful character, though not

the less real; the leaven of marble 15 feet high

is influencing all quarand 300 feet square,

ters, and has its effect on the corners of which

even upon the scattered stand four marble min

European population.

The archdeaconry is arets. In the centre

divided into parochial of all, thus reared in

districts, each under its

own minister; and to a air, stands the Taj,

clergyman at home the with giant arches and

charge of 800 or 1,000 clustering domes. As

souls may not seem a

very heavy burden, but you walk towards it,

it must be remembered the building grows to

that here this population its real size, a marble

is scattered over an area shrine of great magni

of sixty or more miles

square. These are living tude inlaid with pre

in parties of from 150 to cious stones, graceful

25, several miles apart,

so that to visit them in its outlines, costly

every two months entails in its gems, and perfect

any amountof travelling. in its details.”

It is in no boastful spirit

that I state that, as a Agra is an important

rule, neither I nor the centre of C.M.S. work.

two Native clergy near There is St. John's

me (by near I mean

eleven and fifteen miles) College, founded by

sleep more than one SunFrench and E. C.

day night in a month at Stuart ; and other im

home, and on those days

we usually ride from portant agencies.


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