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cates his apostolic authority and the independence of his mission; then he says that he received his knowledge of his Christian truth not at second hand through man, but directly from Christ Himself. So that he was able to set Peter right when the latter showed some symptoms of wavering.

2ndly, He treats dogmatically of the great doctrine which the Judaising party assailed. He appeals to the Galatians' own experience, who had received the gifts of the Spirit, not through the law but by faith. He enlarges upon the case of Abraham, who had been justified by faith long before the law was given; as for the law, it was interposed between the promise to Abraham and its fulfilment in Christ for a special promise that men might be convinced of their sin, but it never was meant to give life; the state of the few under the ceremonial law was a state of pupilage, and this has now grown to the manhood of the Gospel; Christ has redeemed us from the yoke of the law, and in Him we are complete.

3rdly, It comprises the practical admonitions, not to abuse this Christian liberty, and to walk according to its precepts.

Answer to Question II. by Akunuri Krishnakao:

First of all he asserts that his apostleship was not received from any man as the source, or through any man as the means, but directly from God. Afterwards he expresses his surprise for the fickleness of the Galatians; his opponents were trying to destroy the very life of Christianity. He visited Jerusalem, and he learnt nothing from the Apostles there.

2ndly, He shows that justification is not by law, but entirely by faith. That circumcision and the observance of the Mosaic laws were not essential to salvation. That Abraham was blessed for his faith, as the faith was the prominent excellence in him; and those who share it will be blessed with him. If the righteousness come by law, then Christ is dead in vain. To observe law is to be in bondage. It is evident that none attained salvation through the observance of law. He concludes the third and fourth chapters, contrasting the faith and the Gospel liberty with the condemnation and the bondage of law.

3rdly, He warns them against giving up the faith which they newly received. That free men will be blessed and not those in bondage. He admonishes them that they should walk after the Spirit and not after the flesh. These two cannot go together. The one always tries to destroy the desires which the other prompts. He mentions the works of the flesh and the fruit of the Spirit. The abruptness and the force with which he opened his communication show that he felt the urgency and the danger. The people were on the point of giving up the true and embracing the false one.

Answer to Question V. by S. Brahmanandam :

(1) The one word is Love. "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."

This is the sum of the whole law.

(2) In ancient times slaves had scars upon their faces to show to what master they belonged. So St. Paul by his marks showed himself as slave or

bondman of Christ. St. Paul was twice scourged by the Roman governors for

the name of Christ, and it is those marks he refers to here.

(3) A few seducers may corrupt the whole Church. Or the breaking of the law, even in one point, occasions perdition. "Whosoever keepeth the whole law and yet offendeth in one point, is guilty of all: it shall profit him nothing." (4) The law is not intended to give life, but it is given only to make us feel that we are sinners and we are in need of a saviour. By the law we are concluded under sin." We can obtain eternal life through faith in Christ. We are accursed if we do not keep the law, but it does not give life. "Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things written in the law to do them." We are therefore sayed by faith, and not by the works of the law.

(5) Bear ye one another's burdens. Let us help one another in all our adversities. Every one shall bear his own burden. Every man shall bear the punishment of his own sins.

Let us not marvel too much that such youths do not yet embrace Christianity. How many in England could give similar answers, who yet are Christians only in name-with far less excuse!

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Jubbulpore in November, to seek Mr. Hodgson, but found that he had not returned, so we went on to Miss Branch and Miss Williamson, two Church of England Zenana Missionary ladies, who most kindly constrained us to leave our hotel and come to their house, which we did on Saturday evening, and stayed till Monday evening.

After breakfast on Monday we drove eleven miles to the famous Marble Rocks. The country was lovely, the villages most interesting, especially one large one called Gurka, full of activity and handicraft-weaving, brass-fashioning, carpentering, &c., all in verandahs at the doors of their houses. Oh! were it not for the wretched idols which abound on every spot, it would be a beautiful land. The marble rocks are wonderfully grand. The river Nerbudda, which the Brahmins here say is now holier than the Ganges (for Nerbudda has been a virgin goddess till now and is just married), rushes through the precipitous cliffs of marble. The white rocks are the loveliest, though some are blue (they call it heavenly), and some yellow marble. They say the river bed is in places 200 feet deep. We lunched in the travellers' bungalow from our lunch basket, and then walked off to the waterfall, seeing the tomb of an English engineer who, attacked by wild bees, threw himself into the river and was drowned.

On Advent Sunday we had early Hindustani service at 8 o'clock. We could follow the prayers in spirit from knowing the places in our Prayer-book. They sang heartily. Edward preached in Hindustani with the greatest facility, and the people hung on his words. We then received the Holy Communion at his and the Native pastor's hands. After service Mr. Hodgson came in, and he and Edward and I had a missionary talk for three or four hours, and went to the English service, conducted by the chaplain, in the evening. Congregation good, and singing hearty.

On Monday morning we went to the Thug prison, or rather reformatory, where there are still ninety of the old Thugs, whose religion was murder, and some four hundred of their kindred and descendants, now all engaged in manufactories-carpets, tent-making, basket-making, chairs, &c.† The whole Institute is a great success. In the afternoon Miss Branch drove us to an old Gônd fortress built on a bare rock, some 500 feet above the plain, which they say was built by a Gônd chieftain who asked a Rajah's daughter in marriage, and was answered he should never have her till he had built a castle on this almost perpendicular rock. In a massive cavern hard by there was a Mohammedan fakir, with whom Edward argued for some time.

We drove back through the dark, and after dinner, had just time to pack up our goods and drive to the station at 10.30. Alas! we got into a carriage which shook asthmatically the whole night till we reached Allahabad at 7.30, where we breakfasted, changed our carriage, and got on here by two, where we were kindly received by the chaplain, Mr. Stone.

The interest of Cawnpore, as the site of the massacre, is almost overpowering. We have been this morning to the Memorial Church and the monument raised over the fatal well.‡ They are most impressive, and every few yards is sacred with heroic memories. Good Mr. Perkins' name, who laboured here thirty years ago, is still fragrant with the natives. They even reckon their age by the date of his ministry.§

AGRA, December 7, 1880. We arrived here at 11.30 last night. We had a most enjoyable time at Lucknow. We had four days and five nights On Thursday we saw all over the ruined Residency, *The Rev. Madho Ram, whose portrait appeared in the GLEANER of November last.-ED.

there. We arrived at Jubbulpore at 9.30, after 21 hours, not at all too wearisome a journey. Mr. Hodgson, the C.M.S. Missionary, to whom Mr. Squires had written, was away in the District, so had not received his letter, and we went to an hotel. Next morning Edward and I sallied out at 8 o'clock through a heavy "Scotch" mist, a mist almost unknown at

See the picture on page 22.

The well into which Nana Sahib threw the bodies of the slaughtered English ladies and children in 1857. See the picture on page 23.-ED. S Mr. Perkins was a missionary of the S.P.G. at Cawnpore, who was killed in the Mutiny.



the building when Lucknow was finally conquered by the British troops in 1858. (See page 22.) The top of the long hall at the extreme left of the above picture is the place where Lieuts. Brownlow and G. Hutchinson (the latter now Lay Secretary of the Church Missionary Society) mounted


which was held with such Spartan courage by our soldiers in the Mutiny. We saw the room where Sir Henry Lawrence was struck by the shell, and the house where he died, and the grave where he was buried at night in silence in the graveyard lest any voices should attract the enemy's fire. The tombstone bears these words, at his own dying request: "Here lies Henry Lawrence, who tried to do his duty." I read Dr. Gubbins' account of the Mutiny all day, and felt how God must have great purposes of mercy for our Empire so marvellously preserved. It is quite solemnizing and subduing to tread ground hallowed by deeds of such heroic courage.

On Friday we saw the schools in the Zahar Baksh, the old Palace where the missionaries live,t and in the afternoon rode on an elephant, which the colonel kindly sent us, into the town, and to the Old Fort where the powder magazine was blown up during the siege. On Saturday we saw the vigorous Boys' School, three hundred boys, the busiest hive of industry under its Christian headmaster, Mr. Seetal, such an intelligent man, and the second master was baptized at Christmas, 1879. It would be indeed cruel to give up a work like this. We left on Monday morning, after the most enjoyable visit. We feel our hearts quite knit to those dear single-hearted labourers for Christ who are left to hold the fort till more prosperous days shall enable us at Salisbury Square to send them reinforcements.§

From Lucknow we came back to Cawnpore, and from Cawnpore to Agra. Here we have been simply entranced by the Taj: its severe simplicity and purity of taste, and at the same time its majesty of outline, just make you feel you can never tire of it. We have been to the Fort this morning, which would hold a vast army, and is in perfect preservation.


AJMERE, Dec. 13.

At Agra, Edward was ill with Indian fever, but on Thursday last he felt strong enough to attempt the long, slow journey here-21 hours for 232 miles. Before leaving Agra, we went

to the Taj again on Thursday afternoon, and stayed there till the evening light bathed the peerless marble in rose and ruby.|| We had a Bible reading with the Zenana ladies, &c., at 8, and at 10

* See the picture and explanation on pages 22, 23.-ED.

† See the pictures in the GLEANER of July, 1877, and November, 1880. The missionaries are the Rev. G. B. and Mrs. Durrant (Mr. D. is a stepson of Mr. Bickersteth's sister), and the ladies of the Zenana Mission.-ED. See the picture in the GLEANER of December, 1877.-ED.

SA young missionary, the Rev. W. Windsor, has since been sent out.-ED. See page 23.


started for the train, which was to leave at 11.30.

It is always a lengthy business getting off in India, and the Mission house is three miles off, and twice our horse mutinied. However, coaxing and flogging prevailed, and we got into a very comfortable little carriage, and our train started on its snail-like progress of scarcely more than ten miles an hour. At 6.30 next morning we had an excellent breakfast of tea and eggs for eight annas (less than a shilling) each at Bandikui, the junction for Delhi. However, we were bound for Jeypore and Ajmere.


The Pioneer-Missionary of East Africa.

[In our last number we mentioned the death of Dr. J. L. Krapf, the first Christian missionary in East Africa, from whose travels and researches have followed all the explorations and discoveries of the last few years. His own journals, and an autobiographical sketch published with his Travels in 1860, will enable us to present the story of his remarkable life in his own words; and this we propose to do from month to month through this year.]


E trace, it is said, the impressions, views, and teachings of the child in the after-career of the man, influencing his pursuits and giving them a fixed direction. In my case, at least, this was no paradox, and by way of illustration I would place before the reader a short sketch of my early life before I became attached to the East African Mission.

My father, whose circumstances were easy, followed farming, and lived in the village of Derendingen, near Tübingen, where I was born on the 11th of January, 1810, and baptized by the name of Ludwig, the wrestler, no inapt appellation for one who was destined to become a soldier of the Cross. Many were my providential escapes in childhood from dangers which beset my path, from falling into the mill-stream which flowed through the village, from accidents with fire-arms, or falls from trees in the eager pursuit of birds' nests. The inborn evil nature of the child was somewhat held in check by a nervous susceptibility, and the consequent dread I experienced in witnessing the contest of the elements in storms, or which shook my frame at the sight of the dead and the grave, or even when reading or listening to the narratives of the torments of the wicked in bell. On these occasions I secretly vowed to lead a pious life for the future; though, childlike, I soon forgot the promise when the exciting cause had passed away, as is ever the case throughout life with the natural, unregenerated heart of man. Thus, but for an apparently trivial event in my boyhood, though in it I gratefully recognise the chastening Hand of the great Teacher, the evil of my nature might have choked the good seed with its tares, or destroyed it altogether.

When eleven years old I was so severely beaten by a neighbour for a fault which I had not committed, that it brought on a serious illness of six months' duration. Left to myself my thoughts dwelt much upon eternity; and the reading of the Bible and devotional books became my delight, particularly such portions of the Old Testament as recorded the history of the patriarchs and their intercourse with the Creator; and when I read of Abraham conversing with the Almighty, an earnest desire arose in my breast that I too might be permitted to listen to the voice of the Most High, even as did the prophets and apostles of old. If this reading resulted in nothing better, at all events it made me desirous to master the historical portions of the Bible. Nor was this knowledge thrown away; for in the autumn of 1822, during the period of my convalescence, I was in the habit of repeating to the reapers many of the stories of the Bible, so earnestly and vividly, that more than one of them would say to my parents, "Mark my words, Ludwig will some day be a parson."

In my career, providential guidance is the more evident, because just such trifling and seemingly unimportant circumstances have governed its whole course. In the early part of the year 1823, on going to Tübingen to buy a new almanack, my sister, mistaking the house, instead of that to which she had been directed for the purpose, called at the dwelling of the widow of a former vicar, whose son attended the grammar-school of the city. Of kindly disposition, and having no false pride, the lady entered into conversation with her lowly visitor, and amongst other things inquired if she had any brothers and sisters; and learning that besides two elder brothers she had one younger, then in his thirteenth year, she asked if he had any knowledge of arithmetic. To this my sister could reply with a safe conscience in the affirmative; upon which the widow said at once, "I should very much like to see the lad; he may be able to teach my son arithmetic, go to the grammar-school, and perhaps in time study for the Church." My sister replied that she would bring me to see the lady, but added, "We are only simple farmers; so as to grammar-school, and studying for the Church, I think there will be but little chance of that." "Never mind," said the lady, " farmer or no farmer, Adam himself was a

farmer; let me see your brother and talk to him myself." Full of the bright prospect which she saw opening for her young brother, my sister returned home, and after awhile the consent of the whole family was obtained to the proposition; whilst in the joy of the moment I promised to labour night and day with zeal and industry, and prove to them all that I was not unworthy so much love and affection.

Accordingly, a day or two afterwards, I accompanied my sister to the house of the clergyman's widow, who, pleased with my boyish answers to her questions, urged again strongly the importance of my being sent at once to the grammar-school. My father, involved in some law proceedings, saw, as it were in his mind's eye, in his son a rising lawyer capable of bringing these suits to successful issue. With that ambition he took me with him to Tübingen to the rector of the Anatolian School.

I was placed by the under-master on the lowest form, along with boys but nine years old, which to a great boy of thirteen, as I then was, could not fail to make me feel a little abashed and to experience a morbid shame at my ignorance. But this very shame stood me in good stead by making me the more desirous to learn, to be placed in the class above me with boys of my own age. The early morning always found me on my road to Tübingen with satchel on my back, in which besides my books were a bottle of sweet must and a great hunch of bread, which were to constitute my simple mid-day's meal, and which I quickly consumed between twelve and one o'clock, under the willows on the banks of the Neckar, in order more leisurely to devour my Latin grammar and Scheller's vocabulary, which I soon learnt by heart.

My diligence met its reward, and at the end of six months I was at the head of my class; and before the close of the year was placed on the third form, the rector not considering it necessary that I should remain longer in the lower school. I was becoming a good Latin scholar, and speedily removed to the fourth form, where I became a Grecian, and rose to be top boy of the class, my teachers expressing themselves well pleased with my general conduct and progress.

Whilst I was still on the lowest form, my father bought me an atlas of the world, and well do I recollect wondering why there should be so few names of places put down in the districts of Adal and Somali in the map of Eastern Africa, and I said to myself, "Is there then so great a desert yonder, still untrodden by the foot of any European? What, too, if it is full of hyænas?" for of these I had just been reading in an odd volume of Bruce's Travels, which had been lent me by a bookseller in the town. How curious that such a thought should have been instilled into the mind of a child, who in manhood was to be the means of expanding the knowledge of those very regions, of which then so little was known! My desire for travel was greatly fostered by the study of geography, and by reading voyages and travels, and when in my fourteenth year my future course of life was discussed in the family circle, I expressed an ardent desire to become "the captain of a ship, and to visit foreign lands." My father would have preferred my being either a lawyer, or a doctor, or a clergyman. Neither law nor physic were to my mind; divinity was less objectionable; but I dreaded the learning of Hebrew with its repulsivelooking characters and unfamiliar sounds. I still continued zealously the study of Greek and Latin and of general knowledge, adding to these also the commencement of French and Italian.

Whilst so engaged, again a seemingly unimportant circumstance helped to fix my future career. When I was in my fifteenth year the rector read an essay to the whole school on the spread of Christianity amongst the heathen, in which it was explained what Missions were, how they were conducted, and what great good they had achieved in various parts of the world since the beginning of the present century. It was the first time I had heard of Missions amongst the heathen, and the idea assumed a definite form in my mind, so that, boy-like, I asked myself, "Why not become a missionary, and go and convert the heathen ? " But then quickly arose the inquiry, "How can he preach the Gospel to the heathen, upon whose heart its seeds have fallen as upon stony places ? " Oft and oft would the words of the Parable of the Sower pass through my mind, impelling me to read the Bible with greater earnestness, and to pray for a quickening knowledge of it. It was the earnest prayer of one who knew not yet how to pray, but it was not uttered in vain.

The Easter holidays of 1825 were at hand, and as I walked homewards from Tübingen the thought arose in my mind with the force of a com

mand, "to go to Basel and announce myself willing to devote my life to the labours of a missionary." The matter was discussed at home, and met with the ready approval of my mother and sister, and, furnished by the former with a letter of introduction to Missionary Inspector Blumhardt, I made the journey to Basel by way of Schaffhausen on foot. The Inspector kindly recognised my zeal; but pointed out to me the first requisite for the calling of an evangelist, the renewal of the heart, as still wanting; yet added, by way of encouragement, that as I was as yet too young to be received into the Missionary College, I should return home for the present, continue my studies, and cultivate the acquaintance of Christian friends in Tübingen and its neighbourhood; and above all, let the search after gospel truth and a knowledge of my own heart be my chief care, waiting patiently till I should receive a call to enter the Missionary Institute as a labourer in the Lord's vineyard. I resolved to be guided by this sage counsel; but previous to my return home I obtained permission to spend a week at the Institute, and here it was that for the first time in my life I became acquainted with true Christians, who upon their knees prayed beside me, and some of whom became my special friends, in whose subsequent correspondence with me after my return to Tübingen I found the greatest solace and blessing.

In 1826 I entered the fifth and highest form in the Anatolian School, and privately devoted myself to the study of Hebrew with such diligence that before long I had read the greater portion of the Old Testament in the original. During that period I made the acquaintance of several thorough Christians, and by their intercourse I was in a manner better qualified to accept the summons to the Missionary College at Basel, which when it reached me in 1827 filled me with inexpressible joy.

I remained at Basel two years, during which I made a stealthy acquaintance with the forbidden writings of such mystics as Madame Guion and Jacob Behmen, which took such a hold upon my excited imagination and so imbued me with their fanatic enthusiasm, that I abandoned the idea of becoming a missionary and returned home, in

tending to give up study, and to labour with my hands as more conducive

to happiness and a truly religious life, according to the pernicious doctrines which I had imbibed. My parents and family combated the

notion, not on religious grounds, of which they were incapable of judging,

but on account of the cost of my education and the disgrace it would be to the whole family, if, having been brought up with reference to a learned profession, I were to sink again to the level of a mere tiller of the soil. Much against my will I returned to college, completed my studies, and was ordained; then entered upon the curacy of Wolfenhausen, but which, in consequence of a sermon, in which I had represented the world to be in the last quarter of its twelfth and final hour, giving umbrage to the Consistory, I resigned for a private tutorship. So it is, gold is purified by fire; and those were years of severe and painful struggle; but they brought with them at its close the restoration of my former healthy tone of mind, and the dismissal from it of the doubts which had so long threatened its peace.

About this period I met the missionary Fjelstedt, of Smyrna, who urged me to enter again upon the course of life which I had abandoned in 1829. I took time to reflect, calling prayer to my aid, and arrived at the joyful conviction that I ought again to dedicate myself to the service of Missions. Fjelstedt was delighted with my decision, and brought me into communication with the English Church Missionary Society, with which he was himself connected. The wish of the Society was that I should remain for a time in the Missionary College, and await the further orders of the Committee. In the autumn of 1836 Mr. Coates, the secretary, came to Basel, and during his stay at the Mission-house tidings were received that Missionary Knoth, who was to have accompanied Blumhardt to Abyssinia, had died suddenly at Cairo. The vacant post was offered to me, and having accepted it, I gave up the study of Turkish and modern Greek, which I had commenced during my second residence in Basel with a view to Smyrna, which Fjelstedt had originally indicated as my destination, and applied myself to Ethiopic and Amharic. In February, 1837, I set out on my long and difficult journey to Abyssinia, the land of my youthful dreams and aspirations; yet it was not without tears at parting, and with fear and trembling, that I took up my pilgrim's staff, and bid adieu to many and dear friends and to the home of my childhood.


HE accompanying rhymes are an attempt to give to English readers some idea of what a Hindu school-book is. These moral maxims, 108 in number, were written by a female, reputed to be the sister of the famous author of the Kural, Tiruvalluvar. Her name was Avviar, or the mother. It is a curious thing that both these authors were Pariars, and yet their books are universally read, Avviar's in every school, and the Kural by every one who claims to be a Tamil scholar.

The maxims are many of them good, and inculcate sound morality. Unfortunately for the boys they are written in a high dialect, wholly unintelligible to them, and the masters never think of enlightening them. They are learnt off, parrot-like, by the lads.

Give charity willingly;
Give, then dine heartily.
Keep down an angry thought;
Impatiently say not aught.
The giver thou hinder not.
Thine own wealth trumpet not.
Say not, ""Tis impossible";
Stout-hearted, thou art able.
Walk thou most orderly;
Study thou steadily.
Learning do not despise ;
And in youth become wise.
In season sow and toil;
Live not on wrested soil.
Speak thou to edify;
Do what will dignify.
Mother and father feed.
Remember a kindly deed.

Test, ere thou make a friend;
Made, hold on to the end.
Sleep on silk-cotton bed;
Rest not too long thy head.
Do well whate'er you do;
Enter'd on, carry through.
Speak not deceitfully,
Hard words, nor angrily.
Speak not the marvellous;
Eschew the gambling-house.
Waste not thy property;
Spoil not thou greedily.
Stand in the royal way,
And with the learned stay.
Cleave to thy kith and kin;
A house that's large, live not in.
What you see, that only say;
With a serpent do not play.


Ling as he is enabled by his circumstances.-Archbishop Sumner in

ET every man do according as he is disposed in his heart, and accordC.M.S. Sermon, 1825.

I bother in Canada, on the Slave Trade." If the good Lord permits

N 1872 Dr. Livingstone, when in the heart of Africa, wrote thus to his

me to put a stop to the enormous evils of the inland slave trade, I shall not grudge my hunger and toils. I shall bless His name with all my heart. The Nile sources are valuable to me only as a means of enabling me to open my mouth with power among men. It is this power I hope to apply to remedy an enormous evil, and join my poor little helping hand in the enormous revolution that in His all-embracing Providence He has been carrying on for ages, and is now actually helping forward." -Blaikie's "Life of Livingstone” (p. 444).

Quaint Prayers of the South Sea Islanders.

the Conclusion of Sunday Afternoon Service." O God, we are now about to go to our respective homes. Let not the good words we have this day heard be like the fine clothes we have been wearing, soon to be taken off, folded up, and hidden in a box, until another Sabbath comes round. Rather let Thy truth be like the tattoo on our bodies, ineffaceable till death!"

On a Bitterly Cold Morning.-" O Lord, Thou knowest how terribly cold it was all last night. We could hardly endure it. Do Thou change the wind so that it may be warm. And, Lord, let not our souls shiver with our bodies. Let them glow with love to Thee."

In Sickness.-"Lord, why hast Thou thus laid Thy hand upon us? Perhaps we have wandered from Thee. May this sickness teach us to cling to Thee with hooks and claws, like bats clinging to the branch of a tree."

For their Missionary.-"Let his hair grow perfectly white here; his back be curved with age, and leaning for support upon a staff, may he mount the pulpit."

Against Sin.-" Lord, we may have long been slaves to sin. Do Thou blind its eyes, so that it may not be able to find us. Let Thy word be as a club, to break its arms and its legs, so that it may be powerless. Break Thou its neck, that it may die!"

On Entering Church." O Lord, do Thou chain up the devil outside, and then do Thou enter with me."

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