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THE SULTAN OF ZANZIBAR.
HE Sultan of Zanzibar has been so frequently mentioned in the GLEANER in connection with the Society's East African Mission, that our readers will be glad to have a portrait of him before them. The Sultan, or to give him his full title and name, Seyyid Bargash Bin Said (Seyyid is his title, signifying "Lord"; Bargash means little," and is, so to speak, his proper name; while "Bin Said" means simply the son of Said), came to the throne in 1870. His territory is little more than a narrow strip extending some 600 miles along the coast, though he claims a kind of suzerainty over the tribes far into the interior. His most important possession is the Island of Zanzibar, on the west side of which is the town of the same name, looking towards the mainland (see pictures in GLEANER of June last). The Sultan is about fifty years of age, and
is a thorough Mohammedan.
The Sultan has lately had interviews with two C.M.S. missionaries. One was the Rev. W. S. Price, who went on a temporary mission to East Africa in December last. While he was at Frere Town certain charges were made against the missionaries by the Wali, or Governor of Mombasa, and it was to refute these that the interview was asked for and given. Mr. Price writes :
Colonel Miles (H.M. Consul) and I went to the palace on Tuesday, the 6th of June. For an hour and a half I had to do most of the talking. We had an Arab interpreter, but when his Highness discovered I could speak to him direct in Hindustani, we conversed more freely together in that language. The Sultan at first took up the cudgels in defence of the Wali; but truth is mighty and must prevail. It came out that the Wali for months past, whilst professing to be on the best of terms with us, had been privately sending to his Highness the most extraordinary reports of our proceedings: we were systematically enticing slaves from their masters, and hiding them away-we had established a large colony in the interior, as a refuge for runaway slaves; in some way or other we were in league with the outlawed rebel chief, Mbaruk, &c., &c. Happily I was able to give an emphatic denial to all these absurd charges, and to place matters in a very different light from what they had been represented to his Highness, so that at last he threw up the case, and expressed himself satisfied that I was in the right, and the Wali in the wrong. He afterwards informed the Consul that by his order the Wali would come to the consulate to make an apology to me, and " do me honour."
before proceeding into the interior. Mr. Hannington's account of his reception by the Sultan is very interesting:
The palace is well situated on the Grand Square looking out on the roadstead, with a tall lighthouse, with a fine electric light, close to its side. Here in the square a guard of honour was drawn up, which saluted as we came up to it, and then again as the Sultan came down the front steps to receive us. He shook hands with the Consul and then with Captain Hore, of the L.M.S., who was likewise being introduced, and then with me, after which he beckoned us to follow him. We mounted some very steep stairs, and were then led by the Sultan into an antechamber, and bade be seated on some grand yellow arm-chairs; then attendants brought some coffee, the best I ever tasted, in gold cups, and immediately after some syrup in tumblers; the attendants then retired, and conversation, a brisk one, began through an interpreter. He asked me how long the journey would take, hand, expressed my respect for his Highness, and said I had come to pay how fast we travelled, and about the shape of the lake. I, on the other
homage, and to ask for letters of safe conduct, and an introduction to King Mtesa; that our object was not to interfere with, but to further the
A fortnight or so after this, on the eve of his departure for England, Mr. Price had a farewell interview with the Sultan. He writes:
His Highness received me with his old cordiality, again assured me that his mind was fully satisfied as regards the Wali affair, and offered to give me a letter to the Committee to that effect. He promised to take care that the Wali should not give us any further trouble; and on parting at the palace door he took my hand in both his, and giving me a hearty shake, said, "Good-bye, I wish you a pleasant passage, and come back soon."
The other interview was later in the same month with the Rev. James Hannington, who went out in May last as the leader of the Nyanza reinforcements, and stayed some days in Zanzibar
interests of the Sultan. I also expressed my pleasure at the electric light, and at the honour done me by granting an interview. The interview lasted about half an hour, and was by no means dull, nor do I think unimportant to our Mission, for the news soon spread that the Bwana Kubwa (great master), as I am called, had paid a visit to the Sultan.
The letter which the Sultan sent to the Society by Mr. Price was as follows:
From Barghas Bin Saeed to the Committee, Church Missionary Society. ZANZIBAR, 6 Shaaban, 1299. (23 June, 1882.)
As our friend Mr. Salter Price is proceeding to England, we take the opportunity to write and offer you our salutations, to inquire respecting your welfare, and to assure you of our increasing friendship and regard for you. Nothing has occurred in these parts worthy of mention except what is good and pleasing, and should you'require aught of us, the sign is with you, and salaam.
[The expression, "The sign is with you," means, "I am at your service, you have only to let me know your wishes." Salaam," of course, is the salutation of peace.]
A SPECIAL FUND FOR EGYPT.
OW are we to show our gratitude to the Almighty Ruler of nations for the recent events in Egypt? England undertook to restore peace and good government to the Egyptian people, while securing her own highway to India. It was an undertaking which may seem easy now it is done, but which might well have proved most arduous and difficult, and have cost thousands of precious lives. We have all joined in thanksgiving to God for the success of our arms. What shall we now render unto Him for all His benefits?
Give Egypt the Gospel-that is surely the only true and sufficient answer. The Committee, therefore, invite Special Thank-offerings for a Mission in Egypt; and they have determined to include in the appeal Palestine and Persia, both which Missions are calling for increased grants and more men. In all three countries the work is of the same kind; and in all three it is peculiarly hard. Mohammedan rule tolerates no conversions from Islam. But Christ's word is, Preach the Gospel to every creature; and that must include every Mussulman.
GLEANINGS FROM BISHOP SARGENT'S JOURNAL other party will not keep the peace." I said, "Let each one speak for
IN TINNEVELLY. (Continued.)
UGUST 11th, Thursday.-I got a letter this morning from a clergyman in Ceylon that requires notice, from the uncommon character of its contents. We read frequently in English papers of sums sent to the Chancellor of the Exchequer as "conscience money." In this case the sum was but a small one, and the clergyman was not authorised to state any name or circumstances, but three parts of the money were to go to one of our schools, and one part to another. The youth had been formerly in Palamcottah, and he now made restitution in the way I have described.
18th August, Nallur.-The greater part of the day was occupied in the business of the Church Council. One pleasing part of the proceedings was that four agents volunteered to go as Evangelists to the north of the Godavery, and take up work among the Kois. In the evening, as I sat in the verandah, a party of men from Alankulam, one of our largest congregations close by, came to represent the sad misunderstanding which existed between the leading parties in the place, and asked me to examine the matter and decide. I had received several petitions previously to coming here, so I understood more or less how matters were. They did not seem to comprehend my remark that there was most likely fault on both sides, and that the better course would be not to stir up more strife by inquiring further into the case. I added that the party who would forgive would be the real conquerors. After a deal of talk one of them said, "Well, you come to our church to-morrow and have prayers, and then send us away in peace." I promised to do so, adding again that the party that forgives will be the real conquerors.
In the meanwhile another man came up, an old man, with a bundle under his arm, and on my dismissing the previous speakers he said, “I suppose you don't remember me, sir?" I said, "No, who are you?" Thirty years ago a servant came to Pavúr and engaged me with my pair of bullocks to take you on to this place, Nallúr, and it was on this very spot you alighted, paid me my fare, and sent me away, and I was pleased. When I was driving the bandy from Pavúr, you spoke to me about the Veda and about Jesus; but I was a very bigoted man, and though I tried to forget what you said, it nevertheless rankled in my mind for years after, but I could come to no decision. About two years ago I lost two of my children, and in my distress I sought in vain for any consolation in my own worship. I then thought of what you had said, and of the happiness of knowing the Saviour, so I determined to become a Christian. Some months ago I was baptized, and now hearing that, having been so very ill, you have come back in recovered health, I determined to come and see you. My family has always been devoted to the worship of our idol goddess. Here are the offerings of three generations" (opening the bundle he took out three cloths). "This was my grandfather's, this my father's, and this my offering to the Swami [idol]. To dye this with the figures of the goddess on it, I paid 14 rupees. The other cloths cannot have cost less; but they are now to me nothing. Do with them as you like"; and so saying he cast them at my feet. I was, I confess, somewhat uncertain how to accept all this statement of the 30 years ago; so I looked at the catechist and said, "Is this all credible ?" (6 "Yes," he replied, "the man told me years ago of this conversation with you?" I looked at the man and said, "Well now what do you want-what can I do for you?" The old man seemed hurt at my suspicious question. "What do I want? I want nothing from you. I am going home at once as night is setting in. Only I thought that in coming to you, you would hear what I had to say, pray with me, and send me away with your blessing." Evidently then this was a genuine case, and I had done the old man wrong in suspecting his motives. I thought that probably he had got aid from us in the famine, and might now be expecting by this means to get further aid; but on inquiry I found he was too well off to claim aid in the late famine, and really expected nothing of worldly good from me. I thought of the words, "Cast thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt find it after many days" (Eccles. xi. 1), and also the 6th verse, "In the morning sow thy seed," &c. His name is now Gnanamuttu (pearl of wisdom). May he be indeed the finder of the "Pearl of great price.'
19th August, Friday.-Having concluded business in the Nallur Church Council, I started at 4 P.M. and went to Alankulam. The church was soon filled, but I missed the headman of one of the parties, and on asking for him was told that there was no doubt of his coming, and I became afraid that the object of my visit would miscarry. However, just before beginning the service, he came in by the side door and sat down in the distance. I at once invited him to the front, and after a short service of prayer took for my text the parable of the servant who had so much forgiven him by his Lord, but was so cruel towards his fellow-servant. At the close of my discourse I alluded to the strife which had been carrying on among them, and urged mutual forbearance and peace, and now I said, the party that forgives wins the day. The headman referred to said, "The
himself. Are you for peace? With some appearance of hesitation he replied, "Very well, I am for peace." The others then readily followed, and I concluded with prayer. As I got into my bandy, surrounded by the crowd of people, I took out a rupee, gave it to the Native pastor, and said, "Buy so much betel and nut, and let all partake of this token of goodwill and peace as Christians." Next day I got a letter to say that the parties were indeed reconciled, and it was hoped that for the future peace would be maintained. I was thankful for this, for Alankulam is so important a place the church, a large and substantial building, and the congregation containing more than 300 souls, with more than 1,500 heathen mixed up with them in the village-that if only the Christians would act unitedly and kindly, as Christians, the result would be to advance this place to one of first importance among the Christian communities in this district. But with strife and divisions no progress can be expected. Several days after I again heard that all was peace.
12th September, Monday.-Held a Confirmation for candidates in Palamcottah and its immediate neighbourhood; there were 141 presented, of whom 81 were males and 57 females. Many of these were young people from our Normal and Boarding Schools in Palamcottah. Nothing could be more pleasing than the orderly and devout manner in which the candidates presented themselves. May this season of renewing their baptismal covenant prove an occasion of real spiritual blessing to them. 13th September.-Arrived at Pannikulam at 10 A.M. and at 12 met in Church Council. There were 3 pastors and 13 laymen present.
14th, Wednesday.-Completed the business of the Church Council, and settled a variety of questions brought forward for my advice, and at 4 P.M. started for Kallattikinaru. On my way I had engaged to stop, and have a short service with the Christian congregation of Travanpatti. As I travelled I had Bishop Caldwell's "History of Tinnevelly" in hand, and was reading the account of what transpired in this part of the province when the country was taken under the Government of the Honourable East India Company. I repeatedly asked myself, “Here are the same names of places, but can this be the same country, the same people?" We have in this district alone some 450 people of the turbulent classes who in those times knew of nothing but violence and crime. Cultivation was maintained with difficulty, for it was hard to say whose hand would prevail at the time of harvest. How changed is everything now! Hardly a spot left in jungle-all has been brought under the plough. I went for some distance along the road that must have been the line of march for our troops when they went from Kytar to Panjalankurichy. I see one great change that has lately affected the condition of the province, as in my bandy I cross over the railway, and under the telegraph wires. What is still more surprising is the fact that while I am writing this part of my journal, a person of importance, whose residence was at that turbulent time, next to Panjalankurichy, the focus of rebellion, is now seeking admission into the Christian Church, and has applied to me for baptism. It may be that when pressure is brought to bear on him by the persuasion and threats of relations, he may be unable to stand to his profession, but as yet he seems all truthfulness and earnestness, and I see no reason at all why I should doubt his sincerity. I have known him for about eight
18th September, Sunday.-Went this morning to the town of Tinnevelly to hold a Confirmation service at 9 o'clock. Many of the candidates had to come from places three to eight miles distant. But every one was in his place, preserving very nice order. There were 104 males and 63 females. The church stands on one side of a public street, and the heathen flocked into the verandahs, but preserved the utmost decorum, while they witnessed this Christian ceremony. The building used as a church here is not what it ought to be, but we hope soon to have a more becoming place of worship.
2nd October, Sunday, Panneivilei.-Arrived here last night, and attended the early morning prayers. Long before noon the place was filled with the candidates for Confirmation, who came in from three pastorates. By 12 o'clock the church was filled to overflowing, as many besides the candidates, who numbered 159 (81 men and 78 women), were present. The Lyric sung at the opening soon arrested the attention of all to the interesting service before us. It is addressed to the Holy Spirit. "Come, Lord, and change this sinful heart, And love divine impart."
This is the refrain after each verse, the 4th and 6th of which run thus:"The mind for heaven is lost,
And blighted chaff am I.
A sinner poor before Thee stands,
Come, Lord, and change, &c.
"Thou didst come to dispel darkness,
It will take long before our English-metre hymns and tunes can move the natives as do these sacred Lyrics.
10th, Monday, Asirvadhapuram. This is a place associated with the missionary efforts of the Rev. G. Pettitt, who may well be classed with Rhenius as the founder of our C.M.S. Mission in Tinnevelly. The present pastor, the Rev. Perianayagam Arumanayagam, was then a lay teacher, but one who by his Christian integrity and piety gained the confidence of the missionary, and was ordained in 1859. Since then to the present day he has maintained the same Christian character, and proved himself a most efficient man as the pastor of one of the largest circles in the Megnanapuram District. He has 1,327 Christians under his care. His kind, humble, and loving deportment gives him great influence in managing the several parties with whom he comes in contact. The candidates for Confirmation were 181. As I catechised some of them, I observed an old woman who seemed more deeply and intelligently interested in all I said than any of the others, and upon inquiry afterwards, the pastor said, "She is a very good old woman, she came over during the famine and has gone on steadily, striving piously to act as a Christian should." When I was examining her for Confirmation some time ago, she said, "Sir, there is one matter that troubles me much. As a heathen I learnt many songs sung at devil worship, and now when I am busy with my hands and ought to be thinking of better things, part of these songs will rise up unintentionally to my lips, and I feel ashamed of myself. What am I to do?" I think we could hardly expect a higher proof of the change which the Gospel has effected in this good old woman than the tenderness of conscience which she thus evinced.
28th November, Monday, Suviseshapuram.-At seven in the morning I had the boarding school boys up for a short examination, and then the girls of the day school. This school is called "the Florence Monro School," as it is partly supported by a lady friend in England.
I have often been struck with the improvement manifest in the features of our Native children after they have begun to learn in our schools, and especially in our boarding schools. Children of very ordinary and even forbidding looks are turned into pleasing and attractive beings. I think that this contrast is owing, among other things, to the contrast of the beings which the heathen and the Christian children are respectively taught to worship. On the one hand, the heathen child is accustomed to the sight of a hideous-looking idol, most frequently a child-devouring demon! This is the object of its worship, and the worship itself is essentially awful and disgusting. How can any human being rise above the object of its adoration? How can heathen children made familiar with such cruel objects ever wear a gentle, smiling, and attractive face? On the other hand, Christian children, abstracted from all such associations, taught to know and love a kind and loving Saviour, trained to feelings of gentleness and pious love, cannot but show something of its influence in their deportment, and in their very faces the expression becomes sometimes angel-like, if not angelic.
I have tried to fancy myself standing by and observing a family of heathen at their demon worship. I see a little girl looking wildly at the demon idol and at the coloured pictures drawn on the wall before her. She addresses the mother and says, "What is that figure, and what mean ye by this service?" The mother replies, "See you not the goddess delighting in blood? The figure in her hands represents an infant whom she is devouring-we are careful for our child, and we desire to propitiate the goddess that she may spare our dear one. Here, bow down and worship. May the life of this sheep or of this cock be accepted for your life, and so may the anger of the demon be appeased." And now if we might look in at a Christian family on Christmas Day, and hear the dear little girl in the family group ask and say, "Mother, we went to church and now we are having a feast. What mean ye by this service?" I think I hear the mother reply, "Anbai (charity), you are old enough now to know that this is the day that the Saviour of the world was born at Bethlehem-this is the day that the angels sang that beautiful hymn which mistress was teaching you last week to sing; let me hear you repeat it, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.' Yes, that is the hymn, and we should all rejoice, for the birth of Jesus is glad tidings of great joy' to us and to all people. Jesus loves us and loves little children, and I wish you may learn to love Him." Surely children of any sense and feeling at all must feel an influence within, arising from such training, as shall tell in some measure upon their character and the expression of their countenance.
THE LATE MISS CAROLINE LEAKEY. NE of the most really interesting and edifying books we have seen for some time is the Memoir of Miss Caroline W. Leakey, lately written by her sister, Miss Emily P. Leakey, and published under the title of Clear Shining Light (J. F. Shaw & Co.) ; and we desire to recommend it very warmly to the readers of the GLEANER. Caroline Leakey lived for many years the life of a suffering invalid; but her time and thought and means, and such strength as she had, were devoted with singular whole-heartedness to the service of God. She contributed both in poetry and in prose to the Religious Tract Society's magazines, &c.; her little annual tracts, published by Shaw, were largely circulated, and much valued (one of them is the well-known "God's Tenth"). She was mainly instrumental in establishing and carrying on a Home for Penitents at Exeter; and she and her sister did much patient work in connection with the juvenile branch of the Exeter Church Missionary Association. We extract one passage from the Memoir, wherein is illustrated the true spirit in which missionary meetings should be planned and carried out. "It relates," says
her sister, "to the largest missionary meeting that was ever held in Exeter in connection with any society, and it was all an answer to prayer":
It was in the year 1875 my sister determined that I should not relinquish a juvenile association for the C.M.S. that I had carried on for nineteen years. She said, "We will pray to have a better annual meeting than we have had for years." We prayed earnestly and constantly. Owen Hay, Esq., R.A., consented to come. I remember going to the Rev. W. G. Mallett, in the vestry of Trinity Church, about it. I said, "Mr. Hay is coming: don't you think I might venture to take the large Victoria Hall?" I don't think so," he said; "but if you have faith, do
it by all means. Faith," I said to myself, "is it a matter of faith? if so, I'll go home and pray." The result was, faith said, "Take the large hall." It was taken. I remember our dear veteran C.M.S.-loving clergyman shaking his head at me. I trembled beforehand exceedingly, as I always do at all my meetings. Those held quarterly in our own drawing-room cause me much nervous tremulation even now, although I have conducted ninetynine, as well as twenty-five annual meetings.
The night before came. Sleep almost forsook our pillows, and we continued praying for the Lord's blessing. I hardly dare relate what I am going to: but why should I be ashamed to tell the Lord's goodness? I was not asleep, it was no dream; in the early morn quietly and sweetly I heard the words, "Fear not, for I am with thee: go in this thy might," and, as Job has it, "He would put strength in me." Oh, how quiet and trustful were we both after that!
The hour came. I went to the hall. It began to rain, and a quarter of an hour before the afternoon meeting not a soul had arrived; but before three P.M. the small hall was so crammed (I took the large one for the evening only) that no more could be admitted, and people kept on saying, "Why didn't you take the large one?" In the evening the whole place was filled, first with the Sunday-schools, and then hundreds of grown people, till there was no more standing room even. A young man came up to me in the middle of the meeting, and said, "I am so stirred, my heart is burning to speak, do let me. I said, "Go and ask Mr. Hay," but he did not like to do that. This young man is now an ordained clergyman of the C.M.S., working at Peshawar, North India. Usually we get about £5 at our juvenile annual meetings, at this we collected £32.
Was not this a "be it unto thee"?
For the corresponding meeting the following year, 1876, Caroline Leakey wrote two hymns, one of which was the following:
The love of Christ! how sweet the
The love of Christ! oh, who may tell
The love of Christ! 'tis still the same
The echoes of the Saviour's Name
From east to west, from zone to zone, Tell how the Saviour died.
THE GOLDEN TEMPLE AND FO
birth, and the adopted Clark, having been educa taken very high medical h the Society as a medical Scottish lady, who desires to missionary work; and give them special remem
There are 708 souls congregations in AMRITSA Narowal, Batála, Clari Fathgarh, Uddoki, Pur number are reckoned the
the Rev. R. and Mrs. Edinburgh, and having here, offered himself to ry. He has married a ecrate herself with him at home will not fail to prayer to God.
Ed with the Christian out-stations, including diala, Taran Taran, Majitha. But in this of the orphanages (28
boys and 51 girls), as well as the 47 Christian girls in the Alexandra School. The adults are a smaller proportion than in many Missions, being only 303; and of these, 141 are women. There are 61 Christian men at Amritsar, 22 at Batâla, 65 at Clarkabad, and 14 at the other villages; which shows that the work is even yet only in its infancy. But Mr. Keene well observes: "Thank God, if we cannot point to numbers, we can to men who, for fine intellectual powers, Christian zeal, Christian graces, good sound practical ability, and manly independence, are an ornament and strength to the Church of this province."
The principal event of last year at Amritsar was a sad one. pleased God to lay upon the city a terrible visitation of cholera and fever. Out of the population of 150,000, no less than 10,444 died, and many thousands besides suffered severely. On one day, Oct. 3rd, 268 persons died, the ordinary death rate per day being twenty-five. But in His infinite mercy God spared the Christians. Not a single adult Christian died; only five young children. But the effect on the Mission was for the time disastrous. As one of the Zenana ladies wrote, "The black cloud of sickness and death settled on the city, closing schools and houses, and putting an end to all work but that of ministering to the sick." That work, however, was done, as only heroic Christian women could do it. Miss S. S. Hewlett, the devoted medical missionary of the Zenana Society, came back from the hills in the midst of the pestilence, and though ill herself, fearlessly went in and out among the people to relieve their sufferings and point them to the great Healer. Advantage was taken of the visit of the Bishop of Calcutta in November to hold a special service in the mission church for confession and supplication to God on behalf of the city, at which both he and the Bishop of Lahore addressed a large and attentive congregation, the former taking as a text the words, "See that ye refuse not Him that speaketh." A meeting of the leading Native (non-Christian) gentlemen of the city was also convened, that the Bishops might express their sympathy with them. "I trust," wrote the Metropolitan, "that our meeting may have contributed something towards strengthening the bonds of union between Native and European." Native and European." It can scarcely be that this heavy visitation was without a gracious purpose for the softening of some hearts to receive the divine message.