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THE WORLD OF MISSIONS.
one hundred and fifty years. They have been, in the true sense,
a Missionary Church, counting the majority of their com[The GLEANER does not often borrow from others. But we feel sure that our readers will thank us for reprinting the following comprehensive
municants in the Mission field, and devoting head, heart, and review of Missions all over the world, wbich was delivered
year or two pocket to the cause. ago at the Coautauqua Foreign Mission Institute in America, by The fourth epoch in Protestant Missions was the formation of Mr. H. K. Carroll
, Editor of the Religious Department of the New York the Baptist Missionary Society in England, in 1792. There Independent. We bave somewbat shortened it, and made one or two
were then but two societies in existence, the Moravian and the very slight corrections.]
Propagation Society. The latter had roused but little missionary HE history of the rise and course of the modern spirit, and when William Carey, a young and devoted minister,
missionary movement, brief as it is, is a history began to plead before his brethren the cause of the heathen, he of noble sacrifices, of Herculean endeavours, of received no encouragement. On one notable occasion he was marvellous successes. It has been less than two sternly rebuked. “Young man, sit down," cried an aged
centuries -since the first Protestant missionary minister; “ when God pleases to convert the heathen, he will do society was formed, and less than one century since the work of it without your aid or mine." The Baptist Society was the first converting the heathen was actively and earnestly begun. The of five societies which sprang into existence in the last decade of results have been wonderful. The standard raised in India has the last century. The London Society was formed as a union been carried round the world, and people of every country have society, in 1705, and now represents the Congregationalists. been gathered under it. There is scarcely a tribe now that The Church Missionary Society, the leader of all societies in has not heard the sound of the Gospel.
income, was instituted in 1799. The other societies formed in The Protestant idea of heathen Missions is as old as Pro- that decade were the Scottish and the Glasgow, whose names testantism itself. There were some among the first Protestants and missions were turned over to the present missionary who were desirous that nations living in idolatry should have organizations of Scotland, after many years of honourable labour. the Gospel. Luther was concerned about the “misery of The Wesleyan Society dates its rise from 1813. pagans and Turks,” and asked for prayers and missionaries for In Scotland, the Kirk was opposed to heathen Missions for them. But Protestantism was engaged in a struggle which many years. Its General Assembly passed a resolution in 1796 required all its attention and all its energies, and it could not declaring that the idea of converting the heathen was “ highly respond to Luther's request. The first foreign missionaries were preposterous.” Twenty-eight years later this action was resent from Geneva to Brazil, in the middle of the sixteenth versed, and the Kirk sent forth, in 1829, Alexander Duff as its century; but they were soon driven from the country, and the first missionary. The division of the Kirk, in 1843, which gave Mission came to naught. A few years later the King of Sweden rise to the Free Church, gave also to the seceding body all established a Mission in Lapland. Some of the German princes the Missions and missionaries of the Kirk, which thus had a tried, in the seventeenth century, to awaken an interest in second beginning to make. The United Presbyterians entered foreign Missions, but without success. It is said that three the Mission field in 1847. conversions are necessary in the case of a German: first, of the On the Continent more than half a century elapsed, after the head; next, of the heart; and lastly, of the pocket. Baron beginning of Moravian Missions, before another society came Von Wels proposed a “ Jesus Association," to send the Gospel into existence.
into existence. The Netherlands Society was formed in 1797 ; to the pagans ; but there were few, perhaps, besides the baron but most of the Continental societies now at work are less than himself, who had experienced the "three conversions." The fifty years old. Among them are the Basel, the Rhenish, the association was not organized; but, as was fitting, the man who Berlin, tho Leipsie, the Hermannsburg, the Swedish, and the had the honour to propose the first missionary society went Paris Evangelical. Although the Continental Churches have himself into the field, and died in the midst of his labours in been tardy in the support of Missions, they have probably Surinam. The Dutch, who were a great coinmercial people in furnished their full quota of missionaries. Some of the earliest those days, sent many missionaries into their East Indian missionaries sent out by the English societies were Germans, colonies, who baptized a large number of converts, especially in and German names are still frequent in the lists of those societies. Ceylon. Of other missionary enterprises in the seventeenth Such men as Ziegenbalg, Schwartz, Krapf, Rebmann, Vandercentury there were none worth mentioning, except that of Eliot, kemp, and Gossner have added to the dignity and success of Mayhew, and others, among the Indians of America.
inissionary labour. In none of the Missions of those days was there promise of The Churches of the United States were slower in taking up permanence or great results. The labourers were few, and their the work of Foreign Missions than those of England, partly support uncertain. There were needed the “third conversion " because they had a large and increasing work at home to do. and concerted action. The time for a beginning, however, was Churches were to be built, colleges to be endowed, and a rapidly near at hand. In the first year of the eighteenth century there increasing population to be provided with the Gospel. Besides, was organized the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in there were heathen enough at their own doors to employ their Foreign Parts. It was formed especially for the benefit of spare men and dollars. But there was little enough of the misBritish colonists, and did not for more than a century send sionary spirit. The men who founded the American Board, in missionaries of its own among the heathen. The Society still 1810, were regarded by many as visionary and fanatical; and carries on its colonial Missions ; but its work among the heathen when the application for a charter for the Board came before is an important and growing one.
the Legislature of Massachusetts, a member opposed the granting The call of Luther for missionaries for the "pagans and of it. * We have," said he, "no religion to spare."
.He feared Turks” may be called the first epoch in Protestant missions ; that if much of the precious commodity were exported, the the organization of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel country would be impoverished. We have learned since then may be regarded as the second epoch; the third epoch was, the great truth that prodigality begets wealth in our dealings perhaps, the entrance of the Moravians into the Mission field, with the Gospel. The American Board was organized as a union with the declaration of the principle that the Church of Christ society, and for many years Congregationalists, Presbyterians, is under obligation to send the Gospel to the heathen. Faithfully and the Reformed (Dutch) Church co-operated in its support. have these people kept that obligation, from the day they planted The Reformed Church organized a Board of its own in 1832, their first Mission in the West Indies, in 1732, until now, nearly
and with the reunion of the Old and New School Presbyterians, in 1870, the old Board was left entirely to the support of the As if the dificulties growing out of diversity of race and language, Congregationalists. The Presbyterian Board constitutes one of old religions thoroughly established, and a Satanic system of the chief Foreign Mission agencies of the United States. The caste, were not enough to discourage the missionary, his own Baptists formed a society in 1814, of which the American countrymen have added to them. Every European resident in Baptist Missionary Union is the direct successor. Two India represents, to the native mind, the Christian faith which other societies were organized in the first quarter of the the missionaries preach. Many of these foreigners lead immoral present century, the Methodist Episcopal (1819) and the Pro- lives, and the Hindus say that the religion which produces such testant Episcopal (1820).
men cannot be worth much. Thus India has been a field of There are now not less than eighty-five missionary societies, great difficulties. where there were only nine or ten eighty years ago.
Of When Carey and his colleagues of the English Baptist Society these societies thirty-five are American, twenty-five British, entered India in 1793, the Danish missionaries, who had been and twenty-five Continental. More than fifty of them have been at work on the Coromandel coast nearly a century, had won organized in the last fifty years. Their aggregate income is many thousands from heathenism ; but the Mission was declining, nearly, if not quite, $7,000,000 (£1,400,000) a year, as against and the death of Schwartz, the apostle of India, virtually closed about $250,000 (£50,000) eighty years ago.
The British the first period of Indian Missions. The second period was societies raise more than half of the whole amount. .
begun by the Baptist missionaries, who worked until 1813, in It was a task of appalling magnitude which the missionary the face of the prohibition of the Government, which endeavoured societies had before them at the beginning of the present century. to conciliate the natives by protecting their religions. After The vast majority of the population of the world lay in the thick the restrictions were removed, sixty-seven years ago, missionaries darkness of heathenism and unbelief. The pagans, with the from Europe and America began to pour into India. The Mohammedans, occupied substantially three whole continents, forty societies now at work have abundant reason for hopefulwere scattered in great numbers over the other two, and were ness. supreme in the islands of the sea. The societies thus had the The conversion of China seemed to be a hopeless task when world for their field ; but they had only a few labourers to send Dr. Morrison, the first missionary, was sent to Canton by the into it. The most they could do was to make a feeble beginning, London Society. The population is much larger than that of and occupy a few outposts, with the hope that God and the India, embracing, perhaps, 350,000,000. The people are Churches would co-operate in strengthening their hands. The peculiar in dress, language, religion, and customs, and are first missionaries were widely distributed. Those of the English decidedly averse to communication with foreigners. When Baptist Society went to India; those of the London Society to Dr. Morrison arrived in Canton, which was the only port open the South Seas; the first Mission of the Church Society was to trade, in 1807, he found himself surrounded with difficulties. begun in Africa, the Wesleyan Society planted its first mission The East India Company, which had refused him passage in in Ceylon; the American Board chose India for its first field; their ships, were hostile to his purpose, and he was obliged to and the first missionaries of the American Baptist Union began sail from New York; the Portuguese governor and the Catholics their work in Burmah. The Moravians already had Missions in of Macao were bitterly opposed to his Mission; and he was Greenland, the West Indies, rica, and elsewhere; and the denied access to the Chinese. He taught, however, as he could Dutch and Danish missionaries had made beginnings in the make opportunity, and baptized his first convert in 1814. He East. The societies entered into new fields as rapidly as also translated and printed the Scriptures, against the strenuous possible; and some, like the Church Missionary Society, are opposition of the Company, who feared that mischief would represented in every quarter of the globe.
come of it; in other words, that trade would be injured. In The greatest of the enterprises undertaken, was, perhaps, the 1812 five ports were open to foreigners; but it is only since conversion of India. This great country, including Ceylon, 1861 that missionaries have been permitted to go to every part contains 240,000,000 of people, or more than one-sixth of the of the empire. Thirty societies now have missionaries in China, population of the world. The people are attached chiefly to the and Missions are being rapidly extended from the coast cities Hindu and Mohammedan religions, the former counting, perhaps, and villages to the towns and hamlets of the interior provinces. 170,000,000 adherents. The obstacles to Missions have been The prevailing religion of China is Confucianism. It is not almost overwhelming. " Where in all the world,” exclaims uncommon, however, for a Chinaman to hold three religions Dean Schlier, “is there such a Satansburgh as India ?” at the same time-Confucianism, Taonism, and Buddhism. Hinduism, as the religion of the people for twenty or thirty Ancestral worship, and distrust of foreigners, are the chief centuries, has become so strongly entrenched in the thought and obstacles met by the missionaries; but the fact that a Christian habits of the Hindus that to convert them to Christianity is to nation forced the dreadful opium trade on China is not a revolutionize completely Hindu thought, Hindu society, and recommendation of the Christian religion to the Chinese, nor Hindu customs. There are among them a body of men, regarded is it suited to remove their prejudices against foreigners. as divine, who have assiduously cultivated Hindu philosophy. Japan, with its 35,000,000 of population, is an easier and The poor Hindu has the utmost confidence in them. He is more fruitful, as well as a smaller, field than China. The people happy if one of them will but condescend to dip his foot into a are intelligent, respectful, and progressive, and adopt Western vessel of water, which is thereby consecrated, and is drunk ideas and customs with an unexpected facility. The popular reverently. The most minute system of caste known to man religion is Buddhism, which has largely superseded Shintoism, the separates the people into classes, and builds up an impassable State religion. Japan opened two of its ports to foreign trade in barrier between them. Even the shadow of a low-caste man 1854. Since then the restrictions against foreigners have been may not fall on those of the higher castes without polluting gradually removed, and the whole empire is now practically free them. Formerly, those who ventured too near the sacred person to the missionaries, the first of whom were sent out in 1859 by of a Brahmin could be put to death without question. The the Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Reformed Boards of the United Mohammedans, numbering about forty million souls, have been States. Twenty societies are now at work in Japan, against few even less accessible than the Hindus. They hear the missionaries serious obstacles, and with great encouragement. advance and defend the idea of one God before the polytheistic In the large territory lying between India and China, known Hindus, with approval. O yes ! there is but one God, Allah, as the Indo-China Peninsula, with its mixed populations, inand Mohammed is his prophet. They will not hear of Jesus. fluenced on the one side by China, and on the other by India,
but little missionary work has been done, except in Burmah and Siam. In Burmah the American Baptists have laboured since 1813, with marvellous success. In Siam three societies are represented. In the Indian Archipelago, with upwards of 25,000,000 population, Mohammedanism is the prevailing religion in most of the islands. The Dutch societies, with one exception, have been the sole occupants of this field, and they have had some notable successes. But there is an argent need of many more missionaries in both the Archipelago and the Peninsula.
Next in importance, after India and China, as missionary ground, stands Africa, with its 200,000,000 souls. Three-fourths of the population belong to the Negro race, who are heathens of the heathen. We find man in Africa in his lowest estate. His religion is a system of charms and sacrifices to propitiate his gods of wood and stone ; his occupation is war and rapine. He sells his captives into slavery, or reserves them to appease evil spirits by their blood. The Dutch settlers of South Africa regarded the Bushmen and Hottentots as scarcely human, and never attempted to Christianise them. On the contrary, they used to exclude them from their churches, by a notice over their church doors, that “Dogs and Hottentots" were not admitted. Mohammedanism is making great headway in Africa ; but it does not greatly improve the condition of those who accept it, nor does it prepare the way for the introduction of Christianity.
Most of the work of Protestant Missions has been done on the West Coast, from the Senegal to the Equator, and in South Africa. The Moravians were the pioneers in both fields, in 1737. Near the close of last century the London Society sent Dr. Vanderkemp to labour among the Kafirs, in South Africa, where other English, American, and Continental societies have since established important and successful Missions. The peculiar difficulty on the West Coast has been an unhealthy climate. Many missionaries have fallen under it. In the first twelve years of the Sierra Leone Mission of the Church Society, begun in 1804, thirty European missionaries were buried in the country of the " white Missions were never undertaken before on so grand a scale of man's grave." The Basel Society lost ten missionaries in one cost and of difficulty. The Mission in Uganda, on the northern year, and the Wesleyans buried forty of their missionaries in shore of the Victoria Nyanza, is eight hundred miles from the
In Abyssinia, Swedish missionaries coast. It is, in fact, a European colony, and the vast quantity labour under discouraging circumstances. From South Africa of stores required for its use, together with a small vessel for the mission outposts are being advanced toward the Zam- the lake, had to be carried that distance under a burning African besi ; from the West Coast missionaries are pushing up the sun, through a wild and almost unknown country, and among Niger and the Congo ; and from the East Coast the Missions savages who had to be conciliated with bribes. The journey on the great Lakes have been planted. These Lake Missions required six months for the first caravan, and the expedition open a new chapter in the history of missionary enterprise. cost £10,000. Sir Samuel Baker, the eminent African traveller,
said, when he heard of this project, that any society would be Churches, and the two Anglican Societies are labouring in the crazy to think of sending missionaries to Uganda. The Mission, vast territory north of the United States. In Central and South however, has been firmly established, and the society means America the Moravians and some English societies have small to stay in Uganda, though Arab, Jesuit, and savage combine Missions among the native races. Missions among the Jews against it. The London Society has planted a Mission in Ujiji, are carried on, chiefly by British societies, in nearly all the in the face of similar obstacles; and the Scotch Churches have countries where any considerable number of that race are found. important Mission Colonies on and near Lake Nyassa. There Lastly, there are the Missions of various American and British are no difficulties so serious, no sacrifices so heavy, no outlays societies in the Catholic States of Europe and America. so large, no lives so precious, in the sight of the Church of Having noticed the societies and the Mission fields, it is next in Christ, as to induce it to entertain for a moment the thought of order to speak of the agents and agencies doing the work. The halting in the great work of evangelising Africa.
societies select the fields, appoint the missionaries, and gather One of the most aggressive of the false religions which confront and appropriate the funds; but the actual work of propagating Christianity in mission lands is that of Islam. There is a mighty the Gospel is done by the missionaries. These must be picked battle yet to be fought between them, perhaps in the near future. men, having peculiar qualifications. They must be men of high As yet, Christian Missions have made but few converts among Christian character ; they must have brains, culture, patience, the masses of Mohammedans in Turkey, in Asia, or in Africa. perseverance, zeal, discretion, and the spirit of love and selfThe Turkish Empire, including Egypt, has a population of about sacrifice. They must study the people to whom they are sent, forty millions, of whom twelve millions are reckoned as belonging their character, history, language, customs—and how to attract to the Oriental Christian Churches. These are hardly worthy, and influence them. Preaching, lectures, conversation, schools, however, to be called Christians. Their Christianity is of a religious literature, medical service, and other methods must be very corrupt character, and their morals are no better than those used; but the example of a devoted Christian life is of the of the Turks, who regard them with contempt. The societies utmost importance. While not all the missionaries have measured have been working among these nominal Christians, partly up to this standard, the fields are filled with noble men, and because they stand in the way of success among the Moslems. noble women too. The value of women missionaries is much The Church Missionary Society was the first to attempt a re- better appreciated now than it used to be. They are able to do formation of the Oriental Churches. It began Missions among work among their own sex, which men, whom they equal in them in 1815 ; but it soon became convinced that the cause was courage, devotion, and determination, cannot do. Scattered a hopeless one. The American Board, which has been almost over the various fields of the world are about 2,600 ord ined half a century in this field, was for several years opposed both missionaries, of whom the American societies furnish nearly 700, by Christians and Turks ; but the edict of toleration, issued in the British societies about 1,300, and the Continental societies 1839, gave its Missions a firm footing to work upon, and its 600. But the ordained missionaries constitute only a small part efforts have been crowned with success. The Board of the of the great force at work. Besides the numerous lay misUnited Presbyterian Church of America has an important Mission sionaries and teachers, male and female, there are thousands of among the Copts of Egypt, and there are many societies at work native helpers, ordained and unordained. Perhaps, including among the Nestorians of Syria and of Persia. Although few of both foreign and native agents, there is in all an army of 25,000 the followers of the false prophet have been reached by any of or 30,000 workers, where at the beginning of the century, there these Missions, the influence of a vital Christianity has had an were less than 200 missionaries and few native assistants. effect upon them.
The educational, the literary, and the medical arms of the The most wonderful successes of Protestant Missions have mission service have proved to be of great importance and been won among isolated peoples—those of Polynesia and efficiency. In countries like China and India, and in Jewish Madagascar. As if in compensation for some of the hardest Missions, schools are indispensable if the children are to be and most discouraging fields, and to show how quickly men can
reached; while in Africa and in the South Seas, where ignorance be brought out of the grossest moral and spiritual darkness into is dense, education is equally necessary to produce intelligent the light, the life, and the peace of the Gospel, the islands of and useful Christians. Higher schools for training natives for the sea have been given to Christianity. The people of Polynesia, pastors and teachers are found in most of the fields; and somewho are believed to be chiefly of Malay origin, were sunk, when times instruction is given in the industrial arts also, as at the Christian Missions found them, into the lowest depths of Lovedale Institution, in South Africa. The number of schools heathenism and social degradation. They worshipped hideous has been estimated by Dr. Christlieb at 12,000, with perhaps idols and natural objects; they offered human sacrifices; they more than 400,000 scholars, all of whom receive careful in. feasted on human flesh; they gashed and mutilated themselves to struction in the doctrines of the Bible. In this training of the appease the anger of their gods; they treated woman as a polluted youth lies the great promise of the future to heathen lands. creature. The first Mission among the Polynesians was begun by The press has been from the first a powerful agency in Mission the London Society, in the Society Islands, in 1797, and the first work. Books and tracts and periodicals are circulated easily convert was baptized in 1812. The American Board began a and widely, and multiply tenfold the power and influence of the Mission in the Sandwich Islands in 1819; the Wesleyan Society missionary. Numerous agents of the Bible societies are scattering sent missionaries to the Friendly Islands in 1826, and to the the Scriptures (which have been printed in 226 languages) like Fiji group in 1835; the Church Society entered New Zealand autumn leaves in many a land, and benighted souls have obtained in 1814 ; the Presbyterians of Scotland and Canada are working light from the blessed pages before they heard the voice of the together in the New Hebrides ; and the London Society, aided missionary. The medical art has been the key to unlock chiefly by the Friends, has wrought great results in Madagascar doors which otherwise would have remained closed. The since 1816.
medical missionary's skill in curing physical ailments begets a There are many fields yet undescribed; but we may not do confidence in him which gives effect to his religious teachings. more than mention them. The aboriginal races of the American Twenty years ago there were but twenty medical missionaries continent have received more or less attention for nearly two in the field. Now there are nearly a hundred. centuries and a half. Many of the Churches of the United It remains now to consider the results. Missionaries have States bave Missions and schools among the Indians of their been at work many years, and millions of pounds have been own country; while the Moravians, some of - the Canadian expended. The results, ought, therefore, to be large, even after