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changed from man's, and let a beast's heart be given unto him; and let seven times pass over him. This matter is by 17 the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones: to the intent that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of

of a beast (imagine himself an animal). The heart, in Hebrew psychology, is the seat not (as commonly with us) of tender feeling (a 'heartless' man), but of the intellect: cf. Hos. vii. II, 'a silly dove, without heart,' i.e. without understanding, Jer. v. 21, 'a foolish people, without understanding,' lit. without heart.

seven times] i.e. seven years: cf. vii. 25, xii. 7 (Heb. moʻēd); Rev. xii. 14 (kalpbs). With pass over,' comp. I Ch. xxix. 30.

17. This matter] either the word (i.e. The sentence, R.V., as Eccl. viii. 11 (cf. Est. i. 20, the decree, for the same word in Hebrew]), or (in a weakened sense), The thing (cf. iii. 16 'in this matter'), i.e. what has just been described.

by the decree &c. ) implying that it is unalterably fixed.

of the watchers, &c.) in v. 24 the king's doom is said to be ' by the decree of the Most High.' God is represented in the O.T. as surrounded by an assembly of angels (1 Ki. xxii. 19), who form almost a kind of heavenly council, Job i. 6, ii

. 1, xv. 8 (R.V. marg.), Jer. xxiii. 18, Ps. Ixxxix. 7; and it seems that in Dan. the decree is regarded as possessing the joint authority of God and of His council. By the later Jews this assembly of angels was called God's 'court of judgement' (197 n'a), or His “family' (89b2b); and He was represented as taking counsel with it, or communicating to it His purposes (so Gen. i. 26 in the Targ. of Ps.-Jon.). In Sanh. 386 it is said, “The Holy One, blessed be He! does nothing without first consulting the family above, as it is said (Dan. iv. 17), 'By the decree of the watchers,' &c.” See further Weber, System der Altsynag. Theol. p. 170 f.

the demand) probably the matter (R.V. marg.). The Aram. means either a request (1 K. ii. 16, Heb. and Targ., Luke xxiii. 24, Pesh. for airnua), or a question, subject of discussion or dispute (Jer. xii. 1, Targ.); and is hence generally supposed to have here the weakened sense of the matter. ('Demand' must be understood in a sense analogous to that expressed by the verb in ii. 27 (see the note); there is no warrant for giving the Aram. word the sense of authoritative request.).

to the intent &c.] the humiliation of the mighty king is to teach all who witness it that God is supreme over the kingdoms of the world.

the basest] i.e. the lowest (R.V.),—viz. in rank and position, not in character. 'Base' in Old English meant 'low, humble, not necessarily worthless or wicked,'(Wright, Bible Word-Book, s.v.). Polydore Vergil i. 70 (cited ib.), 'which the baser sorte [i.e. common people] doe som time superstitiouslye note as signs and wonders.' In 1 Cor. i. 28 the 'base things of the world' (Tå åyevî toll kbo nov) means merely things of no account'; and in 2 Cor. x. i St Paul in calling himself (A.V.) .base

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18 men. This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen. Now

thou, O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation thereof, forasmuch as all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the interpretation : but thou art able; for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee.

Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, was astonied for one hour, and his thoughts troubled him. The king spake, and said, Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation thereof, trouble thee. Belteshazzar answered

and said, My lord, the dream be to them that hate thee, and 20 the interpretation thereof to thine enemies. The tree that

thou sawest, which grew, and was strong, whose height

reached unto the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the 21 earth ; whose leaves were fair, and the fruit thereof much,

and in it was meat for all ; under which the beasts of the

field dwelt, and upon whose branches the fowls of the 22 heaven had their habitation : it is thou, O king, that art

grown and become strong: for thy greatness is grown, and among you,' of course really only means to say that he is 'lowly'(R.V.). Cf. Ez. xvii. 14, xxix. 14, 15. The same word which is used in the Aram. here is used also (in its Heb. form) in Job v. 11, 'to set up on high those that be low;' Ps. cxxxviii. 6, 'yet hath he respect unto the lowly,' and Is. lvii. 15 ('humble').

18. Nebuchadnezzar closes his description of his dream by appealing to Daniel to interpret it. for the spirit &c.] See v. 8. 19—27. Daniel's interpretation of the dream.

was astonied] better, was stupefied or appalled, viz. as the meaning of the dream flashed across him. The root-idea of the word (D90) seems to have been to be motionless,-sometimes (cf. on viii. 13) in the stillness of desolation, sometimes, as here, through amazement (so viii. 27). It is not the word used in iii. 24.

about one hour] In view of what was said on iii. 6, however, it is doubted by many whether shā‘āh is meant here to denote exactly what we call an 'hour'; and they render accordingly for a moment. Cf. Ex. xxxiii. 5, where nearly the same expression (in 19) stands in the Targ. for the Heb. Thx yani.e. 'for a moment.'

his thoughts alarmed (v. 5) him] he dreaded, viz., to foretell to the king his own disasters. The same phrase, v. 6, 10, vii. 28. The king, however, observing his confusion, and perceiving from it that he has found the interpretation of the dream, proceeds to reassure him.

20—21. The description repeated from vv. II–12.
21. meat] food, as v. 12.

22. The tree represented Nebuchadnezzar himself, in the pride and greatness of his empire.

19.

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reacheth unto heaven, and thy dominion to the end of the earth. And whereas the king saw a watcher and a holy one 23 coming down from heaven, and saying, Hew the tree down, and destroy it; yet leave the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts of the field, till seven times pass over him ; this is the interpretation, O king, and 24 this is the decree of the most High, which is come upon my lord the king : that they shall drive thee from men, and 25 thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will. And 26 whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known that the heavens do rule. Wherefore, O king, 27

to the end of the earth] Comp. what was said on v. I.
23. Abbreviated from vv. 13-16.
24. and it is the decree of the most High, se] cf. v 17. a.

25. The sense of v4.15, 16; 27 6 explained more distinctly: Nebuchadnezzar, imagining himself to be an animal, will act Kimself, and be treated by others, accordingly.

that they shall drive hee...andithet shall make thee to eat...and they shall wet thee] R:V. that thoil" shalt be driven...und thou shalt be made to eat...and shalt be wet. In Aramaic, the 3rd pers. plur. with indef. subject is often used where we should employ the passive, even though the agent implicitly referred to is God, see e.g. ii. 30 (lit. 'that they should make known'), iii. 4 (lit. 'they command), iv. 16 (lit. 'let them change... let them give'), 31 (lit. 'they speak'),—in all which passages A.V. itself paraphrases by the passive. The same usage occurs sometimes in Biblical Hebrew (see on i. 12); and it is frequent in the later language, as Abhoth, iv. 5 (cited on v. 26). Cf. Matth. v. 15; Luke vi. 38, 44, xii. 20 (απαιτούσιν); Rev. xii. 6 τρέφωσιν (ν. 14 τρέφεται).

26. they commanded] viz. the watchers (cf. v. 17). Or, in accord. ance with the principle just explained, it was commanded.

sure] i.e. confirmed, secure: cf. vi. 26 (stedfast'). The object of the humiliation was (v. 256) to teach the king that his power was not his own, but delegated to him by God, the supreme ruler of the world; provision was therefore made that when he had learnt this lesson his

ngdom should be restored to him (cf. v. 32 b). that the heavens do rule] The use of heaven,' either as a metonym, or

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1 See further examples in Dalman, Die Worte Jesu (1898), p. 184.

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18 men. This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen. Now

thou, O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation thereof, forasmuch as all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the interpretation : but thou art able; for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee.

Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, was astonied for one hour, and his thoughts troubled him.

The king spake, and said, Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation thereof, trouble thee. Belteshazzar answered

and said, My lord, the dream be to them that hate thee, and 20 the interpretation thereof to thine enemies. The tree that

thou sawest, which grew, and was strong, whose height

reached unto the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the 21 earth ; whose leaves were fair, and the fruit thereof much,

and in it was meat for all; under which the beasts of the

field dwelt, and upon whose branches the fowls of the 22 heaven had their habitation: it is thou, O king, that art

grown and become strong: for thy greatness is grown, and among you,' of course really only means to say that he is 'lowly'(R.V.). Cf. Ez. xvii. 14, xxix. 14, 15. The same word which is used in the Aram. here is used also (in its Heb. form) in Job v. II, 'to set up on high those that be low;' Ps. cxxxviii. 6, 'yet hath he respect unto the lowly,' and Is. lvii. 15 ('humble').

18. Nebuchadnezzar closes his description of his dream by appealing to Daniel to interpret it. for the spirit &c.] See v. 8. 19—27. Daniel's interpretation of the dream.

19. was astonied] better, was stupefied or appalled, viz. as the meaning of the dream flashed across him. The root-idea of the word (DA) seems to have been to be motionless, --sometimes (cf. on viii. 13) in the stillness of desolation, sometimes, as here, through amazement (so viii. 27). It is not the word used in iii. 24.

about one hour] In view of what was said on iii. 6, however, it is doubted by many whether shāʻāh is meant here to denote exactly what we call an 'hour'; and they render accordingly for a moment. Cf. Ex. xxxiii. 5, where nearly the same expression (Xin 10) stands in the Targ. for the Heb. 708 yan i.e. 'for a moment.'

his thoughts alarmed (v. 5) him] he dreaded, viz., to foretell to the king his own disasters. The same phrase, v. 6, 10, vii. 28. The king, however, observing his confusion, and perceiving from it that he has found the interpretation of the dream, proceeds to reassure him.

20—21. The description repeated from vv. II–12.
21. meat] food, as v. 12.

The tree represented Nebuchadnezzar himself, in the pride and greatness of his empire.

22.

reacheth unto heaven, and thy dominion to the end of the earth. And whereas the king saw a watcher and a holy one 23 coming down from heaven, and saying, Hew the tree down, and destroy it; yet leave the stump of the roots thereof in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts of the field, till seven times pass over him ; this is the interpretation, O king, and 24 this is the decree of the most High, which is come upon my lord the king : that they shall drive thee from men, and 25 thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will. And 26 whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known that the heavens do rule. Wherefore, O king, 27

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to the end of the earth] Comp. what was said on v. I.
23. Abbreviated from vv. 13-16.
24. and it is the decree of the most High, &c.] cf. 2. 17.2.

25. The sense of v. 15, 16, 176 explained more distinctly: Nebuchadnezzar, imagining himself to be an animal, will act himself, and be treated by others, accordingly

that they shall drive thee...and ither shall make thee to eat...and they shall wet thee] R.V. that thou shalt be driven...und thou shalt be made to eat...and shalt be wet. In Aramaic, the 3rd pers. plur. with indef. subject is often used where we should employ the passive, even though the agent implicitly referred to is God, see e.g. ii. 30 (lit. 'that they should make known'), iii. 4 (lit.‘they command'), iv. 16 (lit. 'let them change...let them give'), 31 (lit. 'they speak'),—in all which passages A.V. itself paraphrases by the passive. The same usage occurs sometimes in Biblical Hebrew (see on i. 12); and it is frequent in the later language, as Abhoth, iv. 5 (cited on v. 26). Cf. Matth. v. 15; Luke vi. 38, 44, xii. 20 (απαιτούσιν); Rev. xii. 6 τρέφωσιν . 14 τρέφεται).

26. they commanded) viz. the watchers (cf. v. 17). Or, in accord. ance with the principle just explained, it was commanded.

sure) i.e. confirmed, secure: cf. vi. 26 (“stedfast'). The object of the humiliation was (v. 256) to teach the king that his power was not his own, but delegated to him by God, the supreme ruler of the world; provision was therefore made that when he had learnt this lesson his kingdom should be restored him (cf. v. 32 6).

that the heavens do rule] The use of heaven,' either as a metonym, or

I See further examples in Dalman, Die Worte Jesu (1898), p. 184.

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