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up and sealed till the time of the end. Many shall be to purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand. And from the time that 11 the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and 12 cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty

shut up and sealed (v. 4) till the time of the end : if Daniel does not understand them, it does not signify; they are not intended for him, but for readers in a distant future, viz. in the age of Antiochus Epiphanes, when they will first be divulged.

10. The time of the end' characterized : it will be an age of trial and probation, in which many will come out purified and ennobled, while others will only have their wickedness confirmed.

Many shall cleanse themselves, and make themselves white, and be refined] by their sufferings, and their constancy under temptation, their characters will be ennobled and refined (cf. xi. 35). The two reflexives are not to be pressed unduly; but they imply that the martyrs, by their deliberate acceptance of suffering, are, to a certain degree, the agents in the purification of their characters.

but the wicked shall do wickedly] The trial will have no effect upon them, beyond giving them further opportunities of doing wickedly, and so confirming them in their wickedness.

none of the wicked shall understandi.e. act with understanding, but they that be wise shall understand) shall act with understanding. The wicked act blindly, not perceiving the consequences of their wickedness; the 'wise,' the religious teachers of the nation (the same word as in v. 3, xi. 33, 35), shew insight into the ways and providence of God. For understand, cf. Ps. xlix. 20, lxxxii. 5, Hos. iv. 14. 11, 12. The duration of the persecution defined.

that the continual (burnt-offering) shall be taken away] as xi. 31; cf. viii. II.

and the abomination that appalleth set up] also as xi. 31 (cf. viii. 13, ix. 27): see the notes on these passages.

a thousand two hundred and ninety days] the terminus a quo is 15 Chisleu (Dec.), B.C. 168 (1 Macc. i. 54); and 1290 days, reckoned from this date, would end in June—according to Cornill, Siebzig Wochen, p. 29, on June 6-B.C. 164. The death of Antiochus took place in the course of B.C. 164: the exact date of it is not known; but it is not improbable that it is pictured by the writer as synchronizing with the end of the 1290 days.

12. Happy is he that waiteth, and attaineth to a thousand three hundred and five and thirty days] Happy is he who waits (cf. Is. xxx. 18, "happy are all they that wait for him,' lxiv. 4), not giving up his trust in Jehovah, for 45 days (=i} month) beyond the 1290 days mentioned in v. il. Why this further limit is assigned, it is

13 days. But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt

rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days.

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impossible to say with any certainty. All that can be said is that the turning-point (whatever it may have been), marked by the close of the 1290 days, was not pictured by the author as introducing at once the period of complete blessedness—this he did not conceive as beginning for 45 days afterwards. What he imagined as the cause of the postponement must remain matter of speculation : if the 1290 days are rightly interpreted as ending with the death of Antiochus, he may have thought, for instance, that its full effects would not appear at once, and that true rest would not begin for the Jews till after a short interval more.

13. After indicating (vv. II, 12) the duration of the persecution, the angel turns to Daniel; and the book closes with a word of consolation addressed to him personally. He is to await the end' in the grave, from which, in the resurrection spoken of in v. 2, he will arise to take his appointed place, beside the other saints.

But thou, go thou to the end) i.e. depart to await the end. (As in v. 9, there is nothing in the Heb. corresponding to 'thy way.')

and thou shalt rest in the grave, Is. lvii. 2), and stand up to thy lot] to thy appointed portion or place : 'lot' being used in a figurative sense, as in Jud. i. 3, Ps. cxxv. 3, and in the N.†. Acts xxvi. 18, Col. i. 12 (in both which passages 'inheritance' is properly 'lot'[klñpos]').

at the end of the days] the extreme end of the present period, -i.e., reckoned from Daniel's standpoint, the period ending with the fall of Antiochus,—when the resurrection of v. 2 will take place, and the age of never-ending blessedness (v. 3) will begin.

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APPENDIX.

The Inscription recording the Vote of Thanks to Eumenes and

Attalus passed by the Council and people of Antiochi. As this inscription, which was discovered inscribed on a marble stele, on the site of the ancient Pergamum in Aug. 1885, is of some interest, and has never, so far as the present writer is aware, been published in England, it may be worth quoting here. Its purport, it will be seen, is to describe how Eumenes, king of Pergamum, came forward, with great readiness and liberality, to assist Antiochus with money and forces to gain his throne, how his brother Attalus co-operated with him, and how two other brothers, Philetaerus and Athenaeus, also shewed goodwill at the same time. The Council of Antioch agreed therefore to propose to the people to honour with golden crowns not only Eumenes and his brothers, for the benefits they had conferred upon the state, but also their deceased father Attalus, and the queen-mother Apollonis, for having educated their children in such virtuous ways. The bestowal of these honours was to be announced both in Daphne, the pleasuresuburb of Antioch, and in Pergamum, at the public games; and stone tablets, with the decree engraved upon them, were to be set up in Antioch itself, in Daphne, and in Pergamum. The inscription confirms, and fills out, the brief statement of Appian (Syr. 45) that Eumenes and Attalus τον 'Αντίοχον ες αυτήν [την Συρίαν] κατάγουσιν, εταιριζόμενοι τον άνδρα. The opening lines are imperfect. 6 ............ώς εις σύσστασιν 2 ηι θε[λ. ........και αδελφού πέμπτου3 τα ε...

.μετ]αλλάξαντος Σελεύκου [και
της συμφορ]ας παρακαλούσης θεωρούντες
το πόρον τ]ογ καιρόμ παραδίδοντα προς το κατα-

θέσθαι χάρις και ευεργεσίαν, πάντα πάρεργα
τ]άλλα ποιησάμενοι και εαυτούς επέχρησαν και και
μέχρι των ορίων της ιδίας βασιλείας συμπρο-
ελθόντες και χρήμασι χορηγήσαντες και

4

1 From Fränkel, Die Inschriften von Pergamon (1890), I. No. 160. 2 The conspiracy of Heliodorus.

3 In all probability, Antiochus Epiphanes, who is known to have had both four brothers and four sisters.

4 Risked their lives.

15 δυνάμεις παρασκευάσαντες και των διαδήματι

μετά της άλλης κατασκευής κοσμήσαντες
ως καθήκες και βο[υθ]υτήσαντες και πίστεις
ποιησάμενοι προς αλλήλους μετά πάσης ευνοίας

και φιλοστοργίας αξιολόγως συγκατέστησαν επί τη[μ
20 πατρόιαν άρχήν τομ βασιλέα 'Αντίοχον. "Οπως αν ου[ν

ο δήμος έγ χάριτος αποδόσει φαίνεται πρωτεύω[ν και τους εαυτόν και τους φίλους ευεργετούντα[s απαρακλήτως φανερός εί τιμών και τα καλά τω[ν

έργων εις αΐδιομ μνήμην ανάγων και νυν καθάπερ 25 και πρότερον αγαθει τύχηι δεδόχθαι τεί βουλεί

τους λαχόντας προέδρους εις την επιούσαν εκκλησίαν χρηματίσαι περί τούτων, γνώμην δε ξυμβάλλεσθαι της βουλής εις τον δήμον ότι δοκεί τει βουλεϊ

επαινέσαι τον βασιλέα Ευμένη βασιλέως Αττά[λου
30 και βασιλίσσης 'Απολλωνίδος και στεφανώσαι χρυσ[ώι

στεφάνωι άριστέωι κατά τον νόμον αρετής ένεκεν
και ευνοίας και καλοκαγαθίας ήν απεδείξατο
πάσιν ανθρώποις σπεύσας υπέρ του βασιλέως Αντιόχου

και συγκαταστήσας αυτόν εις την των προγόνων [α]ρχήν. 35 Κατά ταύτα δε στεφανώσαι και "Ατταλον, ότι μετά του

αδελφου Ευμένους πάντα συνέπραξεν αόκνως
και φιλοκινδύνως. 'Έπαινέσαι δε και τους αδελφούς
αυτών Φιλέταιρον και Αθηναίον και στεφανώσαι χρυσώι

στεφάνωι εκάτερον αυτών ευνοίας ένεκεν και
40 φιλοτιμίας, ήμ παρέσχοντο κατά την κάθοδος του

βασιλέως Αντιόχου. 'Επαινέσαι δε και τους γονείς αυτών, τόν τε βασιλέα "Ατταλον και την βασίλισσαν 'Απολλωνίδα', και στεφανώσαι χρυσώι στεφάνωι

αριστείωι αρετής ένεκεν και καλοκαγαθίας,
45 ήμ περιεποίησαν τους νούς προστάντες της παιδείας

αυτών καλώς και σωφρόνως. 'Αναγορεύσαι δε τους
στεφάνους τούτους έν τε τους αγώσιν οίς......,
ώσαύτως δε και εν οις ο βασιλεύς Ευμένης μετά τε των

αδελφών και του δήμου του Περγαμηνών, κατά ταυτά δε
50 και εν οίς ο βασιλεύς 'Αντίοχος επί Δάφνει [Θ]ήσει, καθάπερ

αυτοίς έθος ήν. "Ίνα δε και το υπόμνημα διαμένει συμ[Φ]α[νές εις τον αιώνιον χρόνον, αναγράψαι τόδε το ψήφισμα είς στήλας λιθίνας και στήσαι τημ μεν εν αγοράι παρά τας εικόνας τας

του βασιλέως Αντιόχου, την δε εν τωι ιερών της Νικηφόρου 55' Αθηνάς, την δε εν τώι επί Δάφνει, του Απόλλωνος ιερώι.

Της δε διαποστολής αυτού πρός τε τόμ. βασιλέα και τη[μ μητέρα και τους αδελφούς επιμεληθήναι τους στρατηγούς, όπως επιμελώς γένηται και την ταχίστην.

Attalus I. (now dead), and Apollonis, the mother of Eumenes, who was still living.

* At Pergamum,-no doubt the same stele on which the inscription was found. 8 Eumenes.

INDE X.

Abed-nego, 7f.
'abomination' (puppi), 142, 150
'abomination of desolation,' xliv, lxxiii,

150, 151, 188

'abomination that maketh desolate,' 188,

205, cf. 118, 142, 151
Adonis, 194 f.
Ahasuerus, lii, liv, 127
Alexander the Great, xxxiii f.; conquests

of, 113f., 164; division of empire after

death of, xxxiv f., 29, 115, 122, 164
Amêl-Marduk (Evil-Merodach), xxvii, li
Amesha-Spentas, xciv f.
'ancient of days,' 85
angels, assembly of, surrounding God,

51,86; interpreting visions, lxxviii, 89;
winged, 134; called 'wakeful ones
('7'Y), 49f.; names and ranks of,
157 f.; patron-angels, 156 f.; doctrine

of in Dan., lxiv, xciii-xcvi
‘Annalistic tablet' of Cyrus, xxviii-xxxi,

65 n.
anoint, to (nvin), as a religious rite,

137; to anoint (710) the person, 153
'anointed one,' an, 138, 139 f.
Anshan (or Anzan), the home of Cyrus,

177 f., 207 f.; character of, xxxviii f.,
123 f., 182 f.; power of dissimulation,
123, 178, 184, 196; munificence and
prodigality, xxxix, 183; presumptuous-
ness and impiety, 61, 84, 87, 92, 116,
124, 193—5; assumption of divine
honours by, 193; expeditions against
Egypt, xxxix f., 178, 181, 184—6;
attack on Jerusalem in B.C. 170, xliii,
84, 185; endeavour to Hellenize the
Jews and suppress their religion, xl-
xlvi, lxxxvi, 91, 92 f., 99f., 110, 115
120, 121 f., 123f., 140--2,

1864-194;

last
years of, 196 f.; death, 27 (cf. 30), 124,
197, 200; coins of, 193; central figure
in book of Dan., Ixvf., cf. civ, 99 f.,

150; type of Antichrist, xcviif.
apadana, 111, 126, 199
* Apedno,' 197
apocalyptic literature, lxxvii --Ixxxv, 163
Apollonius, xliv, 124, 187
aposiopesis, 41
Aramaic, 19; Aramaic of Dan., lix-x,

ciy
archaisms in the Authorized Version-

astonied, 43
base, 51 f.
brass, 27
commune, 11
cunning, 5
demand, 25, 51
excellent, 27, 32—34, 57, 65
favour (=face), 5
Grecia, 122, 161, 163
Jewry, 66
meat, 49
mount (=mound), 173

14

III

"answer,' to (peculiar sense of), 23 f., 40,

43
Antichrist, xcvii f., 95, 97, 151, 193
Antiochus I. (Soter), 166

II. (Theos), 166 f.

III. (the Great), xxxvi---xxxviii,
168-176

IV. (Epiphanes), meaning of
‘Epiphanes,' xxxviii n.; outline of
reign, xxxviii-xlvi; accession of,

DANIEL

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