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OF WORDS OR LANGUAGE IN GENERAL.

SECT.

1. Man fitted to form articulate sounds.

2. To make them signs of ideas.

3, 4. To make general signs.

5. Words ultimately derived from such as signify sensible ideas.
6. Distribution.

CHAPTER II.

OF THE SIGNIFICATION OF WORDS.
SECT.

1. Words are sensible signs necessary for communication.

2, 3. Words are the sensible signs of his ideas who uses them.

4. Words often secretly referred, first, to the ideas in other

men's minds.

5. Secondly, to the reality of things.
6. Words by use readily excite ideas.
7. Words often used without signification.
8. Their signification perfectly arbitrary.

OF GENERAL TERMS.

SECT.

1. The greatest part of words general.

2. For every particular thing to have a name, is impossible.

3, 4. And useless.

5. What things have proper names.

6–8. How general words are made.

9. General natures are nothing but abstract ideas.
10. Why the genus is ordinarily made use of in definitions.
11. General and universal are creatures of the understanding.
12. Abstract ideas are the essences of the genera and species.
13. They are the workmanship of the understanding, but have

their foundation in the similitude of things.

14. Each distinct abstract idea is a distinct essence.

15. Real and nominal essence.

16. Constant connexion between the name and nominal essence.

17. Supposition, that species are distinguished by their real

essences, useless.

18. Real and nominal essence the same in simple ideas and

modes, different in substances.
19. Essences ingenerable and incorruptible.
20. Recapitulation.

10, 11. In mixed modes, it is the name that ties the combination

together, and makes it a species.
12. For the originals of mixed modes, we look no farther than

the mind, which also shows them to be the workmanship

of the understanding.
13. Their being made by the understanding without patterns,

shows the reason why they are so compounded.
14. Names of mixed modes stand always for their real essences.
15. Why their names are usually got before their ideas.
16. Reason of my being so large on this subject.

OF THE NAMES OF SUBSTANCES.

SECT.

1. The common names of substances stand for sorts.

2. The essence of each sort is the abstract idea.

3. The nominal and real essence different.

4—6. Nothing essential to individuals.

7, 8. The nominal essence bounds the species.

9. Not the real essence, which we know not.

10. Not substantial forms, which we know less.

11. That the nominal essence is that whereby we distinguish

species, farther evident from spirits.

12. Whereof there are probably numberless species.

13. The nominal essence that of the species, proved from water

and ice.

14–18. Difficulties against a certain number of real essences.

19. Our nominal essences of substances not perfect collections

of properties.

21. But such a collection as our name stands for.

22. Our abstract ideas are to us the measure of species. In-

stances in that of man.

23. Species not distinguished by generation.

24. Not by substantial forms.

25. The specific essences are made by the mind.

26, 27. Therefore very various and uncertain.

28. But not so arbitrary as mixed modes.

29. Though very imperfect.

30. Which yet serve for common converse.

31. But make several essences signified by the same name.

32. The more general our ideas are, the more incomplete and

partial they are.

33. This all accommodated to the end of speech.

34. Instance in cassuaris.

35. Men make the species. Instance, gold.

36. Though nature makes the similitude.

37. And continues it in the races of things.

38. Each abstract idea is an essence.

OF PARTICLES.

SECT.

1. Particles connect parts, or whole sentences together.

2. In them consists the art of well speaking.

3, 4. They show what relation the mind gives to its own thoughts.

5. Instance in But.

6. This matter but lightly touched here.

OF ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE TERMS.

SECT.

1. Abstract terms not predicable one of another, and why.
2. They show the difference of our ideas.

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