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Messiah's character]

PSALMS.

earth, and to the excellent, in whom is all my delight.

4 Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten after another god: their drink offerings of blood will I not offer, nor take up their names into my lips. 5 The LORD is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup: thou maintainest my lot.

6 The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places; yea, I have a goodly heritage.

7 I will bless the LORD, who hath given me counsel: my reins also in

PSALM XVI.

[and resurrection.

struct me in the night seasons.

8 I have set the LORD always before me: because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.

9 Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh also shall rest in hope.

10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

11 Thou wilt shew me the path of life in thy presence is fulness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore. (Q)

EXPOSITION.

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NOTES-Psalm XVI. Con.

and Ps. Iv.-1x.) be so called from their having been, on some occasion, written in letters of gold, and hung up in the sanctuary? Such a title would have been agreeable to the Eastern taste, as D'Herbelot has mentioned a book, entitled "Bracelets of Gold." Orient. Cust. No. 168. See Title of Psalm xxii.

Ver. 2. O my soul, Thou hast said, &c -The LXX. and several MSS. (probably to avoid the supplementary words) read," 1 have said," &c.; but this makes no difference in the meaning. My goodness (extendeth) not to thee," the LXX render it, "Thou hast no need of my goods (or goodness.) Compare Job xxxv. 7. The Chaldee and Syriac render the words, "My goodness is from thee."-Kennicott reads, "Is not without thee."

Ver. 3. In the earth- In the land." Bp. Horsley. Ver. 4. That hasten (rus) after another (God).Ainsworth renders it, that endow another; and Kennicott," that go whoring after strange gods."

Their drink offerings of blood.-The drink offerings of the Jews were of wine only, (Levit. xvii. 10-14.) part of which was poured on the head of the victim; but the heathen offered "drink offerings of blood, even of human blood, the blood of their enenies." See Horne's Introduction (vol. i. 128.) In Dupuis' Journal in Ashantee, mention is made of a wretched tyrant who delighted in drinking the blood of his enemies. In one instance, he had an enemy bound and laid before him. He then had "his body pierced with hot irons, gathering the blood which issued from him in a vessel, one half of which he drank, and offered up the rest unto his god." See also Orient, Lit. No. 306, 752

Ver. 5. Portion of mine inheritance-Heb. " Of my part." See Num. xvii. 20.

Ver. 6. The lines are fallen.-That is, the meacords by which heritages are allotted out.

See Ps. lxxviii. 55.—My reins instruct me.—S

Note on Job xix. 27.

Ver. 9. Rest in hope-Heb. "Dwell confidently Ver. 10. My soul in hell-The apostles Peter a Paul both explain these words exclusively of a Saviour Christ, as in our Exposition, but there some difficulty as to the translation. The w rendered Hell, is Sheol, which we have alre shown to mean both the grave and the invisi world. Our translators frequently render it by former word, as Gen. xlii. 38.-xliv. 31; 1 Ki ii.9; Job xvii. 13, 14 and often Hell, as here, xxvi. 6; Ps. ix. 17. But it is generally admitte include (like Hades) the invisible world in gen See Exposition and Notes on Job xxvi. 5,6. Bis Pearson says, "It appeareth that the first inten of putting these words into the Creed was on express the burial of our Saviour, or the desce his body into the grave." It is most certain, I ever, that the phrase was afterwards explained, by the Christian fathers, of Christ's descent int place of punishment See 1 Peter iii. 18. "Bu it was actually so, or that the apostle intend much," the Bishop confesses is not manif See also Professor Witsius, who contends, Christ descended into hell, (the place of torme no where expressly affirmed in Scripture, nor most ancient creeds. The creeds which ment the descent, were generally silent with respect burial; nor was it without some mistake tha were afterwards joined together." Sacred Dis tions on the Apostle's Creed, (translated Fraser) Diss. xvii.-Dr. J. P. Smith rende first clause of this verse (10), "Thou wilt not my life in the grave;" which nearly correspond Dr. Kennicoll's version, "Thou wilt not ab my life to the grave."

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PSALMS.

HEAR the right, O LORD, attend unto my cry; give ear unto my prayer, that goeth not out of feigned

lips.

2 Let my sentence come forth from thy presence; let thine eyes behold the things that are equal.

3 Thou hast proved mine heart; thou hast visited me in the night; thou hast tried me, and shalt find nothing; I am purposed that my mouth shall

not transgress.

4 Concerning the works of men, by the word of thy lips I have kept me from the paths of the destroyer. 5 Hold up my goings in thy paths, that my footsteps slip not. 61 have called upon thee, for thou wilt hear me, O God: incline thine ear unto me, and hear my speech. 7 Shew thy marvellous loving-kindess, thou that savest by thy right hand them which put their trust in thee, from those that rise up against

them.

[for deliverance.

8 Keep me as the apple of the eye, hide me under the shadow of thy wings;

9 From the wicked that oppress me, from my deadly enemies, who compass me about.

10 They are inclosed in their own fat: with their mouth they speak proudly.

11 They have now compassed us in our steps: they have set their eyes bowing down to the earth;

12. Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.

13 Arise, O LORD, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the wicked, which is thy sword:

14 From men which are thy hand, O LORD; from men of the world, which have their portion in this life, and whose belly thou fillest with thy hid treasure: they are full of children, and leave the rest of their substance to their babes.

15 As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness: I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness. (R)

EXPOSITION.

peaker, David is excluded from this as those paths which lead to everlasting bliss,

eas from the latter part of the psalm. ething seems here intimated, which we ➡not before remarked, that the priests the law, when they offered the sacriof an individual, named the offerer the Lord; a circumstance that ally points to the intercession of the (See Rev. viii. 3, 4.)

"Those paths that to his presence bear,
For plenitude of bliss is there;
And pleasures, Lord! unmix'd with woe,
At thy right hand for ever dow." Merrick.

PSALM XVII.

(R) A Prayer of David against his enemies. From the description of his enemies tter part of the psalm being ex- here given, there can be little doubt but plied to the resurrection of Christ Saul and his followers were intended; and stles themselves, as above retheir charge against David was no less an apply to others only as inthan treason that he aspired to the crown and virtually raised with him and sought the life of Saul; which was - of life," and introduced into not only false, but exactly the reverse of

or,

NOTES.

Ver.1. Hear the right, O Lord"Hear. O righteous Lord.” igned lips-Heb." Lips of deceit.” -Heb." Be not moved.” acest by thy right hand-Marg. which trust (in thee) from those st thy right hand :" rather, “at thy Zech. ii. 1.

dly enemies-Heb. "My enem ́es i.e. my soul's enemies, or the

med in their own fat—Or, “ They ir mouth with fat." Dr. Hammond.

= down to the ground-Or, “ Bend

ing (us) down to the earth," Ainsworth and Horne. Ver. 12. Like us a lion, &c.--Heb. "The likeness of him (i. e. every one of them) is as a lion

that desireth to ravin.'

Ver. 13. Disappoint him - Heb. "Prevent his face."From the wicked which is thy swordMarg. "By) thy sword."

Ver. 14. From men which are thy hand-Marg. "By) thy hand." The difference in both these verses relates merely to the supplementary words.

Ibid. Whose billies thon fillest, &c. That is, "Whom thou permittest to enjoy temporal blessings in abundance." Bishop Horne. See Luke xvi. 24. They are full of children-See Job xxi, 11. Or," Their children cre lled," &e. Marg.

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2 The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower.

3 I will call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised: so shall I be saved from mine enemies.

4 The sorrows of death compassed me, and the floods of ungodly men made me afraid.

5 The sorrows of hell compassed me about: the snares of death prevented me.

6 In my distress I called upon the LORD, and cried unto my God: he heard my voice out of his temple, and

[to God

my cry came before him, even into his

ears.

7 Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken, because he was wroth.

8 There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured: coals were kindled by it.

9 He bowed the heavens also, and came down: and darkness was under his feet.

10 And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind.

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11 He made darkness his secret: place; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies.

12 At the brightness that was be fore him his thick clouds passed, hai stones and coals of fire.

13 The LORD also thundered in the heavens, and the Highest gave his voice; hail stones and coals of fire. 14 Yea, he sent out his arrows, and

EXPOSITION-Psalm XVII. Continued.

the truth. (1 Sam. xxiv.) The psalmist, therefore, confident in the justice of his cause, appeals to the Almighty for his decision. His "heart condemus him not, and he has confidence towards God," who is the witness as well as judge of his integrity. He had been tried, and lived in the expectation of farther trials: but he attributes his preservation to the word of God. "By the word of thy lips I have kept (me) from the paths of the destroyer

The description here given of David's enemies, (as already hinted) naturally leads us to look to Saul and his party as laying snares for him, as sportsmen were accustomed to do for game in the forests, or for wild beasts in the woods. Saul himself resembled "a lion greedy of his prey," who had been lurking and watch

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ing for him in secret places." From these men, these "mortals of this transi tory world," (as Ainsworth and Horn render it,) he prays to be delivered; and in confidence that he shall be so, he con cludes with declaring, "As for me, I wil behold thy face in righteousness; I shal be satisfied, when I awake, with thy like ness;" an expression that may be referre either to the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body. Dr. Wat includes both, and paraphrases the ver in three beautiful stanzas, which we shou be glad to transcribe, but can only refer

Some commentators apply this psalm, well as the preceding, to Christ himse who, though he assumed in his de "the form of a slave," arose in all glories of the Divinity.

NOTES.

PSALM XVIII. Ver. 1. 1 il! love-The original implies tenderness; " with bowels of compassion.” Ver. 2. My strength-Heb. "rock," but a different word from that in the preceding line.

Ver.3. I will call,-This being a P'saim of thankgiving, Bishop forne thinks the verbs should be rendered in the preter tense: so Dr. Kemicolt. But as the Heb, is future, we rather think with Mr. Scott, that the future was used purposely, to express "the feelings of David's Leart, while struggling with his difficulties," he then said, "I will love," &c.

Ver. 4. The sorrows.-So the word is used for the

pains of childbirth and of death; see Acts i but the same word (with a slight variation i points) is used also for cords, ropes, and the to the fowler (made of cord) to ensnare his game,

Ver. 5. The sorrows (or cords) of hellSheol. See Note on ver. 4. Sheol and Hade cording to Archbishop Usher," when spoken: body, signify the grave; when of the soul, they to the state in which the soul is without the whether in Paradise or Hell, prop rly so called. Ver. 8. Smoke out of his nostrils - Ainsi "Smoke ascended in his anger."

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to G

and con

PSALMS.

scattered them; and he shot out light-
nings, and discomfited them.

15 Then the channels of waters
were seen, and the foundations of the
world were discovered at thy rebuke,
cateO LORD, at the blast of the breath of
thy nostrils.

16 He sent from above, he took me,
he drew me out of many waters.

17 He delivered me from my strong
enemy, and from them which hated
me: for they were too strong for me.
18 They prevented me in the day
of m
f my calamity: but the LORD was

my stay.

19 He brought me forth also into a large place; he delivered me, because he delighted in me.

20 The LORD rewarded me according to my righteousness; according to

PSALM XVIII.

[mercies,

the cleanness of my hands hath he recompensed me.

21 For I have kept the ways of the LORD, and have not wickedly departed from my God.

22 For all his judgments were before me, and I did not put away his statutes from me.

23 I was also upright before him, and I kept myself from mine iniquity. 24 Therefore hath the LORD recompensed me according to my righteousness, according to the cleanness of my hands in his eyesight. (S) 25 With the merciful thou wilt shew thyself merciful; with an upright man thou wilt shew thyself upright;

26 With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure; and with the froward thou wilt shew thyself froward.

EXPOSITION.

Ver. 1-24. To the chief musician: a
Pain of David, the servant of the Lord.
The title of this psalm is literally tran-
erhed from 2 Sam. xxii. 1., where the
psalm itself follows, nearly as in this place,
except that the first verse is now introduced,
with some verbal corrections in the follow-
ing verses. The variations between the
two copies (says Mr. Scott, the commenta-
seem to have been principally poetical
improvements of the style, as few of them
materially alter the sense, and several evi-
dently render the composition more elegant.
Indeed, the whole psalm seems one of the
Bust finished poetical compositions extant
in any language."

The first verse of the psalm just referred
is noticed by the critics as peculiarly
phatic. "With all the yearnings of af-
on, I will love thee," is the paraphrase
ishop Horne; and we may remark, that
a never too forcibly express our at-
ent to the Author of our mercies,
we are careful to keep our language
ed: our expressions can never be too
while they are pure and chaste: but
times meet with a familiarity or
of address in Christians to the
, which can only be excused by
ity of their piety, and unconsci-
But David reverenced the

ice.

God he loved; and accumulates the strongest terms he could recollect to express his obligations to his deliverer: the rock ou whom all his hopes were built; the fortress to which he looked alone for safety, and the horn of his salvation."

The psalmist now looks back upon the sorrows and dangers from which he had been at different times rescued. He had been in imminent danger of his life. "The sorrows," or rather toils" (i. e. snares) of death had been thrown around him; but "the horn of his salvation "9 tore them to pieces. "The floods of Belial," or of wickedness, had been cast after him, as it were, to overwirelin him. (See Rev. xii. 15.) But he fled to the rock that was higher than

himself, and there he found a refuge. The psalmist then goes on to describe the deliverance wrought for him in allusion to the awful tempests at mount Sinai, meaning thereby to intimate that, in some instance at least, his rescue from death and destruction had been attended with a similar display of the divine power and majesty, and he ascribes the cause of it to the divine

bounty: "He delivered me, because he delighted in me." Nor is this contradicted by the words following: for though his character and conduct, especially in respect of zeal and uprightness, may not be the cause of his deliverance, it may be the NOTES.

he blast of the breath of thy nostrils. At the breath of the wind of thine is supposed to refer to the passage of

y waters-Marg. “Great waters;"

- Terrors.

y prevented me-Anticipated, sur

Ver. 21. Wickedly departed. - Ainsworth, “ Dið not wickedly from "(or before) Gol.

Ver. 23. From mine iniquity-That is, says Ainsworth, from the iniquity I am prone to." This, shows that the Psalms should not be applied indiscriminately to the Messiah.

Ver.24. In his eyesight. Heb. Before his eyes.”

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27 For thou wilt save the afflicted people; but wilt bring down high looks. 28 For thou wilt light my candle: the LORD my God will enlighten my darkness.

29 For by thee I have run through a troop; and by my God have I leaped over a wall.

30 As for God, his way is perfect: the word of the LORD is tried: he is a buckler to all those that trust in him.

31 For who is God save the LORD? or who is a rock save our God?

32 It is God that girdeth me with strength, and maketh my way perfect.

33 He maketh my feet like hinds' feet, and setteth me upon my high places.

34 He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of steel is broken by mine arms.

35 Thou hast also given me the shield of thy salvation: and thy right hand hath holden me up, and thy gentleness hath made me great.

36 Thou hast enlarged my steps under me, that my feet did not slip.

37 I have pursued mine enemies,

[deliverance.

and overtaken them: neither did I turn again till they were consumed.

38 I have wounded them that they were not able to rise: they are fallen under my feet.

39 For thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle: thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me.

40 Thou hast also given me the necks of mine enemies; that I might destroy them that hate me.

41 They cried, but there was none to save them: even unto the LORD, but he answered them not.

42 Then did I beat them small as the dust before the wind: I did cast them out as the dirt in the streets.

43 Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people; and thou hast made me the head of the heathen: a people whom I have not known shall

serve me.

44 As soon as they hear of me, they shall obey me: the strangers shall

submit themselves unto me.

45 The strangers shall fade away, and be afraid out of their close places. 46 The LORD liveth; and blessed

EXPOSITION.

measure of it. Thus, under the new dispensation, salvation, as to its cause, is of grace alone, (Ephes. ii. 8.) yet will the rewards of grace be distributed to every man according to his works." (Matt. xvi. 27.)

It does not, therefore, appear to us necessary to exclude David's personal experience from this psalm: at the same time we have no objection to its application, in a

secondary view, to the Messiah: and, indeed, St. Peter seems to allude to the 4th verse, when he speaks of his resurrection from the dead, (Acts ii. 24.) and to him certainly, some of the expressions appl more literally and fully, for he knew n sin, neither was guile found in his mouth. (1 Pet. ii. 22.) The last verse but one i also quoted by St. Paul, in reference to th calling of the Gentiles. (Rom. xv. 9.)

NOTES-Psalm XVIII. Con.

Ver. 26. Shew thyself froward-Marg. "wrestle;" i. e. contend. See Lev. xxvi. 27, 28.

Ver. 28. My candle-Marg. "Lamp." On this verse, the Chaldee paraphrast thus enlarges: "Because thou shalt enlighten the lamp of Israel, which is put out in the captivity, for thou art the Author of the light of Israel; the Lord my God shall lead me out of darkness into light, and shall make me see the consolation of the age which shall come to the just." Ver. 29. I have run (Marg. “ broken") through a troop.

Ver. 33. Like hinds' feet.-Agility was a great qualification with the ancient warriors. 2 Sam. i. 23; I Chron. xii. 8. So among the Greeks Achilles was called " swift-footed," &e. See Orient. Customs,

No. 935.

Ver. 34. Bon of steel-Ainsworth and Horsley, "Brass," or copper. See Note on Job xx. 24.

Ver. 35. Thy gentleness hath made me great Mar." With thy meekness thou hast multiplied me Boothroyd," Tby condescension maketh me great which we prefer, as meekness cannot be applied Deity.

Ver. 39. Subdued-Heb. " caused to bow.” Ver. 40. The necks of mine enemies-See Jo X. 21; Jer. xxvii. 12.

Ver. 41. As soon, &c.-Heb. "At the hearing the ear." The strangers-Heb. "The sons the stranger." (So ver. 45.) Shall submit the selves-Marg. "Yield feigned obedience." H "Lie unto me." Submission does not always im conversion : "they shall fade away," &c. ver. 4! Ver. 48. Violent man-Heb. "Man of violence Ver. 49. Give thanks - Marg. "Confess." Rom. xv. 9.

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