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often flattered themselves with the persuasion of an immediate intercourse with the Deity, and frequent communications from the Divine Spirit. God, Iown, cannot be denied to be able to enlighten the understanding by a ray darted into the mind immediately from the fountain of light; this they understand he has promised to do, and who then has so good a title to expect it as those who are his peculiar people, chosen by him, and depending on him?

$ 6. Their minds being thus prepared, Enthusiasni,

whatever groundless opinion comes to settle itself strongly upon their fancies, is an illumination from the spirit of God, and presently of divine authority: and whatsoever odd action they find in themselves a strong inclination to do, that impulse is concluded to be a call or direction from heaven, and must be obeyed; it is a commission from above, and they cannot err in executing it.

$ 7. This I take to be properly enthusiasm, which, though founded neither on reason nor divine revelation, but rising from the conceits of a warmed or overweening brain, works yet, where it once gets footing, more powerfully on the persuasions and actions of men than either of those two, or both together : men being most forwardly obedient to the impulses they receive from themselves; and the whole man is sure to act more vigorously, where the whole man is carried by a natural motion. For strong conceit, like a new principle, carries all easily with it, when got above common sense, and freed from all restraint of reason, and check of reflection, it is heightened into a divine authority, in concurrence with our own temper and inclination. Enthusiasm § 8. Though the odd opinions and exmistaken for travagant actions enthusiasm has run men seeing and

into were enough to warn them against feeling.

this wrong principle, so apt to misguide them both in their belief and conduct; yet the love of something extraordinary, the ease and glory it is to

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be inspired, and be above the common and natural ways of knowledge, so flatters many men's laziness, ignorance, and vanity, that when once they are got into this way of immediate revelation, of illumination without search, and of certainty without proof, and without examination, it is a hard matter to get them out of it. Reason is lost upon them; they are above it: they see the light infused into their understandings, and cannot be mistaken; it is clear and visible there, like the light of bright sunshine; shows itself, and needs no other proof but its own evidence: they feel the hand of God moving them within, and the impulses of the spirit, and cannot be mistaken in what they feel. Thus they support themselves, and are sure reason hath nothing to do with what they see and feel in themselves : what they have a sensible experience of admits no doubt, needs, no probation. Would he not be ridiculous, who should require to have it proved to him that the light shines, and that he sees it? It is its own proof, and can have no other. When the spirit brings light into our minds, it dispels darkness. We see it, as we do that of the sun at noon, and need not the twilight of reason to show it us. This light from heaven is strong, clear, and pure, carries its own demonstration with it; and we may as naturally take a glow-worm to assist us to discover the sun, as to examine the celestial ray by our dim candle, reason.

$ 9. This is the way of talking of these Enthusiasm men: they are sure, because they are

discovered. sure: and their persuasions are right, because they are strong in them. For, when what they say is stripped of the metaphor of seeing and feeling, this is all it amounts to: and yet these similes so impose on them, that they serve them for certainty in themselves, and demonstration to others.

§ 10. But to examine a little soberly this internal light, and this feeling on which they build so much, These men have, they say, clear light, and they see;


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they have awakened sense, and they feel : this can-
not, they are sure, be disputed them. For when a
man says he sees or feels, nobody can deny it him
that he does so. But here let me ask: this seeing, is
it the perception of the truth of the proposition, or of
this, that it is a revelation from God ? This feeling,
is it a perception of an inclination or fancy to do
something, or of the spirit of God moving that in-
clination? These are two very different perceptions,
and must be carefully distinguished, if we would not
impose upon ourselves. I may perceive the truth of
a proposition, and yet not perceive that it is an im-
mediate revelation from God. I may perceive the
truth of a proposition in Euclid, without its being, or
my perceiving it to be, a revelation : nay, I

may per-
ceive I came not by this knowledge in a natural way,
and so may conclude it revealed, without perceiving
that it is a revelation from God; because there be
spirits, which, without being divinely commissioned,
may excite those ideas in me, and lay them in such
order before my mind, that I may perceive their con-
nexion. So that the knowledge of any proposition
coming into my mind, I know not how, is not a per-
ception that it is from God. Much less is a strong
persuasion that it is true, a perception that it is from
God, or so much as true. But however it be called
light and seeing, I suppose it is at most but belief and
assurance : and the proposition taken for a revelation
is not such as they know to be true, but take to be
true. For where a proposition is known to be true,
revelation is needless : and it is hard to conceive how
there can be a revelation to any one of what he knows
already. If therefore it be a proposition which they
are persuaded, but do not know, to be true, whatever
they may call it, it is not seeing, but believing. For
these are two ways, whereby truth comes into the
mind, wholly distinct, so that one is not the other.
What I see, I know to be so by the evidence of the
thing itself: what I believe, I take to be so upon the

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testimony of another : but this testimony I must know to be given, or else what ground have I of believing? I must see that it is God that reveals this to me, or else I see nothing. The question then here is, how do I know that God is the revealer of this to me; that this impression is made upon my mind by his Holy Spirit, and that therefore I ought to obey it? If I know not this, how great soever the assurance is that I am possessed with, it is groundless; whatever light I pretend to, it is but enthusiasm. For whether the proposition supposed to be revealed be in itself evidently true, or visibly probable, or by the natural ways of knowledge uncertain, the proposition that must be well grounded, and manifested to be true, is this, that God is the revealer of it, and that what I take to be a revelation is certainly put into my mind by him, and is not an illusion dropped in by some other spirit, or raised by my own fancy. For if I mistake not, these men receive it for true, because they presume God revealed it. Does it not then stand them upon, to examine on what grounds they presume it to be a revelation from God? or else all their confidence is mere presumption: and this light, they are so dazzled with, is nothing but an ignis fatuus, that leads them constantly round in this circle; it is a revelation, because they firmly believe it, and they believe it, because it is a revelation.

$ 11. In all that is of divine revelation, Enthusiasm there is need of no other proof but that it fails of evi

dence that is an inspiration from God: for he can

the proposineither deceive nor be deceived. But how

tion is from shall it be known that any proposition in God. jour minds is a truth infused by God; a truth that is revealed to us by him, which he declares to us, and therefore we ought to believe? Here it is that enthusiasm fails of the evidence it pretends to. For men thus possessed boast of a light whereby they say they are enlightened, and brought into the know


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ledge of this or that truth. But if they know it to be a truth, they must know it to be so, either by its own self-evidence to natural reason, or by the rational proofs that make it out to be so. If they see and know it to be a truth, either of these two ways, they in vain suppose it to be a revelation. For they know it to be true the same way that any other man naturally may know that it is so without the help of revelation. For thus all the truths, of what kind soever, that men uninspired are enlightened with, came into their minds, and are established there. If they say they know it to be true, because it is a revelation from God, the reason is good: but then it will be demanded how they know it to be a revelation from God. If they say, by the light it brings with it, which shines bright in their minds, and they cannot resist: I beseech them to consider whether this be any more than what we have taken notice of already, viz. that it is a revelation, because they strongly believe it to be true. For all the light they speak of is but a strong, though ungrounded, persuasion of their own minds, that it is a truth. For rational grounds from proofs that it is a truth, they must acknowledge to have none; for then it is not received as a revelation, but upon the ordinary grounds that other truths are received : and if they believe it to be true, because it is a revelation, and have no other reason for its being a revelation, but because they are fully persuaded, without any other reason, that it is true; they believe it to be a revelation only because they strongly believe it to be a revelation; which is a very unsafe ground to proceed on, either in our tenets or actions. And what readier way can there be to run ourselves into the most extravagant errors and miscarriages, than thus to set up fancy for our supreme and sole guide, and to believe any proposition to be true, any action to be right, only because we believe it to be so? The strength of our

persuasions is no evidence

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