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said ;

ver. I. Gal. i. 13, 28.

of God. 21 But all that heard him were amazed, and

u Is not this he that I destroyed them which called on uch, viii. 3. this name in Jerusalem, and mcame hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests ? 22 But Saul increased the more in strength, and con- x ch. xviii. 28. founded the Jews which dwelt at Damascus, proving that this is a very Christ. 23 And after that many days were fulfilled, y the Jews took counsel to kill him : 2 z but their y ch. xxiii. 12: laying await was known of Saul. And they watched , 1.28

1 render, destroyed in Jerusalem them that called on this name. m render, had come.

- render, the. o better, to, or by.

z 2 Cor. xi. 32.

successors.

that Christ is the Son of God-instead of rid of Stephen, and behold they found anthat which it now bears,—that Jesus is other arguer more powerful than Stephen.” the Son of God, i. e. that Jesus of Naza

23. many days] In Damascus, see reth, as a matter of fact, is the Son of above on ver. 19. The whole time, from God, i. e. the Messiah expected under that his conversion to his journey to Jerusalem, appellation. 21.] had come hither, im- was three years, Gal. i. 18. took plying the abandonment of the purpose. counsel to kill him] “ The Jews again have

22.] I regard the expression Saul recourse to the logic of force. They no increased the more in strength, as the longer seek for suborned men, and false only words beneath which can lie con- accusers and false witnesses.” Chrysostom. cealed the journey to Arabia. Paul men

24.] In 2 Cor. xi. 32, St. Paul tions this journey (Gal. i. 17) with no ob. writes, “ In Damascus the governor under scure hint that to it was to be assigned the Aretas the king kept the city of the Dareception by him, in full measure, of the mascenes with a garrison, desirous to apGospel which he preached. And such a prehend me.” A somewhat difficult chroreception would certainly give rise to the nological question arises respecting the great accession of power here recorded. I subordination of Damascus to this Arētas. am the more disposed to allot that journey The city, under Augustus and Tiberius, this place, from the following considera- was attached to the province of Syria : tions. The omission of any mention of it and we have coins of Damascus of both here can arise only from one of two causes : these emperors, and again of Nero and his (1) whether Paul himself were the source

But we have none of Caligula of the narrative, or some other narrator,- and Claudius; and the following circumthe intentional passing over of it, as be- stances seem to point to a change in the longing more to his personal history (which rulership of Damascus at the death of it was his express purpose to relate in Gal. i.) Tiberius. There had been for some time than to that of his ministry: (2) on the war between Aretas, king of Arabia Nabasupposition of Paul not having been the tæa (whose capital was Petra), and Herod source of the narrative,—the narrator Antipas, on account of the divorce by having not been aware of it. In either Herod of Aretas' daughter at the instance case, this expression seems to me one very of Herodias, and on account of some likely to have been used :-(1) if the omis- disputes about their frontiers. A battle sion was intentional,- to record a remark- was fought, and Herod's army entirely deable accession of power to Saul's ministry, stroyed. On this Antipas, who was a without particularizing whence or how it favourite with Tiberius, sent to Rome for came: (2) if it was unintentional,-as a help: and Vitellius, the governor of Syria, simple record of that which was observed was commissioned to march against Aretas, in him, but of which the course was to the and take him, dead or alive. While on his narrator unknown. confounded the march, he heard at Jerusalem of the death Jews which dwelt at Damascus] Chrysos- of Tiberius (March 16, A.D. 37), and no tom strikingly says, “Being learned in their longer being able to carry out his inlaw, he stopped their mouths and suffered tendes war, on account of the change them not to speak : they thought that they cf the supreme power from Tiberius to had got rid of such arguments in getting Caligula, abandoned his march, and sent

xix.12.

Gal. i. 17, 18.

c ch. tr. 38:

xiii. 2.

P the gates day and night to kill him. 25 9 Then the disa se. Toshalii. ciples took him by night, and a let him down by the wall beh. iii. 17. in a basket.

26 And when I Saul was come to Jerusalem, he assayed to join himself to the disciples : 8 but they were all afraid of him, and believed not that he was a disciple. 27 € But Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles, and declared unto them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to him, d and how he had preached boldly at Damascus in the name of Jesus. 28 And he was with them coming in and going

out at Jerusalem. 29 And he spake boldly in the name of sch. vi. 1: xt. the Lord [t Jesus], and disputed against the ru Grecians : P read, even the gates.

9 render, But. he.

S render, and. t omitted by many of our ancient authorities. Q render, Grecian Jews.

d ver. 20, 22.

e Gal. i. 18.

read,

his army into their winter quarters, him. improbable. 25] Further partienlarized self returning to Antioch. This change by the addition of through a xindow," of the supreme power brought about a 2 Cor. xi. 33. Such windows in the walls great change in the situation of Antipas of cities are common in the East : see Josh. and his enemy.

Antipas was soon (A.D. ji. 15 : and an engraving of part of the 39) banished to Lyons, and his kingdom present wall of Damascus in Cony beare and given to Agrippa, his foe (Antt. xviii. 7. 2), Howson's Life of St. Paul, i. p. 124. who had been living in habits of intimacy in a basket] The word here is the same as with the new emperor. It would be natu- in Matt. xv. 37, where see note. 26.] ral that Aretas, who had been grossly He went to Jerusalem immediately: the injured by Antipas, should by this change purpose of this journey was to become of affairs, be received into favour; and the acquainted with Peter, Gal. i. 18: a resomore so, as there was an old grudge be- lution probably taken during the contween Vitellius and Antipas, of which Jo- spiracy of the Jews against him at Dasephus says, he concealed his anger until mascus, and in furtherance of his announced the reign of Caligula, when he followed it mission to the Gentiles: that, by conference up. Now in the year 38 Caligula made with the Apostles, his sphere of work might several changes in the East, granting be agreed on. And this purpose his escape Ituræa to Soæmus, Lesser Armenia and enabled him to effect. 27.] It is very parts of Arabia to Cotys, the territory of probable that Barnabas and Saul may have Cotys to Rhæmetalces, -and to Polemon, been personally known to each other in the son of Polemon, his father's govern. youth. Cyprus is only a few hours' sail ment. These facts, coupled with that of from Cilicia. The schools of Tarsus may no Damascene coins of Caligula and Clau- naturally have attracted one who, though dius existing (which might be fortuitous, a Levite, was a Hellenist: and there the but acquires force when thus combined), friendship may have begun, which lasted make it probable that about this time through many vicissitudes, till it was rudely Damascus, which belonged to the prede- interrupted in the dispute at Antioch (ch. cessors of Aretas, was granted to Aretas by xv. 39).” Cony beare and Howson, edn. 2, Caligula. This would at once solve the i. p. 127. brought him to the aposdifficulty. The other suppositions,—that tles] Only to Peter and James the Lord's the Ethnarch was only visiting the city brother, Gal. i. 18, 19. Probably there (as if he could then have guarded the city were no other Apostles there at the time : to prevent Paul's escape),—or that Aretas if there were, it is hardly conceivable that had seized Daması"us on Vitellius giving Saul should not have seen them. On his up the expedition agaist him (as if á second visit, he saw John also (Gal. ii. 9). Roman governor of a province would, while Perhaps he never saw in the flesh any other waiting for orders from a new emperor, of the Apostles after his conversion. quietly allow one of its chief cities to be 29. the Grecian Jews] See ch. vi. 1 and taken from him),—are in the highest degree

note. This he did, partly, we may infer,

2 Cor. xi. 26.

8 but they & went about to slay him. 30 Which when the & ver. 23. brethren knew, they brought him down to Cæsarea, and sent him forth to Tarsus.

31 hy Then had the churches rest throughout all Judæa h see ch. viii. and Galilee and Samaria, 2 and were edified ; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, z were multiplied.

32 And it came to pass, as Peter passed throughout all
[quarters], he came down also to the saints which dwelt
xi.e. attempted. y read and render, So then the church had

peace. z read and render, being built up and going onward in the fear of the Lord, and was multiplied by the exhortation of the Holy Spirit.

a not in the original : perhaps it rather means, all the believers ; see note.

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to avoid the extreme and violent opposi- in ch. xv. 41 ; xvi. 5, where no variations tion which he would immediately encounter are found in the chief MSS. More profrom the Jews themselves, — but partly bably, it has been altered here to conform also, it may well be believed, because he it to those places. This description prohimself in the synagogues of the Hellenists bably embraces most of the time since the had opposed Stephen formerly. 30. conversion of Saul. De Wette observes, Which when the brethren knew . .] that the attention of the Jews was, during There was also another reason.

He was

much of this time, distracted from the praying in the temple, and saw the Lord in Christians, by the attempt of Caligula to à vision, who commanded him to depart, set up his image in the temple at Jerufor they would not receive his testimony: salem, related by Josephus. being -and sent him from thence to the Gen- built up, or edified: see Matt. xvi. 18. It tiles : see ch. xxii. 17-21 and notes. His probably refers to both external and instay in Jerusalem at this visit was fifteen ternal strength and accession of grace. days, Gal. i. 18. to Cæsarea] From St. Paul commonly uses it of spiritual the whole cast of the sentence, and the building up: see i Cor. viii. 1; x. 23 ; words brought him down and sent him xiv. 4, 17; Thess. v. 11.

and was forth, we should infer this to be Cæsarea multiplied by the exhortation of (i. e. Stratonis (see on ch. x. 1), even if this were inspired by) the Holy Spirit] This is not determined by the word Cæsarea used the only rendering which suits the usage absolutely, which always applies to this of the words. See on the others which city, and not to Cæsarea Philippi (which have been given, in my Greek Testament. some believe to be meant: see Matt. xvi. 32–35.] HEALING ÆNEAS 13 and note). From Gal. i. 21, it would LYDDA BY PETER. This and the followappear that Saul about this time traversed ing miracle form the introduction to the Syria (on his way to Tarsus ?). If so, he very important portion of Peter's history probably went by sea to Seleucia, and which follows in ch. x.,— by bringing him thence to Antioch. The expression sent and his work before us again. him forth, looks more like a 'sending off' 32. as Peter passed throughout all . .]

than a mere 'sending forward' by These words are aptly introduced by the land. They sent him towards, ‘for, notice in ver. 31, which shews that Peter's Tarsus. He was not idle there, but cer- journey was not an escape from persecution, tainly preached the Gospel, and in all pro- but undertaken at a time of peace, and for bability was the founder of the churches the purpose of visiting the churches. alluded to ch. xv. 23 and 41.

The word all, to which no substantive is 31.] FLOURISHING

supplied in the original, may be neuter, CHURCH IN PALESTINE AT THIS TIME. “all parts :' but it is probably masculine, Commencement of new section : compare and “ all the saints” or “all the brethren” note, ch. xi. 19. The reading church, are understood.

As I have implied on instead of “churches,” can hardly (as ver. 31, this journey of Peter's is not Meyer) be an alteration to suit the idea necessarily consecutive on the events of of the unity of the church, -as in that vv. 1-30. But an alternative presents case we should have similar alterations itself here; either it took place before the

OF

AT

by sea,

STATE

OF

THE

11 Chron. v.

16. mch. xi. 21.

at Lydda. 33 And there he found a certain man named Æneas, which had kept his bed eight years, and was

sick of the palsy. 34 And Peter said unto him, Æněas, k ch. 101.6, 16: k b Jesus Christ maketh thee whole: arise, and make thy

bed. And he arose immediately. 35 And all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron saw him, and m turned to the Lord. 36 Now there was at Joppa a certain disciple named

Tabitha, which by interpretation is called Dorcas : this n 1 Tim. 11. 10. woman was full n of good works and almsdeeds which she

did. 37 And it came to pass in those days, that she was
sick, and died : whom when they had washed, they laid
her in
an upper chamber.

38 And forasmuch as Lydda b

render here, Jesus the Christ.

Tit. iii. 8.

och. i. 13.

THE DEAD.

arrival of Saul in Jerusalem, or after his 9; xxxv. 2; Ixv. 10; Cant. ii. 1; 1 Chron. departure: for Peter was there during his xxvii. 29. Mariti mentions a village visit (Gal. 18). It seems most likely Saren between Lydda and Arsuf (see that it was before his arrival. For (1) it Josh. xii. 18, marg. A. V.): but more is St. Luke's manner in this first part of recent travellers do not notice it. the Acts, where he is carrying on several 36–43.] RAISING OF TABITHA FROY histories together, to follow the one in

36. at Joppa] Joppa hand as far as some resting-point, and then was a very ancient Philistian city, on go back and take up another: see ch. viii. the frontier of Dan, but not belonging 2 thus taken up from ver. 1: ver. 4 going to that tribe, Josh. xix. 46; on the coast back to the dispersion :-ch. ix. 1 taken (ch. x. 6), with a celebrated but not very up from viii. 3 :-xi. 19, from viii. 4 secure harbour: (see 2 Chron. ii. 16; Ezra again :-and (2) the journey of Peter to iii. 7; Jonah i. 3; 1 Macc. xiv. 5; 2 Macc. visit the churches which were now resting xii. 3)—situated in a plain (1 Macc. I. 75 after the persecution would hardly be –77) near Lydda (ver. 38), at the end of delayed so long as three whole years. So the mountain road connecting Jerusalem that it is most natural to place this sec- with the sea. The Maccabean generals, tion, viz. ch. ix. 32-xi. 18 (for all this is Jonathan and Simon, took it from the continuous), before the visit of Saul to Syrians and fortified it (1 Macc. x. 74–76; Jerusalem, and during his stay at Damas- xiv. 34). Pompey joined it to the procus or in Arabia. See further on xi. 19. vince of Syria, but Cæsar restored it to

Lydda] Called Lod, Neh. vii. 37.— Hyrcanus, and it afterwards formed part A large village near Joppa (ver. 38), on the of the kingdom of Herod and of Archelaus, Mediterranean, just one day's journey from after whose deposition it reverted to the Jerusalem. It afterwards became the im- province of Syria, to which it belonged at portant town of Diospolis. 33. Eněas] the time of our narrative. It was deWhether a believer or not, does not ap- stroyed by Caius Cestius; but rebuilt, and pear; from Peter's visit being to the became a nest of Jewish pirates, in consaints, it would seem that he was : but sequence of which Vespasian levelled it perhaps the indefinite term, a certain with the ground, and built a fort there, man, may imply the contrary, as also which soon became the nucleus of a new Peter's words, announcing a free and un- town. It is now called Jaffa, and has expected gift from One whom he knew about 7000 inhabitants, half of whom are not.

35. all that dwelt in L. and Christians. Tabitha] This name, in 8. saw him ;—which also (this is the Aramaic, answers to Dorcas, in Greek, literal rendering, and is equivalent to signifying a gazelle. It appears also in and they) turned to the Lord] A general the Rabbinical books as a female name: conversion of the inhabitants to the faith the gazelle being in the East a favourite followed. Saron] Perhaps not a vil. type of beauty. See Song of Sol. ii. 9, 17; lage, but the celebrated plain of that iv. 5; vii. 3. Lightfoot remarks, that she name (Sharon], extending along the coast was probably a Hellenist (i. e. a Grecian from Cæsarea to Joppa, see Isa. xxxiii. Jewess), and thus was known by both

was nigh to Joppa, and the disciples had heard that Peter was there, they sent unto him two men, desiring him that he would not delay to come to them.

39 Then Peter arose and went with them. When he was come, they brought him into the upper chamber : and all the widows stood by him weeping, and shewing the coats and garments which Dorcas made, while she was with them. 40 But Peter P put them all forth, and a kneeled down, and prayed; achat.com and turning him to the body " said, Tabitha, arise. And . John'si. she opened her eyes : and when she saw Peter, she sat up.

41 And he gave her his hand, and lifted her up, and when he had called the saints and widows, presented her alive. 42 And it was known throughout all Joppa ; 6 and many believed in the Lord. 43 And it came to pass, Ioh... that he tarried many days in Joppa with one

Simon a tanner.

X. 1 There was a certain man in Cæsarea called Corne

43.

& John xi. 45:

tch. X. 6.

names.

39. all the widows] The Gentiles, might have formed one party, widows of the place, for whom she made and the Hebrews, with Peter at their these garments. made] i. e. used head, the other. But, as Neander adto make (i. e. weave): not had made.' mirably observes, « The pernicious influence

40. put them all forth] After the with which, from the first, the self-seeking example of his divine Master, see Luke viii. and one-sided prejudices of human nature 54. 43. a tanner] From the extracts threatened the divine work, was counterin Wetstein and Schöttgen, it appears that acted by the superior influence of the the Jews regarded the occupation of a Holy Spirit, which did not allow the diftanner as a half-unclean one. In this case ferences of men to reach such a point of it would shew, as De Wette observes, that antagonism, but enabled them to retain the stricter Jewish practices were already unity in variety. We recognize the predisregarded by the Apostle. It also would venting wisdom of God, -which, while shew, in how little honour he and his office giving scope to the free agency of man, were held by the Jews at Cæsarea.

knows how to interpose His immediate CHAP. X. 1–48.] CONVERSION (BY revelation just at the moment when it is SPECIAL DIVINE PREARRANGEMENT) AND requisite for the success of the divine work, BAPTISM OF THE GENTILE CORNELIUS AND

-by noticing, that when the Apostles We may remark, that the needed this wider development of their conversion of the Gentiles was no new idea Christian knowledge for the exercise of to Jews or Christians, but that it had been their vocation, and when the lack of it universally regarded as to take place by would have been exceedingly detrimental, their reception into Judaism. Of late, -at that very moment, by a remarkable however, since the Ascension, we see the coincidence of inward revelation with a truth that the Gospel was to be a Gospel chain of outward circumstances, the illuof the uncircumcision, beginning to be mination hitherto wanting was imparted recognized by some. Stephen, carrying to them.' 1. Cæsarea] As this town out the principles of his own apology, bears an important part in early Christian could bardly have failed to recognize it: history, it will be well to give here a full and the Cyprian and Cyrenæan mission- account of it. CÆSAREA (of Palestine," aries of ch. xi. 20 preached the word to the called “by the sea” (as we say, super Grecians (not the Grecian Jews) cer. mare”] in several places in Josephus, or tainly before the conversion of Cornelius. Stratonis (see below],—distinguished from This state of things might have given rise Cæsarea Philippi, see note Matt. xvi. 13) to a permanent schism in the infant is between Joppa and Dora, 68 Roman church. The Hellenists, and perhaps miles from Jerusalem according to the Saul, with his definite mission to the Jerusalem Itinerary, 75 according to Jo

HIS PARTY.

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