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being the first authentic notice which has yet appeared concerning the remains of a city once so renowned, but whose vestiges have been unregarded by any former traveller.

The only Plants mentioned in the Notes, are those which have never been described by any preceding writer. Not less than sixty new-discovered species will be found added to the science of Botany, in this and the subsequent sections of Part the Second ; with many others of almost equal rarity, in a General List, which is reserved for the Appendix to the last of these sections. In the account given of these plants, and in their arrangement, the obligation due to A.B. LAMBERT, Esq. was before acknowledged; but an individual, now unhappily no more, contributed, although unknown to the author at the time, so essentially to the completion of this part of the work, that it were injustice to his talents, as well as to the encouragement so liberally bestowed

upon his genius by his benevolent Patron, not to cherish, even in this frail record, the lamented memory of GEORGE JACKSON.

The Appendix to this Volume contains some curious documents respecting Eastern Literature; for whose illustration the author has been indebted to learned Oriental scholars. Mr. HAMMER, Secretary of the German Embassy at Constantinople' furnished an


two very

(3) Mr. Hammer accompanied the author in Egypt, and resided a short time in Grand Caïro. He obtained in that city, of the celebrated Consul Rosetti, an Arabic Manuscript concerning Hieroglyphics, which was afterwards published in England by Dr. Wilkins. VOL. II.



interpretation of the List of Tales contained in a manuscript copy of The Arabian Nights, which the author obtained in Egypt, and to which allusion is made in the Second Chapter

The Rev. GEORGE Cecil RENOUARD, M. A. Fellow of Sidney College, Cambridge, now Chaplain to the British Factory at Smyrna, contributed the translation of a Catalogue of Manuscripts on daily sale in the cities of the East; which was procured by the author through the friendly offices of

offices of a Dervish in Constantinople. This Catalogue may be considered as presenting a better view of Asiatic, than would be afforded of European, literature, by combining two or three of the common- catalogues, published by the principal booksellers of London and Paris ; because less variety characterizes the different catalogues of the East, than will be found to distinguish those of different booksellers in Europe; the same books being constantly on sale in Constantinople, Smyrna, Damascus, Aleppo, and Grand Caïro; whereas very considerable difference may be observed among the collections advertised for sale in London, Paris, and Vienna.

Throughout this work, the author, to the utmost of his ability, has derived his information from original sources. Upon this account he has extended the references, in almost every instance, so as to notice the edition cited;


(1) This beautiful Manuscript, contained in four quarto portfolios, was damaged by the wreck of the Princessa, merchantman, off Beachy Head. It has been sent to Constantinople to be transcribed, but little hopes are entertained of its entire restoration.

particularly where more than one edition has been used; as in the example of the Palæstina Illustrata of Hadrian Reland : for a short time he consulted the folio copy of that valuable publication, as it was printed at Venice in 1746, in the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum of Ugolini ; not having the preceding edition, published in two small quarto volumes, at Utrecht, in 1714. This last being afterwards obtained, was occasionally cited, as more convenient for reference. Also, in deriving authorities from Josephus, an allusion to two different editions may perhaps be noticed; viz. to one printed at Cologne in 1691, which was consulted in preparing the manuscript for the press, and to another printed in Holland, used subsequently, during a revisal of the work. These are observations in which the generality of readers are little interested; but an attention even to such minuteness is requisite in a writer who has ventured to question certain of the deductions made by former authors. Indeed few persons are aware, either of all the duties a writer of Travels must fulfil, or of half the difficulties he has to encounter.

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By the Sale Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, given in No. II. of the Appendix, future Travellers may be enabled not only to collect the Literary productions of the East, but also to avoid imposition, by knowing beforehand the several prices of all popular writings in Eastern Theology, Jurisprudence, History, Biography, Poetry, Romances, &c. &c. ; observing, at the same time, that the price of each Manuscript depends more upon the merits of the scribe, than of the author. Thus, for example, a fair copy of the Poems of Hāfiz may be purchased for 110 Pārahs; but if the writing be from the calamus of a celebrated calligraphist, the price may be 300, or 3000 Pārahs, according to the fame of the scribe, or the beauty of the illuminations. Turkish and Arabic Manuscripts are rarely illuminated : those of Persia are very frequently thus embellished. A single copy of a Manuscript containing Extracts from the Korān has, however, been estimated at the rate of a Venetian sequin for each letter, on account of the extraordinary beauty of the penmanship and emblazonry : such a Work was in the Collection of the late Sultan Selim the Third.

The prices of all the Manuscripts enumerated in the Sale Catalogue are stated, according to the usual mode of demand, in Turkish Pārahs. It is necessary therefore to mention the value of the coin which bears this appellation. The author once intended to have prefixed a Table of TURKISH MEASURE, Weight, and Money, corresponding with that given in the former part of this work. The instability of the coinage, and the various estimates a traveller will meet with in different parts of an empire so heterogeneous and extensive as that of Turkey, have prevented the introduction of any Table of this description. It may suffice therefore to say, generally, of the Piastre, and Pārah or Para, wherein almost all calculations of payment are made, that fifteen Piastres may be


considered as equivalent to our Pound Sterling, being the par of exchange, and that forty P&Tahs equal one Piastre.

As to the Measure of Distance in Turkey, computed by Time, (although the Reader will find this stated, perhaps, more than once in the following pages, he will not deem the repetition superfluous, when it saves him the trouble of looking elsewhere,) it is estimated according to the number of hours employed by a Caravan of Camels, preceded by an Ass,' in moving from one station to another ;-one hour being equivalent to three geographical miles.

See Thornton's Present State of Turkey, Vol. II. p. 38. (Note.) Lond. 1809.

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